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# In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding

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In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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28 Jan 2008, 14:52
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In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding increases the number of attacks
among the animals significantly. But in recent experiments in which rhesus monkeys
were placed in crowded conditions, although there was an increase in instances of
“coping” behavior—such as submissive gestures and avoidance of dominant
individuals—attacks did not become any more frequent. Therefore it is not likely that,
for any species of monkey, crowding increases aggression as significantly as was seen in
rats.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A. All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys living in uncrowded conditions.

B. In the studies of rats, nondominant individuals were found to increasingly avoid dominant individuals when the animals were in crowded conditions.

C. Rhesus monkeys respond with aggression to a wider range of stimuli than any other monkeys do.

D. Some individual monkeys in the experiment were involved in significantly more attacks than the other monkeys were.

E. Some of the coping behavior displayed by rhesus monkeys is similar to behavior rhesus monkeys use to bring to an end an attack that has begun.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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29 Jan 2008, 00:12
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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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29 Jan 2008, 07:05
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Expert's post
C

In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding increases the number of attacks
among the animals significantly. But in recent experiments in which rhesus monkeys
were placed in crowded conditions, although there was an increase in instances of
“coping” behavior—such as submissive gestures and avoidance of dominant
individuals—attacks did not become any more frequent. Therefore it is not likely that,
for any species of monkey, crowding increases aggression as significantly as was seen in
rats.

The assumption: Result for rhesus monkeys means the same result for any species of monkey

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

C. Rhesus monkeys respond with aggression to a wider range of stimuli than any other monkeys do.
Only C relates Rhesus monkeys to any other monkeys
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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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29 Jan 2008, 08:41
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walkers explanation seems correct..whats the OA?

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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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29 Jan 2008, 09:31
Correct. OA is C.

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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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31 Jan 2008, 00:12
Conclusion: For any species of monkey, increase in crowding wasn’t caused aggression as significantly as was seen in rats.

A. All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys living in uncrowded conditions. [Argument deals with crowding vs. aggression behavior. - This is irrelevant to the argument.]

B. In the studies of rats, nondominant individuals were found to increasingly avoid dominant individuals when the animals were in crowded conditions. [The argument deals with any species of monkeys and with crowding vs. aggression behavior. - This is irrelevant to the argument.]

C. Rhesus monkeys respond with aggression to a wider range of stimuli than any other monkeys do. (Hold it)

D. Some individual monkeys in the experiment were involved in significantly more attacks than the other monkeys were. [This is not about individual monkeys in experiment – Eliminate it]

E. Some of the coping behavior displayed by rhesus monkeys is similar to behavior rhesus monkeys use to bring to an end an attack that has begun.[This argument is not about coping behavior displayed by rhesus monkeys – eliminate it]

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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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16 Jun 2010, 05:10
This is was tough for me. I marked E as C makes a comparison b/w rhesus monkey with other monkeys while the argument seems not to

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Re: In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2010, 10:37
ykaiim wrote:
This is was tough for me. I marked E as C makes a comparison b/w rhesus monkey with other monkeys while the argument seems not to

Quote:
Therefore it is not likely that,
for any species of monkey, crowding increases aggression as significantly as was seen in
rats.

Read the stem carefully - it says- ANY species of monkey - this should immediately alert you that from ONE species of monkey (rhesus), the author is generalizing to ALL species of monkeys. Thus there should be something so generally true or so all-encompassing about rhesus monkey that the generalization should hold to other monkeys as well.

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In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2010, 10:48
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In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding increases the number of attacks
among the animals significantly. But in recent experiments in which rhesus monkeys
were placed in crowded conditions, although there was an increase in instances of
“coping” behavior—such as submissive gestures and avoidance of dominant
individuals—attacks did not become any more frequent. Therefore it is not likely that,
for any species of monkey, crowding increases aggression as significantly as was seen in
rats.
Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?
A. All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys
living in uncrowded conditions.
B. In the studies of rats, nondominant individuals were found to increasingly avoid
dominant individuals when the animals were in crowded conditions.
C. Rhesus monkeys respond with aggression to a wider range of stimuli than any
other monkeys do.
D. Some individual monkeys in the experiment were involved in significantly more
attacks than the other monkeys were.
E. Some of the coping behavior displayed by rhesus monkeys is similar to behavior
rhesus monkeys use to bring to an end an attack that has begun.

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Re: In 1960’s studies of rat [#permalink]

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12 Nov 2010, 14:06
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What we have here is a "strengthen the conclusion" question. To strengthen a conclusion, you need to make one of the argument's underlying assumptions into a supporting premise by stating it explicitly. This argument is essentially:

1. Crowding leads to aggression in rats.
2. However, crowding does NOT lead to aggression in rhesus monkeys.
3. Therefore, crowding probably does NOT lead to aggression in monkeys the way it does in rats.

