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# In 1984 medical researchers at Harvard and Stanford

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Senior Manager
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In 1984 medical researchers at Harvard and Stanford  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 03 Oct 2013, 23:05
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Difficulty:

35% (medium)

Question Stats:

64% (01:13) correct 36% (01:16) wrong based on 1456 sessions

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In 1984 medical researchers at Harvard and Stanford universities concluded that sedentary life-styles lead to heart and lung diseases that shorten lives, strongly recommending middle-aged people to undertake some form of regular exercise.

(A). strongly recommending middle-aged people to
(B). strongly recommending that middle-aged people should
(C). and strongly recommended for middle-aged people to
(D). and their strong recommendation was for middle-aged people to
(E). and they strongly recommended that middle-aged people

I will post the OA soon.

Originally posted by gmatter0913 on 03 Oct 2013, 21:03.
Last edited by gmatter0913 on 03 Oct 2013, 23:05, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: In 1984 medical researchers at Harvard and Stanford  [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2014, 08:41
5
5
Hi Akhil,

The verb -ing modifier is incorrect in option A. Since it should refer to the previous clause, it is illogically referring to sedentary lifestyles. It is not the lifestyles that are recommending something, but the researchers.

I hope this helps to clarify your doubt!

Regards,
Meghna
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Re: In 1984 medical researchers at Harvard and Stanford  [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2013, 22:55
33
9
In 1984 medical researchers at Harvard and Stanford universities concluded that sedentary life-styles lead to heart and lung diseases that shorten lives, strongly recommending middle-aged people to undertake some form of regular exercise.

(A). strongly recommending middle-aged people to
Wrong. "Recommend" should be the main verb, not modifier. If the underlined part is just modifier, we can eliminate it without meaning changes. However, if we do so, the sentence does not maintain its intended meaning.

(B). strongly recommending that middle-aged people should
Wrong. Redundant problem. [Recommend + should] ==> redundant.
Note: Recommend THAT X SHOULD do Y <--- ALWAYS wrong.

(C). and strongly recommended for middle-aged people to
Wrong. Recommend for X to do Y <-- wrong idiom. The correct one is: Recommend X for Y. (suggest someone for something)

(D). and their strong recommendation was for middle-aged people to
Wrong. recommendation was for X to do Y ==> awkward grammar.

(E). and they strongly recommended that middle-aged people
Correct. IMO
Concluded that...... and recommended that........... Parallel structure
Recommend THAT X DO Y --> Correct idiom.

Waiting for OA.
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##### General Discussion
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Re: In 1984 medical researchers at Harvard and Stanford  [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2013, 21:26

"Strongly recommending middle-aged people" rather than "strongly recommended that" should be correct here. Recommendation for middle-aged people is strong, not that recommendation itself.
i am not sure whether my reason is perfect. anyone please?
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Re: In 1984 medical researchers at Harvard and Stanford  [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2013, 22:47
2
The OA is E.

When I look back at this question, I realise the mistake I did in the exam.

My thought process while doing this question was:

Is the recommendation a result of the researchers' conclusion? No. The researchers are recommending based on their conclusion. Hence A and B are out.

So, it is between C, D and E.

D sounded odd. I thought 'they' in E is not necessary and I went with C in the exam.

But C is wrong because it says 'recommended for middle-aged people'. Usage of 'for' is wrong.

But, I have two questions here.

1. Is my reasoning above correct?
2. Do we require 'they' here? Is it okay if we don't have 'they' here, as the subject is obvious?
Or do we definitely require a subject specified for FANBOYS preceded by comma? (should connect two clauses)

Kindly help me on this. Thanks.
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Re: In 1984 medical researchers at Harvard and Stanford  [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2013, 23:01
3
gmatter0913 wrote:
The OA is E.

When I look back at this question, I realise the mistake I did in the exam.

My thought process while doing this question was:

Is the recommendation a result of the researchers' conclusion? No. The researchers are recommending based on their conclusion. Hence A and B are out.

So, it is between C, D and E.

D sounded odd. I thought 'they' in E is not necessary and I went with C in the exam.

But C is wrong because it says 'recommended for middle-aged people'. Usage of 'for' is wrong.

But, I have two questions here.

1. Is my reasoning above correct?
2. Do we require 'they' here? Is it okay if we don't have 'they' here, as the subject is obvious?
Or do we definitely require a subject specified for FANBOYS preceded by comma? (should connect two clauses)

Kindly help me on this. Thanks.

Hey, You just posted the OA some seconds before I did Just kidding.

C is wrong because it's not a correct idiom.
Correct idiom is: Recommend somebody FOR something.
--OR--
Recommend someone to do something.
--NOT--
Recommend for somebody to do something.

Assume E is correct, we can eliminate "they" --> structure is: X concluded that.....and recommended that............... <== same subject X

Hope it helps.
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Re: In 1984 medical researchers at Harvard and Stanford  [#permalink]

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04 Oct 2013, 00:27
Thanks for detailed explanation ,it helps.
+1 kudos

pqhai wrote:
In 1984 medical researchers at Harvard and Stanford universities concluded that sedentary life-styles lead to heart and lung diseases that shorten lives, strongly recommending middle-aged people to undertake some form of regular exercise.

