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# In 1929 relatively small declines in the market ruined many

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In 1929 relatively small declines in the market ruined many [#permalink]

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18 Oct 2009, 18:47
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In 1929 relatively small declines in the market ruined many speculators having bought on margin; they had to sell, and their selling pushed other investors to the brink.

(A) speculators having bought on margin; they had to sell, and
(C) speculators who had bought on margin; they had to sell, and
(D) speculators, those who had bought on margin; these speculators had to sell
(E) speculators, who, having bought on margin and having to sell

What is the difference between A and C?

Why C not A?
If you have any questions
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18 Oct 2009, 20:50
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In 1929 relatively small declines in the market ruined many speculators having bought on margin; they had to sell, and their selling pushed other investors to the brink.

(A) speculators having bought on margin; they had to sell, and
(C) speculators who had bought on margin; they had to sell, and
(D) speculators, those who had bought on margin; these speculators had to sell
(E) speculators, who, having bought on margin and having to sell

A) having bought on margin, incorrectly modifies speculators. Modifying phrase need to answer question, which or what kind of speculators? having bought on margin does not answer these simple questions asked about the speculators.
The phrase who had bought correctly modifies the word "speculators," so it is the correct choice.
This is the main difference between two phrases.

If you like my explanation, please give me kudos
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30 Jan 2010, 11:56
In 1929 relatively small declines in the market ruined many speculators having bought on margin; they had to sell, and their selling pushed other investors to the brink.

(A) speculators having bought on margin; they had to sell, and
(C) speculators who had bought on margin; they had to sell, and
(D) speculators, those who had bought on margin; these speculators had to sell
(E) speculators, who, having bought on margin and having to sell

the stem shows a sequence of actions.... market ruined ....X who had bought Y..... therefore 'had bought' preferred as 'having bought'

therefore A and E are out..
in E.... those is unnecessary... hence out...

Between B and C.... B is wrong as the related clause is started of wrongly.

Hence C is the winner...
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08 May 2010, 22:04
lys8207 wrote:
In 1929 relatively small declines in the market ruined many speculators having bought on margin; they had to sell, and their selling pushed other investors to the brink.

(A) speculators having bought on margin; they had to sell, and
(C) speculators who had bought on margin; they had to sell, and
(D) speculators, those who had bought on margin; these speculators had to sell
(E) speculators, who, having bought on margin and having to sell

What is the difference between A and C?

Why C not A?

As the first part of the sentence uses a time reference, it is set in a past tense, so the action of selling had preceded the first hence must be a past perfect tense, hence B and C remains.

Now coming back to the punctuation used, a semicolon disects a sentence and the second part must be independent, hence only C remains
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31 Dec 2010, 05:31
yep C for me. correct use of had and the second clause starting with 'they'
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13 May 2011, 15:06
+1 C

Not only tenses, there are other errors: wrong pronouns (those), wordy, and fragments.
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14 May 2011, 01:27
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guys,
it is a simple rule: when you see having 99% it is wrong.
Based only on that you may kick off all but C and D.
D is clearly wrong for those and these.

C is the winner.
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14 May 2011, 11:07
+1 on C. I picked D though. was confuse between C and D. I thought specifying speculators rather than pronoun could be more close for having two independent clause.
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08 Aug 2011, 11:03
its ok for "they" and "their" to refer to something in the first clause....NOT have a referrent in the 2nd clause?
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Re: In 1929 relatively small declines in the market ruined many [#permalink]

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21 Dec 2011, 07:23
Can someone explain why having is wrong in GMAT. (in the forum. it keep saying using having is most of the time wrong, but does not explain why.)
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Re: In 1929 relatively small declines in the market ruined many [#permalink]

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11 Jul 2012, 23:40
I agree with option C , however is it correct to use pronoun ' they' after the semi colon? isn't the antecedent in this case not present? since the portion of the sentence after the semi colon should be able to stand alone and here with the missing antecedent it does not.

Thanks,
Shreya
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Re: In 1929 relatively small declines in the market ruined many [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2012, 05:05
C+1 for me. However, it took me many precious seconds to decide between A and C. Please explain C. Thank youuu
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Re: In 1929 relatively small declines in the market ruined many [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2016, 13:53
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: In 1929 relatively small declines in the market ruined many   [#permalink] 02 Jul 2016, 13:53
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