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In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the

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In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 27 Aug 2018, 16:01
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In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the chemistry of rain in a large area around the city of Manchester, England, noting that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic.

(A) that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic

(B) that the city air became increasingly acidic the closer one came to town

(C) that coming closer to town, the city air became increasingly acidic

(D) that the more the city air became increasingly acidic, the closer one was to town

(E) the city air becoming increasingly acidic as one would come closer to town

Environment 94/95 - Page 152

John L. Allen - 1994 - ‎Snippet view

In the mid 1800s, many features of acid rain were discovered and detailed by Robert Angus Smith, who was a chemist and Britain’s first Alkali Inspector, or public official who monitored pollution. In 1852, Smith published a detailed report of the chemistry of rain in the city of Manchester and noted that the city air became increasingly acidic the closer one came to town. He also noted that sulfuric acid in the air caused textiles to fade and metals to corrode.

Originally posted by guerrero25 on 01 Nov 2013, 04:12.
Last edited by hazelnut on 27 Aug 2018, 16:01, edited 5 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the  [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2013, 09:04
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In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the chemistry of rain in a large area around the city of Manchester, England, noting that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic.

A)that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic
B)that the city air became increasingly acidic the closer one came to town
C)that coming closer to town, the city air became increasingly acidic
D)that the more the city air became increasingly acidic, the closer one was to town
E)the city air becoming increasingly acidic as one would come closer to town

Reading the replies of many people, I hope that everyone could easily eliminate the options C, D and E.

Now, considering the choice A:
that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic

In this statement, the second part of the sentence has redundancy - the more the city air would become increasingly acidic.

If the choice has stated that - "that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become acidic", then this choice could have been the answer, but because of redundancy, the choice is incorrect.

However, considering the choice B :
that the city air became increasingly acidic the closer one came to town

The whole statement is in past tense and correctly conveys the meaning without any redundancy, and hence is the correct answer.

Hope it helps.
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Re: In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the  [#permalink]

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01 Nov 2013, 10:37
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6
guerrero25 wrote:
In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the chemistry of rain in a large area around the city of Manchester, England, noting that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic.

A)that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic
B)that the city air became increasingly acidic the closer one came to town
C)that coming closer to town, the city air became increasingly acidic
D)that the more the city air became increasingly acidic, the closer one was to town
E)the city air becoming increasingly acidic as one would come closer to town

OA to follow

Dear guerrero25,
I'm happy to help with this.

This one is using a idiom that the GMAT loves. See this blog:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-gramm ... mparisons/
The form of this idiom is
"the" [comparative][clause #1], "the" [comparative][clause #2]
This idiom implies causality --- it implies that the changing comparative in the first clause is responsible for the changing comparative in the second clause.

We need the word "that" following "noting", so (E) is wrong.

Choices (B) & (C) don't have the form, so they are wrong.

Choice (D) follows the idiom correctly, but the order is strange --- it almost seems to imply that making the air more acidic would cause us to move closer to Manchester. That's not the intended meaning, and it doesn't really make sense.

Choice (A) follows the idiom correctly, and it also has the correct order of causality. As we move closer to Manchester, a direct result of that action would be to encounter air that is more acidic. Choice (A) is the best answer.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the  [#permalink]

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01 Nov 2013, 11:23
guerrero25 wrote:
In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the chemistry of rain in a large area around the city of Manchester, England, noting that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic.

A)that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic
B)that the city air became increasingly acidic the closer one came to town
C)that coming closer to town, the city air became increasingly acidic
D)that the more the city air became increasingly acidic, the closer one was to town
E)the city air becoming increasingly acidic as one would come closer to town

OA to follow

Mike doesn't choice B have the "the..the" idiom where i changed the font color, or am i misinterpreting your explanation?
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01 Nov 2013, 12:36
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Mike doesn't choice B have the "the..the" idiom where i changed the font color, or am i misinterpreting your explanation?

The way the idiom is constructed, in each branch, the comparative word must immediately follow the word "the" ---- "the closer", "the more", etc. The word "city" is not a comparative word.

The more I think about this, the more I think this is not a question up to GMAT standards. Above I chose (A), but now I think that "more ... increasingly acidic" is redundant, and thus, no answer choice correctly phrases this. I think the correct phrasing would be
that the closer one came to town, the more acidic the city air became
Notice the two comparative structures that immediately follow the word "the" in each branch. That's the ideal, and no choice really comes acceptably close to that.

Mike
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Re: In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the  [#permalink]

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01 Nov 2013, 12:40
Thanks Mike,

When I was initially doing the question, i was looking for exactly what you just typed, and could not find it, and thought this was one of the pick the lesser of the two evils type question. Thanks for the clarification!