(A). strongly recommending middle-aged people to
Wrong. "Recommend" should be the main verb, not modifier. If the underlined part is just modifier, we can eliminate it without meaning changes. However, if we do so, the sentence does not maintain its intended meaning.

(B). strongly recommending that middle-aged people should
Wrong. Redundant problem. [Recommend + should] ==> redundant.
Note: Recommend THAT X SHOULD do Y <--- ALWAYS wrong.

(C). and strongly recommended for middle-aged people to
Wrong. Recommend for X to do Y <-- wrong idiom. The correct one is: Recommend X for Y. (suggest someone for something)

(D). and their strong recommendation was for middle-aged people to
Wrong. recommendation was for X to do Y ==> awkward grammar.

(E). and they strongly recommended that middle-aged people
Correct. IMO
Concluded that...... and recommended that........... Parallel structure
Recommend THAT X DO Y --> Correct idiom.

Waiting for OA.
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Re: In 1984 medical researchers at Harvard and Stanford  [#permalink]

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04 Oct 2013, 00:43
8
1
Hi,

"Recommend" is an example of a bossy verb and the correct usage should be:

bossy verb+that+subject+command subjunctive (use of infinitive "to" or "should" is incorrect. Hence we can eliminate options A, B C & D by this logic only(there are other reasons also).

Hence E is correct.

Regards

Argha
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Re: In 1984 medical researchers at Harvard and Stanford  [#permalink]

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04 Oct 2013, 00:59
1
Actually it is very simple if we know that 'recommend' can only take command subjunctive mood.

The structure for command subjunctive construction is - Bossy verb + that + be or bare form of verb.

The only option that follows this particular structure is option E. thus option E is the correct answer (I did it in 30 sec)
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Re: In 1984 medical researchers at Harvard and Stanford  [#permalink]

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04 Oct 2013, 06:51
gmatter0913 wrote:
The OA is E.

When I look back at this question, I realise the mistake I did in the exam.

My thought process while doing this question was:

Is the recommendation a result of the researchers' conclusion? No. The researchers are recommending based on their conclusion. Hence A and B are out.

So, it is between C, D and E.

D sounded odd. I thought 'they' in E is not necessary and I went with C in the exam.

But C is wrong because it says 'recommended for middle-aged people'. Usage of 'for' is wrong.

But, I have two questions here.

1. Is my reasoning above correct?
2. Do we require 'they' here? Is it okay if we don't have 'they' here, as the subject is obvious?
Or do we definitely require a subject specified for FANBOYS preceded by comma? (should connect two clauses)

Kindly help me on this. Thanks.

Responding to PM.
Hello gmatter0913
Quote:
Is the recommendation a result of the researchers' conclusion? No. The researchers are recommending based on their conclusion. Hence A and B are out.
- Correct, moreover you could have asked who is the subject of participle "recommending" .. Is it sedentary lifestyles, researchers. Basically the deal is that subject of the modifier should be unambiguous.

Quote:
D sounded odd. I thought 'they' in E is not necessary and I went with C in the exam.

D is not correct because it is in Noun Form. Always Verb form is preferred. - It could have been the potential answer if all other choices were incorrect. Although I havent analyzed the whole sentence from grammatical point of view, but I would check this one in the last, if no obvious answer comes up.

Quote:
2. Do we require 'they' here? Is it okay if we don't have 'they' here, as the subject is obvious?
Or do we definitely require a subject specified for FANBOYS preceded by comma? (should connect two clauses)

The sentence would be a fragment, had the pronoun "they" would not been there. The structure is (Clause 1), AND (clause 2)
You don't need a concrete noun to act that as a subject, pronoun can work.
Moreover, here is rule as well:
Subjective pronouns of parallel clauses can stand unambiguously for subject of the clause.

As in ..
Petrol cars have huge maintenance, and thus they have poor sales in India.

"they" stand unambiguously as a subjective pronoun and is referring to Petrol Cars.

Please let me know in case of any doubt.
Thanks
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Re: In 1984 medical researchers at Harvard and Stanford  [#permalink]

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04 Oct 2013, 20:08
But if we don't have 'they' in option E, won't 'they' (subject) be assumed. If not, why?
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Re: In 1984 medical researchers at Harvard and Stanford  [#permalink]

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04 Oct 2013, 20:15
In comma fanboys construction you need specific subject. However, had there been no comma then you would have safely assumed the subject provided the construction is parallel.

Posted from my mobile device
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Re: In 1984 medical researchers at Harvard and Stanford  [#permalink]

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05 Oct 2013, 23:55
Can't we simply go by llel ism rule here, "concluded" and "recommended" ? They first concluded and then they recommended, makes very good sense as well.

Of course the others are also wrong and they reasons have been given above as well, mostly idiomatic reasons.
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Re: In 1984 medical researchers at Harvard and Stanford  [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2013, 08:10
Hi,

After going through these posts i am still not very clear about why A is incorrect.
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Re: In 1984 medical researchers at Harvard and Stanford  [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2013, 09:12
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akhil911 wrote:
Hi,

After going through these posts i am still not very clear about why A is incorrect.