Statements 1 and 2 are premises. Statement 3 is our conclusion. The question you want to ask yourself is: "What assumption are they making in between statements 2 and 3?" That assumption is going to be the answer to this type of question.

In this example, you can't assume that the behavior of Rhesus monkeys would reflect the behavior of other monkeys. Although we could probably justify this statement if we watch a lot of Discovery Channel, we can't use that external knowledge on the GMAT. Answer choice C is a version of this assumption; it makes explicit the fact that rhesus monkeys are actually more aggressive than other monkeys. The natural next step of this chain of logic is that if crowding doesn't make rhesus monkeys act aggressively, it probably doesn't make any other monkeys act aggressively.

As a result, C is the best way to strengthen this conclusion. Hope that's helpful!

Brett
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Re: In 1960’s studies of rat [#permalink]

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14 Nov 2010, 01:06
Thanks Brett. I was looking for an answer that stated something about the study on other types of monkeys. So i struggled to find the right answer.

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Re: In 1960’s studies of rat [#permalink]

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14 Nov 2010, 01:20
(C) definately makes sense and strengthen the argument. But I am wondering that (A) also strengthens the argument by saying that all the "cpoing" behaviours are found among rhesus monkeys living in uncrowded conditions. Because if that is not the case, it simply means that the attacking nature has got increased.

@Brett, can you please through some light on this?

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Re: In 1960’s studies of rat [#permalink]

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14 Nov 2010, 06:57
A good question....I pre-phased that rhesus monkeys must represent all other monkey types. If this would have been the case, it strengthens the argument considerably.
clear +1 for C
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Re: In 1960’s studies of rat [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2010, 07:34
syog,

(A) gives us more information about rhesus monkeys: In crowded conditions, they cope in specific ways other than becoming aggressive. However, this only helps us better understand this particular species of monkey. We still have no idea whether this species is typical.

The goal with strengthening the conclusion questions is to understand which does the MOST to strengthen the conclusion. With (C) we can clearly see the strengthening. With (A) we have to tell ourselves a story to strengthen the argument: "Rhesus monkeys don't show aggression. They don't show aggression because they have other ways of coping, such as acting submissive. Since the rhesus monkey has an alternative to aggression, other monkeys probably do also."

Notice how this "story" we have to tell ourselves contains its own assumptions that still need to be overcome. Thus, although (A) might strengthen a bit, it doesn't strengthen the most.

Does that help?

Brett
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Re: In 1960’s studies of rat [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2010, 11:24
Yes, it does.

Thanks a lot Brett!

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In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding [#permalink]

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08 Nov 2011, 16:44
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In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding increases the number of attacks among the animals significantly. But in recent experiments in which rhesus monkeys were placed in crowded conditions, although there was an increase in instances of “coping” behavior—such as submissive gestures and avoidance of dominant individuals—attacks did not become any more frequent. Therefore it is not likely that, for any species of monkey,
crowding increases aggression as significantly as was seen in rats. Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?
A. All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys living in uncrowded conditions.
B. In the studies of rats, nondominant individuals were found to increasingly avoid dominant individuals when the animals were in crowded conditions.
C. Rhesus monkeys respond with aggression to a wider range of stimuli than any other monkeys do.
D. Some individual monkeys in the experiment were involved in significantly more attacks than the other monkeys were.
E. Some of the coping behavior displayed by rhesus monkeys is similar to behavior rhesus monkeys use to bring to an end an attack that has begun.

How come the answer is C? Can someone please explain the reasoning?
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08 Nov 2011, 17:25
Difficult one becasue only C and E options are little relevant to conclusion.

I'll pick E because increase in instances of “coping” behavior shows that few of the rhesus monkeys were showing submissive gestures to avoid the fight and hence less attacks.

Hope it helps!
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08 Nov 2011, 23:12
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Premise: Experimentation done on Rhesus monkeys
Conclusion:
For any species of monkey,crowding DOES NOT increases aggression as significantly as was seen in rats.

The argument is a weak one as the conclusion does not follow directly from the premises - The argument generalizes results found on Rhesus monkeys with what will happen to all other species monkeys.

C strengthens the argument by stating that Rhesus monkeys are the most aggressive ones; other species will not be any more aggressive. Hence the findings on Rhesus monkeys is the worst case scenario .

Crick

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09 Nov 2011, 01:23
Thanks crick20002002. It all makes sense now.
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09 Nov 2011, 04:39

If Monkeys are the most aggressive creatures then none can attack monkeys and so the monkeys will not become extinct
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Re: Monkeys & Rats   [#permalink] 09 Nov 2011, 04:39

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# In 1960 s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding

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