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In 1883, the Indonesian island Krakatoa, home to a massive v

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In 1883, the Indonesian island Krakatoa, home to a massive v [#permalink]

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08 Feb 2014, 21:36
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In 1883, the Indonesian island Krakatoa, home to a massive volcano, seemingly disappeared overnight as an eruption rent the entire island apart, catapulting rock and debris into the atmosphere. For the next years, as ash circled the entire globe, the average world temperature dropped by several degrees Fahrenheit. Therefore, an eruption of similar power in terms of the amount of debris ejected into the atmosphere will likely cause the average temperature around the world to drop by several degrees.

Which of the following, if true, best challenges the main claim of the argument?

A. The eruption of the Indonesian island of Tambora was even larger than that of Krakatoa, yet the average world temperature did not drop as much as it did following the eruption of Krakatoa.
B. In 1883, the ocean-atmospheric phenomenon La Nina occurred, an event that is always followed by a drop of several degrees in the world’s average temperature.
C. Due to the effects of climate change, the average world temperature has been steadily increasing over the last few decades.
D. According to sophisticated computer analysis, the eruption of Mt. Toba between 69,000 and 77,000 years ago, one of the most powerful ever, may have hastened an ice age.
E. No volcanic eruption in the 20th century was close to the magnitude of the Krakatoa eruption, yet average world temperatures dropped between 1950 and 1960.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by mba1382 on 08 Feb 2014, 23:13, edited 2 times in total.

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Re: In 1883, the Indonesian island Krakatoa, home to a massive v [#permalink]

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08 Feb 2014, 22:44
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I would go with B. This is a weaken question, the underlying assumption being the drop in global temperature is caused by powerful volcanic eruption in terms of the amount of debris. It is the debris that is causing temperature drop. Weakening this assumption weakens the argument.

A. The eruption of the Indonesian island of Tambora was even larger than that of Krakatoa, yet the average world temperature did not drop as much as it did following the eruption of Krakatoa.
I eliminated this choice because of lack of mention of debris.
B. In 1883, the ocean-atmospheric phenomenon La Nina occurred, an event that is always followed by a drop of several degrees in the world’s average temperature.
This choice is correct. A classic weakener that clearly attributes temperature drop to some other phenomena hence negating the above assumption.
C. Due to the effects of climate change, the average world temperature has been steadily increasing over the last few decades.
Totally irrelevant.
D. According to sophisticated computer analysis, the eruption of Mt. Toba between 69,000 and 77,000 years ago, one of the most powerful ever, may have hastened an ice age.
If anything this seems like a strengthener.
E. No volcanic eruption in the 20th century was close to the magnitude of the Krakatoa eruption, yet average world temperatures dropped between 1950 and 1960.
This also may have been good contender IF it attributed the temperature drop to some other source. As it stands this is out.

Hope I got it right.

What is the OA?
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Re: In 1883, the Indonesian island Krakatoa, home to a massive v [#permalink]

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08 Feb 2014, 22:46
PREMISE 1. In 1883, the Indonesian island Krakatoa seemingly disappeared overnight as an eruption rent the entire island apart.
PREMISE 2. The average world temperature dropped by several degrees Fahrenheit.
CONCLUSION. Therefore, an eruption of similar power will likely cause the average temperature around the world to drop by several degrees.

CAUSAL RELATION---- eruption of similar power CAUSED average temperature around the world to drop......

WEAKENER---- EVIDENCE THAT SOMETHING ELSE MAY CAUSE TEMPERATURE CHANGE.....

Which of the following, if true, best challenges the main claim of the argument?

A. The eruption of the Indonesian island of Tambora was even larger than that of Krakatoa, yet the average world temperature did not drop as much as it did following the eruption of Krakatoa.....IT IS A STRENGTHNER...MEANS TEMPERATURE DROPPED BY WHATEVER EXTENT....EXTENT OF DROP IS NOT AT QUESTION HERE....
B. In 1883, the ocean-atmospheric phenomenon La Nina occurred, an event that is always followed by a drop of several degrees in the world’s average temperature....IT IS FOLLOWED BY TEMPERATURE DROP... BUT FOR HOW LONG....THE EFFECTS OF THE VOLCANIC ERUPTION CONTINUED FOR FEW YEARS...MAY HAVE BEEN DUE TO ERUPTION ONLY....
C. Due to the effects of climate change, the average world temperature has been steadily increasing over the last few decades. IRRELEVANT
D. According to sophisticated computer analysis, the eruption of Mt. Toba between 69,000 and 77,000 years ago, one of the most powerful ever, may have hastened an ice age.STRENGTHNER...
E. No volcanic eruption in the 20th century was close to the magnitude of the Krakatoa eruption, yet average world temperatures dropped between 1950 and 1960.....EVIDENCE THAT SOMETHING ELSE CAUSED THE DROP IN TEMPERATURE....

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Re: In 1883, the Indonesian island Krakatoa, home to a massive v [#permalink]

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08 Feb 2014, 23:12
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Here is the OE. Hope it helps

The argument assumes that one event caused another event. In this case, the volcano eruption, and the subsequent debris pushed into the atmosphere, led to a drop in global temps. The correct answer will provide another cause to the drop in global temperatures.

