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# In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding

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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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27 Dec 2011, 23:52
Yes I agree with Babzsn84. That helps explain why C is the answer. If the experiments were performed on the most aggressive monkey species and yet this monkey species was found to be less aggressive than rats, in general, then the conclusion that monkeys, in general, are less aggressive than rats in the 'crowding' scenario is strengthened.
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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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03 Sep 2012, 12:44
1
Hi Experts

Can you please explain if my logic in choosing B is correct

Premise : in 1960’s studies of rats  crowding caused increase in attacks in rats
Premise 2: recent experiments recent experiments attacks did
not become any more frequent

implies : the attacks or behaviors in rats = attacks in R Monkeys
implies all monkeys attacks behaviors = attacks in behaviors in R monkeys

Concl: , for any species of monkey crowding increases aggression SAME for rats
Implies rats = monkeys

Prove: R monkeys not= monkeys then done

Rhesus monkeys respond with aggression to a wider range of stimuli than any other
monkeys do. – C

is my understanding correct I feel the vvay im thinking on this is not the correct vvay to approach a problem like this

can yu please explain 1) vvhat am I missing
2) right approach

In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding increases the number of attacks
among the animals significantly. But in recent experiments in which rhesus monkeys were
placed in crowded conditions, although there was an increase in instances of “coping”
behavior—such as submissive gestures and avoidance of dominant individuals—attacks did
not become any more frequent. Therefore it is not likely that, for any species of monkey,
crowding increases aggression as significantly as was seen in rats. Which of the
following, if true, most strengthens the argument?
A. All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys living in
uncrowded conditions.
B. In the studies of rats, nondominant individuals were found to increasingly avoid dominant
individuals when the animals were in crowded conditions.
C. Rhesus monkeys respond with aggression to a wider range of stimuli than any other
monkeys do.
D. Some individual monkeys in the experiment were involved in significantly more attacks than
the other monkeys were.
E. Some of the coping behavior displayed by rhesus monkeys is similar to behavior rhesus
monkeys use to bring to an end an attack that has begun.
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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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03 Sep 2012, 20:55
Check this :
in-1960-s-studies-of-rats-scientists-found-that-crowding-59205.html?fl=similar
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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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04 Apr 2013, 11:16
8
1
eyunni wrote:
In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding increases the number of attacks among the animals significantly. But in recent experiments in which rhesus monkeys were placed in crowded conditions, although there was an increase in instances of “coping” behavior—such as submissive gestures and avoidance of dominant individuals—attacks did not become any more frequent. Therefore it is not likely that, for any species of monkey, crowding increases aggression as significantly as was seen in rats.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?
(A) All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys living in uncrowded conditions.
(B) In the studies of rats, nondominant individuals were found to increasingly avoid dominant individuals when the animals were in crowded conditions.
(C) Rhesus monkeys respond with aggression to a wider range of stimuli than any other monkeys do.
(D) Some individual monkeys in the experiment were involved in significantly more attacks than the other monkeys were.
(E) Some of the coping behavior displayed by rhesus monkeys is similar to behavior rhesus monkeys use to bring to an end an attack that has begun.

fameatop wrote:
Hi Mike, I am not able to understand the logic presented in option (although i got the logic in Stimuli) & how come option (C) strengthens the argument? Can you kindly dispel my confusion. Waiting eagerly for your valuable inputs. Regards, Fame

First, I will say I find it a little unusual that no one seems to be able to identify the source of this question. Hmmm.

http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/arguments- ... -the-gmat/
Obviously, in a "find the assumption question", this is relevant. One of the best ways to strengthen an argument is to verify its assumption, and one of the best ways to attack an argument is to undercut its assumption. Right there, you have the three most common GMAT CR questions, and a single skill, finding the assumption, can help with all three.

Again, here the assumption has something to do with a link between how aggressive rhesus monkeys are and how aggressive other kinds of monkeys would be.

