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# In 1979 lack of rain reduced India's rice production to

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Re: In 1979 lack of rain reduced India's rice production to  [#permalink]

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31 Aug 2017, 02:39
hi GMATNinja GMATNinja2 Experts

what does pronoun those refer to ? India's rice production or 41 million tons.

The plural pronoun those has no logical antecedent in the original sentence.

Just replace those with both the nouns you have suggested in your post. You will see that none of the nouns will convey the intended meaning.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: In 1979 lack of rain reduced India's rice production to  [#permalink]

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31 Aug 2017, 13:34
egmat wrote:
Jabjagotabhisavera wrote:
Hi

I marked answer as "A" because I thought those refers to "tonnage/tons" of harvest. So the option "A" becomes "less than "tonnage/tons"of the 1978 harvest". Is it not correct?

Hello Jabjagotabhisavera,

Let's focus on the meaning if those refers to 41 million tons in the original sentence.

The sentence would convey that in 1979, India produced nearly 25 percent less than 41 million tons of the 1978 harvest.

Does this information make sense? No because the sentence clearly says that India produced 41 million tons of rice in 1979. This production was 25 less than the production in 1978.

But per the above-mentioned sentence, India produces less than 41 million tons in 1979.

So you see the illogical meaning due to the incorrect reference of pronoun those.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

Thanks E-GMAT.
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Re: In 1979 lack of rain reduced India's rice production to  [#permalink]

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23 Sep 2017, 09:56
"B" is the correct choice.

"D" and "E" are out for the usage of 'fewer'
A - those of
C - compared with 1978
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Re: In 1979 lack of rain reduced India's rice production to  [#permalink]

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13 Nov 2017, 06:40
jitgoel wrote:
betterscore wrote:
In 1979 lack of rain reduced India's rice production to about 41 million tons, nearly 25 percent less than those of the 1978 harvest.

(A) less than those of the 1978 harvest

(B) less than the 1978 harvest

(C) less than 1978

(D) fewer than 1978

(E) fewer than that of India's 1978 harvest

Less than in the start of phrase should be there so, D and E are out. however, after less than "that of" is required to make it parallel. "Those of" is wrong as it comes when noun is plural. "C' is also out.
But why "B" is right I dont know.

Out of choice A and B, less than those of is used for a plural term and here we are referring to just an year. So less than the 1978 harvest is correct.
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Re: In 1979 lack of rain reduced India's rice production to  [#permalink]

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24 Dec 2017, 21:35
Hi Experts,

Could you please tell what type of a modifier is "nearly 25 percent less.... harvest" is? It is placed at the end of the sentence after the comma, and is modifying a noun earlier in the substance (rice production). If this is an absolute phrase, then those are usually in the form (Noun + Noun modifier), but I am not able to understand the structure of this phrase? Please advise.

Thank you!
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In 1979 lack of rain reduced India's rice production to  [#permalink]

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27 Dec 2017, 06:18
yt770 wrote:
Hi Experts,

Could you please tell what type of a modifier is "nearly 25 percent less.... harvest" is? It is placed at the end of the sentence after the comma, and is modifying a noun earlier in the substance (rice production). If this is an absolute phrase, then those are usually in the form (Noun + Noun modifier), but I am not able to understand the structure of this phrase? Please advise.

Thank you!

It is not an absolute phrase. First note that adjectives (and adjective phrases) are noun modifiers. Now observe that, "25 percent less than the 1978 harvest" is an adjective phrase ["less" is the head (comparative) adjective of the phrase].
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Re: In 1979 lack of rain reduced India's rice production to  [#permalink]

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24 Apr 2018, 11:48
DmitryFarber wrote:
That's a hard one to answer, because A as written doesn't make more sense. How can we say that the production is less than the tons?

In any case, we choose "less" or "fewer" based on what we're counting, so be careful about using "those" to make your decision. For instance, both of the following are correct:

Investors in Country X earn less money than those in Country Y.
His strategy produced less profit than that of his competitor.

Notice that here we choose "less" based on what we have less of (money, profit), not what produces less (those [investors], that [strategy]).

I am still confused with the point that percentages always take less and not fewer. If the sentence is as follows which would be correct

He had 100 chocolates.....fewer than 25% of chocolates were left with him
He had 100 chocolates.....less than 25% of chocolates were left with him
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Re: In 1979 lack of rain reduced India's rice production to  [#permalink]

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01 Jul 2018, 23:39
https://youtu.be/wf2Pp6oPp7k
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Re: In 1979 lack of rain reduced India's rice production to  [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2018, 00:46
betterscore wrote:
In 1979 lack of rain reduced India's rice production to about 41 million tons, nearly 25 percent less than those of the 1978 harvest.

(A) less than those of the 1978 harvest - rice production is singular

(B) less than the 1978 harvest

(C) less than 1978 - illogically means rice production reduced to less than 25% of 1978

(D) fewer than 1978 - same as C

(E) fewer than that of India's 1978 harvest - "that of X's" is wrong construction, use either "that of X" or "X's"
Re: In 1979 lack of rain reduced India's rice production to &nbs [#permalink] 08 Jul 2018, 00:46

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