In 1986, the city of Los Diablos had 20 days on which air : GMAT Critical Reasoning (CR)
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# In 1986, the city of Los Diablos had 20 days on which air

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In 1986, the city of Los Diablos had 20 days on which air [#permalink]

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07 Sep 2008, 15:39
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In 1986, the city of Los Diablos had 20 days on which air pollution reached unhealthful amounts and a smog alert was put into effect. In early 1987, new air pollution control measures were enacted, but the city had smog alerts on 31 days that year and on 39 days the following year. In 1989, however, the number of smog alerts in Los Diablos dropped to sixteen. The main air pollutants in Los Diablos are ozone and carbon monoxide, and since 1986 the levels of both have been monitored by gas spectrography.
Which of the following statements, assuming that each is true, would be LEAST helpful in explaining the air pollution levels in Los Diablos between 1986 and 1989?

A. The 1987 air pollution control measures enacted in Los Diablos were put into effect in November of 1988.

B. In December of 1988 a new and far more accurate gas spectrometer was invented.

C. In February of 1989, the Pollution Control Board of Los Diablos revised the scale used to determine the amount of air pollution considered unhealthful.

D. In 1988 the mayor of Los Diablos was found to have accepted large campaign donations from local industries and to have exempted those same industries from air pollution control measures.

E. Excess ozone and carbon monoxide require a minimum of two years to break down naturally in the atmosphere above a given area.
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07 Sep 2008, 16:19
rao_1857 wrote:
In 1986, the city of Los Diablos had 20 days on which air pollution reached unhealthful amounts and a smog alert was put into effect. In early 1987, new air pollution control measures were enacted, but the city had smog alerts on 31 days that year and on 39 days the following year. In 1989, however, the number of smog alerts in Los Diablos dropped to sixteen. The main air pollutants in Los Diablos are ozone and carbon monoxide, and since 1986 the levels of both have been monitored by gas spectrography.
Which of the following statements, assuming that each is true, would be LEAST helpful in explaining the air pollution levels in Los Diablos between 1986 and 1989?

A. The 1987 air pollution control measures enacted in Los Diablos were put into effect in November of 1988.

B. In December of 1988 a new and far more accurate gas spectrometer was invented.

C. In February of 1989, the Pollution Control Board of Los Diablos revised the scale used to determine the amount of air pollution considered unhealthful.

D. In 1988 the mayor of Los Diablos was found to have accepted large campaign donations from local industries and to have exempted those same industries from air pollution control measures.

E. Excess ozone and carbon monoxide require a minimum of two years to break down naturally in the atmosphere above a given area.

I went to E.
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07 Sep 2008, 17:27
rao_1857 wrote:
In 1986, the city of Los Diablos had 20 days on which air pollution reached unhealthful amounts and a smog alert was put into effect. In early 1987, new air pollution control measures were enacted, but the city had smog alerts on 31 days that year and on 39 days the following year. In 1989, however, the number of smog alerts in Los Diablos dropped to sixteen. The main air pollutants in Los Diablos are ozone and carbon monoxide, and since 1986 the levels of both have been monitored by gas spectrography.
Which of the following statements, assuming that each is true, would be LEAST helpful in explaining the air pollution levels in Los Diablos between 1986 and 1989?

A. The 1987 air pollution control measures enacted in Los Diablos were put into effect in November of 1988.

B. In December of 1988 a new and far more accurate gas spectrometer was invented.

C. In February of 1989, the Pollution Control Board of Los Diablos revised the scale used to determine the amount of air pollution considered unhealthful.

D. In 1988 the mayor of Los Diablos was found to have accepted large campaign donations from local industries and to have exempted those same industries from air pollution control measures.

E. Excess ozone and carbon monoxide require a minimum of two years to break down naturally in the atmosphere above a given area.

B
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07 Sep 2008, 17:58
In 1986, the city of Los Diablos had 20 days on which air pollution reached unhealthful amounts and a smog alert was put into effect. In early 1987, new air pollution control measures were enacted, but the city had smog alerts on 31 days that year and on 39 days the following year. In 1989, however, the number of smog alerts in Los Diablos dropped to sixteen. The main air pollutants in Los Diablos are ozone and carbon monoxide, and since 1986 the levels of both have been monitored by gas spectrography.
Which of the following statements, assuming that each is true, would be LEAST helpful in explaining the air pollution levels in Los Diablos between 1986 and 1989?

A. The 1987 air pollution control measures enacted in Los Diablos were put into effect in November of 1988.- The measures put into effect could drop the levels.
B. In December of 1988 a new and far more accurate gas spectrometer was invented.- From, 1986-1988, an old specrometer could have given a higher (inaccurate) reading, but the new meter is giving an accurate reading which is lower and this could be one of the reasons for seeing a lower level in 1989.
C. In February of 1989, the Pollution Control Board of Los Diablos revised the scale used to determine the amount of air pollution considered unhealthful.- If the scale is revised, then the reading could be lower according to the new scale.
D. In 1988 the mayor of Los Diablos was found to have accepted large campaign donations from local industries and to have exempted those same industries from air pollution control measures.- If some of the industries are exempted in 1989, the level could be lower if these industries contibuted to high pollution levels previously.
E. Excess ozone and carbon monoxide require a minimum of two years to break down naturally in the atmosphere above a given area.- This provides the least explanation of all. It takes 2 years to achieve a breakdown (of the gases). This doesn't tell us for sure that the decrease in the levels is because of the breakdown.
IMO E,