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Re: In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the  [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2013, 08:17
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OA is (B)
I picked A because of the similar reasoning as Mike's. I have no clue why the correct answer is B
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Re: In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the  [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2013, 15:18
1
windofchange wrote:
OA is (B)
I picked A because of the similar reasoning as Mike's. I have no clue why the correct answer is B

Dear windofchange,
Apparently, the GMAT tolerates more variation in this idiomatic structure than they did previously. Since this is the case, choice (B) is the best answer, as skyhawk eloquently explained. Let me know if you have any further questions.
Mike
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Re: In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the  [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2014, 11:22
(B) is the OA.

Can someone please clarify why this is a best choice than the others?

Thanks!
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Re: In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the  [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2014, 20:13
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nechets wrote:
(B) is the OA.

Can someone please clarify why this is a best choice than the others?

Thanks!

In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the chemistry of rain in a large area around the city of Manchester, England, noting that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic.

A)that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic
The comparatives used here are 'the closer ... the more'. Whatever follows these two should be parallel. The correct way of writing this would be
'the more one came ... the more the city air became...'

Another mistake in A is redundancy - 'more' and 'increasingly'

B)that the city air became increasingly acidic the closer one came to town
No redundancy. Conveys the meaning well. (Even if you are doubtful, keep this option.)

C)that coming closer to town, the city air became increasingly acidic
coming seems to modify 'city air'. This is an example of dangling modifier.

D)that the more the city air became increasingly acidic, the closer one was to town
The causative effect is reversed here. The sentence should mean, 'the closer you are to the city, the air became more acidic'.
Option D inverses the cause-effect.

E)the city air becoming increasingly acidic as one would come closer to town
The clause doesn't have a main verb. 'becoming' is a modifier. 'would come' is wrong. Many issues in here.
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Re: In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the  [#permalink]

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03 Feb 2014, 16:51
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A)that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic Illogical sentence - it reads as if someone were the reason that rain becomes increasingly acidic; enteral state of the verb "became" should replace "would become" because the conditional tense indicates someone must get closer for the rain to become increasingly acidic

B)that the city air became increasingly acidic the closer one came to town OK; the trap is the inverted sentence structure

C)that coming closer to town, the city air became increasingly acidic The "coming closer to town" modifies "city air", making an illogical meaning -- it reads as if the relationship between the city air and the proximity of the city were the reason for acidity

D)that the more the city air became increasingly acidic, the closer one was to town ]Illogical sentence

E)the city air becoming increasingly acidic as one would come closer to town No verb in subordinate clause.
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Re: In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the  [#permalink]

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08 Jun 2014, 12:02
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Meaning & Structure:

In past RAS published report..................., noting something.

Independent clause, -Ing modifier modifying the preceding clause.

In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the chemistry of rain in a large area around the city of Manchester, England, noting that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic.

A)that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic
When RAS already noted something, then there is no point using 'WOULD'.
B)that the city air became increasingly acidic the closer one came to town
Correct !
C)that coming closer to town, the city air became increasingly acidic
Who is coming closer ?
D)that the more the city air became increasingly acidic, the closer one was to town
Cause effect reversed.
E)the city air becoming increasingly acidic as one would come closer to town
Would is the issue again.
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Re: In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the  [#permalink]

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08 Jun 2014, 20:24
mikemcgarry wrote:
Mike doesn't choice B have the "the..the" idiom where i changed the font color, or am i misinterpreting your explanation?

The way the idiom is constructed, in each branch, the comparative word must immediately follow the word "the" ---- "the closer", "the more", etc. The word "city" is not a comparative word.

The more I think about this, the more I think this is not a question up to GMAT standards. Above I chose (A), but now I think that "more ... increasingly acidic" is redundant, and thus, no answer choice correctly phrases this. I think the correct phrasing would be
that the closer one came to town, the more acidic the city air became
Notice the two comparative structures that immediately follow the word "the" in each branch. That's the ideal, and no choice really comes acceptably close to that.

Mike

This point confused me as well Mike. - More .... increasingly acidic sounded too verbose and wordy , thus incorrect
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Re: In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the  [#permalink]

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08 Jun 2014, 23:34
Also, I think "would" is not correctly used in A. The sentence seems to be in simple past. So, it should be:

that the closer one came to town, the more the city air "became" acidic

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Re: In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the  [#permalink]

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09 Jun 2014, 11:45
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himanshujovi wrote:
This point confused me as well Mike. - More .... increasingly acidic sounded too verbose and wordy , thus incorrect

Dear himanshujovi,
I'm happy to respond. The "more .... increasingly acidic" is part of (A), which is the wrong answer. That is a bit wordy, but more importantly, it's redundant. A little wordy is not always a problem, but redundant is always wrong.