Choice (C) goes to the heart of this --- essentially, it says rhesus monkeys are way more aggressive than other kinds of monkeys. Therefore, if the overcrowding is not enough to provoke the pugnacious rhesus monkeys to aggression, then it would not be enough to provoke any of the less aggressive monkeys either.

Choice (C) affirms the assumption of the argument, so it is an ideal strengthener, and the best answer among these five.

Does this make sense?
Mike
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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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12 Feb 2014, 10:52
1. PREMISE---Studies of rats found that crowding increases the number of attacks among the animals significantly.
2. PREMISE-----In recent experiments INVOLVING rhesus monkeys, attacks did not become any more frequent.
CONCLUSION------ It is not likely that, for any species of monkey, crowding increases aggression as significantly as was seen in rats.
ASSUMPTION-----
1. In rhesus monkeys, Attack BEHAVIOR is more prevelant than other MONKEYS.
2. Other monkeys will not exceed the rhesus monkeys in attack/aggressive behavior in crowding....

C. Rhesus monkeys respond with aggression to a wider range of stimuli than any other monkeys do.CORRECT
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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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12 Mar 2014, 20:08
OK - Gmat bot, here's we go.

Crowding of rats -> increased number of attacks for rats. However, crowding of monkeys ->(~) does not increase number of attacks for monkeys. Thus, strengthening any part of the causal relationship will strengthen the argument.

A. All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys
living in uncrowded conditions.
Reversing the causal logic does not strengthen the argument. The claim in fact weakens the argument.

B. In the studies of rats, nondominant individuals were found to increasingly avoid
dominant individuals when the animals were in crowded conditions.
Weakens the conclusion because the original conclusion about rats was shown to be false.

C. Rhesus monkeys respond with aggression to a wider range of stimuli than any
other monkeys do.
Correct. If monkeys respond to a wider range of stimuli and the number of attacks did not increase, the conclusion is expanded, thus further strengthened.

D. Some individual monkeys in the experiment were involved in significantly more
attacks than the other monkeys were.
Tangential to the main issue, and out of scope.

E. Some of the coping behavior displayed by rhesus monkeys is similar to behavior
rhesus monkeys use to bring to an end an attack that has begun.
Out of scope.

IMO C
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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2014, 20:40
In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding increases the number of attacks among the animals significantly. But in recent experiments in which rhesus monkeys were placed in crowded conditions, although there was an increase in instances of “coping” behavior—such as submissive gestures(signals) and avoidance of dominant individuals—attacks did not become any more frequent. Therefore it is not likely that, for any species of monkey, crowding increases aggression as significantly as was seen in rats. Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?
A. All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys living in uncrowded conditions.
B. In the studies of rats, non-dominant individuals were found to increasingly avoid dominant individuals when the animals were in crowded conditions.
C. Rhesus monkeys respond with aggression to a wider range of stimuli than any other monkeys do.
D. Some individual monkeys in the experiment were involved in significantly more attacks than the other monkeys were.
E. Some of the coping behavior displayed by rhesus monkeys is similar to behavior rhesus monkeys use to bring to an end an attack that has begun.
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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2014, 22:24
Raihanuddin wrote:
In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding increases the number of attacks among the animals significantly. But in recent experiments in which rhesus monkeys were placed in crowded conditions, although there was an increase in instances of “coping” behavior—such as submissive gestures(signals) and avoidance of dominant individuals—attacks did not become any more frequent. Therefore it is not likely that, for any species of monkey, crowding increases aggression as significantly as was seen in rats. Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?
A. All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys living in uncrowded conditions.
B. In the studies of rats, non-dominant individuals were found to increasingly avoid dominant individuals when the animals were in crowded conditions.
C. Rhesus monkeys respond with aggression to a wider range of stimuli than any other monkeys do.
D. Some individual monkeys in the experiment were involved in significantly more attacks than the other monkeys were.
E. Some of the coping behavior displayed by rhesus monkeys is similar to behavior rhesus monkeys use to bring to an end an attack that has begun.