WHat is OA?
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07 Sep 2008, 23:31
I would go with D. It doesn't explain anything at all.
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07 Sep 2008, 23:42
B for me .
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08 Sep 2008, 01:23
I was stuck between D and E but then chose D because of following reson:

If in 1988 the companies were exempted from Control Measures then in 1989 the pollution lelvel should have been up and not down.This is because earlier when the Control Measures were not lifted the pollution level were going up and now when the Control Measures have been lifted how can they come down??
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08 Sep 2008, 03:28
IMO B .

IIn December of 1988 a new and far more accurate gas spectrometer was invented : is not relevant to the city's polution.
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08 Sep 2008, 09:16
IMO B)
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08 Sep 2008, 12:21
B does provide a reason. since we have this new device the "fake" smog alerts that we had before are no more there and now the number of alerts has decreased.

All the other ans choice talks about the reason for the period between 1986 and 1989. Only D is the only that only talk about 1988. Is there anything wrong with ans choice D ... which I am missing
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08 Sep 2008, 12:42
D gives you one possible reason why in 1989 the polution levels were lower. So, D can not be the answer.
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08 Sep 2008, 12:50
ssandeepan wrote:
D gives you one possible reason why in 1989 the polution levels were lower. So, D can not be the answer.

If you take a close look D says the polution level should INCREASE.

"In 1988 the mayor of Los Diablos was found to have accepted large campaign donations from local industries and to have exempted those same industries from air pollution control measures."

LD accepted donation from local industries and exempted those industries form airpolution .. so now these industry can polute the air as much as they can!
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08 Sep 2008, 15:41
Yes, good point.. actually D provides one reason for which 1989's polution should have increased..
but still it is one factor to be counted and will be useful in the explanation for change in pollution level.

However, B mentions about the invention of a device, but no signal that the city used it.
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08 Sep 2008, 18:44
ssandeepan wrote:
Yes, good point.. actually D provides one reason for which 1989's polution should have increased..
but still it is one factor to be counted and will be useful in the explanation for change in pollution level.

However, B mentions about the invention of a device, but no signal that the city used it.

B does provide a reason. since we have this new device the "fake" smog alerts that we had before are no more there and now the number of alerts has decreased.
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08 Sep 2008, 23:17
D for me too with the similar explanation as in the post previously.
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08 Sep 2008, 23:32
I go with D since it does not help to explain why the pollution level should drop.
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10 Sep 2008, 11:46
I pick D.
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10 Sep 2008, 17:17
D for me as well. We cannot assume that these industries were dumped from the measurement of smog in the air. After all we cannot differentiate air based on who polluted it ( precisely ). They were exempted from the measures and pollution should go up.

Does not explain
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10 Sep 2008, 18:09
Unfortunatley OA is B ....

I still feel D is a better choice.

Anybody like to defend OA? and Why B is wrong ?
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10 Sep 2008, 22:05
Richardson wrote:
rao_1857 wrote:
In 1986, the city of Los Diablos had 20 days on which air pollution reached unhealthful amounts and a smog alert was put into effect. In early 1987, new air pollution control measures were enacted, but the city had smog alerts on 31 days that year and on 39 days the following year. In 1989, however, the number of smog alerts in Los Diablos dropped to sixteen. The main air pollutants in Los Diablos are ozone and carbon monoxide, and since 1986 the levels of both have been monitored by gas spectrography.
Which of the following statements, assuming that each is true, would be LEAST helpful in explaining the air pollution levels in Los Diablos between 1986 and 1989?

A. The 1987 air pollution control measures enacted in Los Diablos were put into effect in November of 1988.

B. In December of 1988 a new and far more accurate gas spectrometer was invented.

C. In February of 1989, the Pollution Control Board of Los Diablos revised the scale used to determine the amount of air pollution considered unhealthful.

D. In 1988 the mayor of Los Diablos was found to have accepted large campaign donations from local industries and to have exempted those same industries from air pollution control measures.

E. Excess ozone and carbon monoxide require a minimum of two years to break down naturally in the atmosphere above a given area.

I went to E.

The answer has to be between D and E. We have to understand here that all the points above contribute to the argument in some way or the other. But decding the condition that LEAST explains the decrease in number of smog alerts.

D - The point mentions that the mayor was found to have accepted donations in 1988 and to have exempted some industries causing air pollution. This gives a faint idea that post 1988, since the mayor was found guilty of accepting donations, the exemptions might have been removed. But this information is missing.
E - This point states that Ozone and CO2, which are the main reasons for air pollution, take 2 years to break down naturally in the atmosphere. Since the new air pollution control measure was enacted in 1987, it gives a fair explanation of the reduced air pollution levels 2 years hence, ie in 1989

Out of the two, I would say that D does not provide the complete information of what happened after the mayor was found guilty. So D is LEAST helpful in explaining the situation, even though it gives a hint of what might have happened.
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