The OA is (B). Does this all make sense?

Mike
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Re: In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the  [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2016, 07:29
mikemcgarry wrote:
himanshujovi wrote:
This point confused me as well Mike. - More .... increasingly acidic sounded too verbose and wordy , thus incorrect

Dear himanshujovi,
I'm happy to respond. The "more .... increasingly acidic" is part of (A), which is the wrong answer. That is a bit wordy, but more importantly, it's redundant. A little wordy is not always a problem, but redundant is always wrong.

The OA is (B). Does this all make sense?

Mike

hi Mike

can option A be removed on the basis that double comparatives indicate a causality, and in option A the causality is wrong. i.e. being closer to city does not cause increase in air acidity

thanks
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Re: In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the  [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2016, 08:14
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guerrero25 wrote:
In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the chemistry of rain in a large area around the city of Manchester, England, noting that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic.

A)that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic
B)that the city air became increasingly acidic the closer one came to town
C)that coming closer to town, the city air became increasingly acidic
D)that the more the city air became increasingly acidic, the closer one was to town
E)the city air becoming increasingly acidic as one would come closer to town

OA to follow

Meaning of the sentence :- RAS published a report on the chemistry of rain. In this report, he noted the relation between 'closeness of the rain to town' and 'acidic nature of city air'.

As two tasks are interrelated, we need parallelism between them:- 'The closer the rain came to the town, the acidity in air increased'

A)that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic. 'more' and 'increasingly' are redundant. IMO, if we had either 'more' or 'increase', the sentence would have been correct.

B)that the city air became increasingly acidic the closer one came to town. This is giving us the exact meaning that we wanted

C)that coming closer to town, the city air became increasingly acidic. Interrelation between two tasks is absent here. Instead, it gives the meaning that city air, coming closer to the town, became acidic.

D)that the more the city air became increasingly acidic, the closer one was to town. The relation here is reversed. Instead of having a structure of 'more X leads to more Y', it shows 'More Y leads to more X'

E)the city air becoming increasingly acidic as one would come closer to town. 'noting' present in the non-underlined part requires 'that'. In the absence of 'that', the sentence reads- RAS published a report noting the city air.... And this structure is wrong as report noted something about the air and not the air itslef.
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Re: In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the  [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2016, 09:44
tagmag wrote:
hi Mike

can option A be removed on the basis that double comparatives indicate a causality, and in option A the causality is wrong. i.e. being closer to city does not cause increase in air acidity

thanks

Dear tagmag,
I'm happy to respond.

My friend, I am not sure where you heard that rule, the rule that "double comparatives indicate a causal relationship." That is 100% false. It has absolute no basis in reality. As a general rule, double comparatives are simply redundant and wrong.

Does all this make sense?

Mike
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Re: In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the  [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2016, 09:48
mikemcgarry wrote:
tagmag wrote:
hi Mike

can option A be removed on the basis that double comparatives indicate a causality, and in option A the causality is wrong. i.e. being closer to city does not cause increase in air acidity

thanks

Dear tagmag,
I'm happy to respond.

My friend, I am not sure where you heard that rule, the rule that "double comparatives indicate a causal relationship." That is 100% false. It has absolute no basis in reality. As a general rule, double comparatives are simply redundant and wrong.

Does all this make sense?

Mike

By double comparative I mean the structure like....The bigger it is, the better it is

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Re: In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the  [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2016, 10:13
tagmag wrote:
mikemcgarry wrote:
tagmag wrote:
hi Mike

can option A be removed on the basis that double comparatives indicate a causality, and in option A the causality is wrong. i.e. being closer to city does not cause increase in air acidity

thanks

Dear tagmag,
I'm happy to respond.

My friend, I am not sure where you heard that rule, the rule that "double comparatives indicate a causal relationship." That is 100% false. It has absolute no basis in reality. As a general rule, double comparatives are simply redundant and wrong.

Does all this make sense?

Mike

By double comparative I mean the structure like....The bigger it is, the better it is

Dear tagmag,

Thank you for clarifying. A structure such as "The bigger it is, the better it is" doesn't really have a name, and calling it a "double comparative" is likely to cause confusion. Choice (A) has a grammatical mistake that I would call a "double comparative":
....the more the city air would become increasingly acidic.
That is truly redundant and wrong, because two different comparatives are used for the same comparison. That's what I would call a "double comparative."

What you are discussing is a correct grammatical structure without an adequate name, but I would say that this structure doesn't necessarily imply causality. It merely indicates correlation. For example,

The more suntan lotion people buy, the more ice cream they buy.

That is a true statement. In this sentence, one does not cause the other: instead, both are caused by hot sunny weather.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the &nbs [#permalink] 24 Aug 2016, 10:13

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