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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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19 Oct 2014, 07:27
Although i got it wrong,on closer inspection found out that the conclusion is for all species of monkeys which makes C the clearest choice.C mentions the fact that Rhesus monkeys are the most reactive to the widest range of stimuli.So it can be interpreted as:
If Rhesus monkeys being the most reactive DO NOT respond to overcrowding by being more violent,then it is likely that no other species of monkeys will react to overcrowding.Therefore it strengthens the argument by clearing out an underlying assumption that behaviour of rhesus monkeys can be extrapolated to all monkey species
Hope this kind of explains C.
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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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04 Dec 2014, 05:04
1. Crowding leads to aggression in rats.
2. However, crowding does NOT lead to aggression in rhesus monkeys.
3. Therefore, crowding probably does NOT lead to aggression in monkeys the way it does in rats.

above three facts are stated above : if you look at option C it says monkey has wider range to show aggression but they are not showing it - means probability is less of attacking behavior +1C

Hope this helps
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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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21 May 2015, 04:35
In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding increases the number of attacks
among the animals significantly. But in recent experiments in which rhesus monkeys
were placed in crowded conditions, although there was an increase in instances of
“coping” behavior—such as submissive gestures and avoidance of dominant
individuals—attacks did not become any more frequent. Therefore it is not likely that,
for any species of monkey, crowding increases aggression as significantly as was seen in
rats.
The conclusion is that since rhesus monkeys do not exhibit aggression in crowded conditions as rats do, other species do not either.
Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

(A) All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys
living in uncrowded conditions. This implies that the coping behavior is not a result of the crowding and could weaken the argument.
(B) In the studies of rats, nondominant individuals were found to increasingly avoid
dominant individuals when the animals were in crowded conditions. Says nothing about monkeys
(C) Rhesus monkeys respond with aggression to a wider range of stimuli than any
other monkeys do.
If rhesus monkeys are more sensitive to the stimuli that induces aggression and still do not exhibit aggression, other monkey species are less likely to show aggression.
(D) Some individual monkeys in the experiment were involved in significantly more
attacks than the other monkeys were. Doesn't make a comparison from species to species.
(E) Some of the coping behavior displayed by rhesus monkeys is similar to behavior
rhesus monkeys use to bring to an end an attack that has begun.The application of coping behavior to other situations is not relevant.
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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2015, 11:34
In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding increases the number of attacks among the animals significantly. But in recent experiments in which rhesus monkeys were placed in crowded conditions, although there was an increase in instances of “coping” behavior—such as submissive gestures and avoidance of dominant individuals—attacks did not become any more frequent. Therefore it is not likely that, for any species of monkey, crowding increases aggression as significantly as was seen in rats. Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A. All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys living in uncrowded conditions.

B. In the studies of rats, non-dominant individuals were found to increasingly avoid dominant individuals when the animals were in crowded conditions.

C. Rhesus monkeys respond with aggression to a wider range of stimuli than any other monkeys do.

D. Some individual monkeys in the experiment were involved in significantly more attacks than the other monkeys were.

E. Some of the coping behavior displayed by rhesus monkeys is similar to behavior -rhesus monkeys use to bring to an end an attack that has begun.
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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2015, 19:46
IMO C
Argument talks of one species and generalizes to all. Assuming all are other species have lesser aggression.
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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2015, 20:43
IMO C
The conclusion is drawn about any monkey species based on experiments involving rhesus monkeys. The claim can be weakened if it can be shown that rhesus monkeys are not representative of all species. Option C seals this potential gap in reasoning.
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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2015, 00:55
B is out of scope
D,E weaken the conclusion
Between A and E ,only C talks about how Rhesus monkey respond to stimuli as compared to other monkey species.
This strengthens the argument .

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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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16 Dec 2015, 12:37
1
enigma123 wrote:
In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding increases the number of attacks among the animals significantly. But in recent experiments in which rhesus monkeys were placed in crowded conditions, although there was an increase in instances of “coping” behavior—such as submissive gestures and avoidance of dominant individuals—attacks did not become any more frequent. Therefore it is not likely that, for any species of monkey,crowding increases aggression as significantly as was seen in rats.