Only (B) does so. Note, (B) is not saying that the volcano did not cause any drop in temperature, but it attacks the part of the conclusion that states that a volcanic eruption of equal intensity will cause the same drop in temperature. If La Nina was responsible for compounding the drop in temperature, then a similar eruption, without the attendant La Nina, would not necessarily result in the same drop.

(A) is really tempting. The reason it is not the answer is it does not address the conclusion as directly as (B). Though Tambora was a larger eruption, the conclusion states, "in terms of the amount of debris ejected into the atmosphere". We do not know if Tambora ejected more debris into the atmosphere than did Krakatoa.

(C) states that temperatures worldwide have been increasing. That does not mean that a massive eruption could not lead to a drop in world temperatures.

(D) is a general fact that does not relate to the argument.

(E) is wrong because the drop in temperatures is not related to any eruption. Thus, (E) is irrelevant.

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Re: In 1883, the Indonesian island Krakatoa, home to a massive v [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2017, 23:13
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In 1883, the Indonesian island Krakatoa, home to a massive v [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2017, 20:10
In 1883, the Indonesian island Krakatoa, home to a massive volcano, seemingly disappeared overnight as an eruption rent the entire island apart, catapulting rock and debris into the atmosphere. For the next years, as ash circled the entire globe, the average world temperature dropped by several degrees Fahrenheit. Therefore, an eruption of similar power in terms of the amount of debris ejected into the atmosphere will likely cause the average temperature around the world to drop by several degrees.

Type- weaken
Boil it down- an eruption of similar power in terms of the amount of debris ejected into the atmosphere will likely cause the average temperature around the world to drop by several degrees.

A. The eruption of the Indonesian island of Tambora was even larger than that of Krakatoa, yet the average world temperature did not drop as much as it did following the eruption of Krakatoa. - ISWAT - we are not sure whether the eruption here is in terms of the amount of debris ejected . Also , maybe in case of Tambora , maybe the temperature drop was marginally less than Krakatoa's .

B. In 1883, the ocean-atmospheric phenomenon La Nina occurred, an event that is always followed by a drop of several degrees in the world’s average temperature. Correct - So maybe La Nina was the primary cause of the drop in temperature
C. Due to the effects of climate change, the average world temperature has been steadily increasing over the last few decades. -Irrelevant
D. According to sophisticated computer analysis, the eruption of Mt. Toba between 69,000 and 77,000 years ago, one of the most powerful ever, may have hastened an ice age. - Irrelevant
E. No volcanic eruption in the 20th century was close to the magnitude of the Krakatoa eruption, yet average world temperatures dropped between 1950 and 1960.- Irrelevant

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Re: In 1883, the Indonesian island Krakatoa, home to a massive v [#permalink]

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24 Oct 2017, 17:38
Could anyone please explain to me why E is incorrect?

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Re: In 1883, the Indonesian island Krakatoa, home to a massive v [#permalink]

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02 Nov 2017, 04:26
csaluja wrote:
Could anyone please explain to me why E is incorrect?

Thank You!

csaluja,

There are many good explanations above as to why E is incorrect. E does not mention any connection to volcanoes. How can an answer weaken a conclusion if it doesn't mention the thing it is trying to weaken? It can't, at least not in this scenario. Although in E the temperature may drop, why would that prevent a volcano from having the same effect? Further, why would a specific time period of cooling weaken the argument, especially one that isn't repeated? Again, it doesn't.

Does this help?
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Re: In 1883, the Indonesian island Krakatoa, home to a massive v [#permalink]

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02 Nov 2017, 12:48
In 1883, the Indonesian island Krakatoa, home to a massive volcano, seemingly disappeared overnight as an eruption rent the entire island apart, catapulting rock and debris into the atmosphere. For the next years, as ash circled the entire globe, the average world temperature dropped by several degrees Fahrenheit. Therefore, an eruption of similar power in terms of the amount of debris ejected into the atmosphere will likely cause the average temperature around the world to drop by several degrees.

Which of the following, if true, best challenges the main claim of the argument?

A. The eruption of the Indonesian island of Tambora was even larger than that of Krakatoa, yet the average world temperature did not drop as much as it did following the eruption of Krakatoa. -The conclusion states that "the temperature" likely will drop. Thus temperature may or may not drop. This is just a fact set.
B. In 1883, the ocean-atmospheric phenomenon La Nina occurred, an event that is always followed by a drop of several degrees in the world’s average temperature. -Correct. This options gives an alternate, weakening the argument.
C. Due to the effects of climate change, the average world temperature has been steadily increasing over the last few decades. -out of scope
D. According to sophisticated computer analysis, the eruption of Mt. Toba between 69,000 and 77,000 years ago, one of the most powerful ever, may have hastened an ice age. -This option strengthens the argument
E. No volcanic eruption in the 20th century was close to the magnitude of the Krakatoa eruption, yet average world temperatures dropped between 1950 and 1960. -We are worried about the eruptions of atleast the magnitude as that of Krakatoa island's volcanic eruption.
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Re: In 1883, the Indonesian island Krakatoa, home to a massive v   [#permalink] 02 Nov 2017, 12:48
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