In 1984 medical researchers at Harvard and Stanford universities concluded that sedentary life-styles lead to heart and lung diseases that shorten lives, strongly recommending middle-aged people to undertake some form of regular exercise.

(A). strongly recommending middle-aged people to
Recommending is a verb-ing modifier. As a rule, verb-ing modifier after a comma, will modify the preceding clause (and either provides additional info about the preceding clause, or presents the result of the preceding clause. When it does so, it associates itself with the subject and the verb of the preceding clause.)
Ex: Researchers published the results of the experiment, winning the prestigious award.

In our case, sedentary lifestyles ... is NOT recommending..

(B). strongly recommending that middle-aged people should
Same issue as in A

(C). and strongly recommended for middle-aged people to
Many issues in C. Researchers concluded that ... recommended that.. would be a proper construction. "recommended for" is unidiomatic.

(D). and their strong recommendation was for middle-aged people to
"recommendation was for middle-aged people to..." is a wrong construction.

(E). and they strongly recommended that middle-aged people
Correct construction - Researchers concluded that sedentary... , and they strongly recommended that middle-aged people...
Notice the comma preceding 'and' - the comma + and construction joins the two independent clauses correctly.
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What are modifiers ??

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Re: In 1984 medical researchers at Harvard and Stanford  [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2013, 12:42
akhil911 wrote:
Hi,

After going through these posts i am still not very clear about why A is incorrect.

Easiest way to spot such a mistake is to realize A and B are run-on sentences.

Sentence 1: In 1984 medical researchers at Harvard and Stanford universities concluded that sedentary life-styles lead to heart and lung diseases that shorten lives ...
Sentence 2: strongly recommending middle-aged people to undertake some form of regular exercise.

These are two sentences mashed into one. Though "A" may sound correct, and though certainly we may use such spoken language, such sentence construction on paper is incorrect.

At the very minimum, an "and" is required to merge sentence 1 and sentence 2 above. Only then can we analyze the rest of the sentence.

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Re: In 1984 medical researchers at Harvard and Stanford  [#permalink]

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08 Jan 2014, 07:47
gmatter0913 wrote:
In 1984 medical researchers at Harvard and Stanford universities concluded that sedentary life-styles lead to heart and lung diseases that shorten lives, strongly recommending middle-aged people to undertake some form of regular exercise.

(A). strongly recommending middle-aged people to
(B). strongly recommending that middle-aged people should
(C). and strongly recommended for middle-aged people to
(D). and their strong recommendation was for middle-aged people to
(E). and they strongly recommended that middle-aged people

I will post the OA soon.

Here are my explanations:

A is incorrect because it uses recommending.

-ing form can be used in the below 2 situations:-

1. -ing form can be used when some form of cause and effect is shown. But here no cause and effect relationship exists between the 2 sentences. Eg.- The car stopped, making Mary late.
2. -ing form can be used when something needs to be modified. Eg. - The boy, standing on the other side of the road, lives in my community.

B is incorrect because it uses recommending...should... which is redundant.

C is incorrect because of the incorrect idiom used here...recommended for X to do Y.

D is incorrect because of the incorrect idiom used here...recommended for X to do Y.

E is correct because it is the best of all options and uses the correct idiom "recommended that".
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Re: In 1984 medical researchers at Harvard and Stanford  [#permalink]

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03 Feb 2014, 20:06
(A). strongly recommending middle-aged people to cause and effect participle structure is illogical because the researches both concluded and recommended; The recommendation is not the effect of the conclusion but a part of the conclusion.
(B). strongly recommending that middle-aged people should same as above; "should" is not proper because command subjunctive must follow the verb "recommend"
(C). and strongly recommended for middle-aged people to not parallel - "concluded that" and "recommended"; furthermore, the predicate "and recommended" describe sedentary life-styles
(D). and their strong recommendation was for middle-aged people to Not necessary to turn verb into noun; "their" is an illogical referent
(E). and they strongly recommended that middle-aged people OK
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Re: In 1984 medical researchers at Harvard and Stanford  [#permalink]

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19 Feb 2014, 20:36
egmat wrote:
Hi Akhil,

The verb -ing modifier is incorrect in option A. Since it should refer to the previous clause, it is illogically referring to sedentary lifestyles. It is not the lifestyles that are recommending something, but the researchers.

I hope this helps to clarify your doubt!

Regards,
Meghna

Hi @egmat Team,
Please let me know why recommending is referring to Sedentary life style.

The ing verb with comma should refer to previous clause and should agree to the subject and verb of the previous clause. (If it is required to be a modifier)

I believe it is referring to researcher which is the subject of the clause.?
May be a silly one ,please clear my concept.

Is it because of the "That" starts a new clause?
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Re: In 1984 medical researchers at Harvard and Stanford  [#permalink]

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20 Feb 2014, 10:44
sanjeebpanda wrote:
Is it because of the "That" starts a new clause?

Yes. I believe that is correct interpretation, though let us wait for E-GMAT to confirm this.
Re: In 1984 medical researchers at Harvard and Stanford &nbs [#permalink] 20 Feb 2014, 10:44

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