( in 1960s ) Rats - Crowding increases number of attacks
( Recent Experiments ) Rhesus monkeys - Coping behaviour , frequency of attacks did not increase.

Any species of monkey , crowding increases aggression.

The flow of information is from the Premises ( Rats and Rhesus monkeys ) monkeys to the Conclusion ( Any species of monkey )

Attachment:

Untitled.png [ 3.59 KiB | Viewed 2988 times ]

If we apply the concept of pre thinking the first thing which must strike us is that " There must be some behavorial characteristics of the animals under consideration "

C leads to the same -

Rhesus monkeys respond with aggression to a wider range of stimuli than any other monkeys do.

So, Rhesus monkeys also respond with aggression but under a different stimuli ( might be for food or any other issue ) and adopt the coping behaviour under stimulus such as " crowded conditions "

So, we can come to the conclusion that " It is not likely that, for any species of monkey,crowding increases aggression as significantly as was seen in rats."
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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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21 Dec 2015, 01:49
Premise: Rat in crowded – rise attacks among them. But Rhesus monkey in crowed – attacks no increase.
Conclusion: Not all monkey increases aggression in crowded like rat.
Choice A and B weaken the argument. Choice E is irrelevant. Choice D, “some individual monkeys” do not impact on the argument (species).
Choice C: Rhesus monkeys react to aggression from low number of attacks to high number of attacks. It strengthens the conclusion Not all monkey increases aggression in crowded.
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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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30 Jan 2016, 11:38
Gnpth or enigma123, could you please edit the question and delete the part that gives a hint about the OA?

"How come the answer is C? Can someone please explain the reasoning?"

enigma123 wrote:
In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding increases the number of attacks among the animals significantly. But in recent experiments in which rhesus monkeys were placed in crowded conditions, although there was an increase in instances of “coping” behavior—such as submissive gestures and avoidance of dominant individuals—attacks did not become any more frequent. Therefore it is not likely that, for any species of monkey,
crowding increases aggression as significantly as was seen in rats. Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?
A. All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys living in uncrowded conditions.
B. In the studies of rats, nondominant individuals were found to increasingly avoid dominant individuals when the animals were in crowded conditions.
C. Rhesus monkeys respond with aggression to a wider range of stimuli than any other monkeys do.
D. Some individual monkeys in the experiment were involved in significantly more attacks than the other monkeys were.
E. Some of the coping behavior displayed by rhesus monkeys is similar to behavior rhesus monkeys use to bring to an end an attack that has begun.

How come the answer is C? Can someone please explain the reasoning?
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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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12 Mar 2016, 12:05
I dont get how C is the answer... The conclusion here is about increase in aggression due to crowding as compared to that of rats.. Other species of monkeys may not respond aggressively to a wider range of stimuli but they could still respond quite aggressively to overcrowding, probably as aggressively as a rat does..

Please let me know where I am going wrong..

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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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Updated on: 13 Mar 2016, 00:50
rs47 wrote:
I dont get how C is the answer... The conclusion here is about increase in aggression due to crowding as compared to that of rats.. Other species of monkeys may not respond aggressively to a wider range of stimuli but they could still respond quite aggressively to overcrowding, probably as aggressively as a rat does..

Please let me know where I am going wrong..

Hi rs47,

Let me clarify your doubt here:

Desired flow of thoughts
1. We know that Rhesus monkeys do not act aggressively as the the rats do.
2. Rhesus monkeys are the most aggressive in nature (this is what option C says)
3. Rhesus monkeys do not become aggressive in over crowded conditions

4. Sine Rhesus monkeys who are the most aggressive of all the monkey species, we can say that other species will also not beome aggresive.
(The final conclusion including the correct assumption)

Does this help?

Originally posted by OptimusPrepJanielle on 12 Mar 2016, 20:14.
Last edited by OptimusPrepJanielle on 13 Mar 2016, 00:50, edited 1 time in total.
Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding   [#permalink] 12 Mar 2016, 20:14

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