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# In 1988 services moved ahead of manufacturing as the main

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08 Aug 2012, 15:41
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In 1988 services moved ahead of manufacturing as the main product of the United States economy. But what is meant by "services"? Some economists define a service as something that is produced and consumed simultaneously, for example, a haircut. The broader, classical definition is that a service is an intangible something that cannot be touched or stored. Yet electric utilities can store energy, and computer programmers save information electronically. Thus, the classical definition is hard to sustain.

The United States government's definition is more practical: services are the residual category that includes everything that is not agriculture or industry. Under this definition, services includes activities as diverse as engineering and driving a bus. However, besides lacking a strong conceptual framework, this definition fails to recognize the distinction between service industries and service occupations. It categorizes workers based on their company's final product rather than on the actual work the employees perform. Thus, the many service workers employed by manufacturers bookkeepers or janitors, for example-would fall under the industrial rather than the services category. Such ambiguities reveal the arbitrariness of this definition and suggest that, although practical for government purposes, it does not accurately reflect the composition of the current United States economy.
26. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with
(A) discussing research data underlying several definitions
(B) arguing for the adoption of a particular definition
(C) exploring definitions of a concept
(D) comparing the advantages of several definitions
(E) clarifying some ambiguous definitions

[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

27. In comparing the United States government's definition of services with the classical definition, the author suggests that the classical definition is
(A) more pragmatic
(B) more difficult to apply
(C) less ambiguous
(D) more widely used
(E) more arbitrary

[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

28. The passage suggests which of the following about service workers in the United States?
(A) The number of service workers may be underestimated by the definition of services used by the government.
(B) There were fewer service workers than agricultural workers before 1988.
(C) The number of service workers was almost equal to the number of workers employed in manufacturing until 1988.
(D) Most service workers are employed in service occupations rather than in service industries.
(E) Most service workers are employed in occupations where they provide services that do not fall under the classical definition of services.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

29. The author of the passage mentions which of the following as one disadvantage of the United States government's definition of services?
(A) It is less useful than the other definitions mentioned in the passage.
(B) It is narrower in scope than the other definitions mentioned in the passage.
(C) It is based on the final product produced rather than on the type of work performed.
(D) It does not recognize the diversity of occupations within the service industries.
(E) It mis-classifies many workers who are employed in service industries.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

30. The author refers to "service workers employed by manufacturers" (line 15) primarily in order to point out
(A) a type of worker not covered by the United States government's system of classifying occupations
(B) a flaw in the United States government's definition of services
(C) a factor that has influenced the growth of the service economy in the United States
(D) a type of worker who is classified on the basis of work performed rather than on the basis of the company's final product
(E) the diversity of the workers who are referred to as service workers

[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #4 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #5 OA
If you have any questions
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11 Aug 2012, 06:06
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sourh7wk . . he does not clarify any of those definitions . . and nothing implies that all the definitinos are ambiguous . .

this is an OG passage
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11 Aug 2012, 15:28
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PUNEETSCHDV : Line 23-26: Thus, the many service workers employed by manufacturers bookkeepers or janitors, for example-would fall under the industrial rather than the services category.

From the passage we can not infer many as most. This will change the meaning completely. Watch out for extreme words.
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Re: In 1988 services moved ahead of manufacturing as the main [#permalink]

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06 Nov 2012, 07:41
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diptonsu wrote:
The author refers to "service workers employed by manufacturers" (line 23) primarily in order to point out
(A) a type of worker not covered by the United States government's system of classifying occupations
(B) a flaw in the United States government's definition of services
(C) a factor that has influenced the growth of the service economy in the United States
(D) a type of worker who is classified on the basis of work performed rather than on the basis of the company's final product
(E) the diversity of the workers who are referred to as service workers

Can anyone explain Why B is the answer ? What's wrong with A & D ?

A is wrong because the United States government's system of classifying occupations covers the said type of worker.

D is a trap. It reverses the whole essence of the United States government's definition. It says in the passage that according to the United States government's definition, a type of worker is classified on the basis of the company's final product and not on the on the basis of worked performed. This is very common in RC answer choices.

Remember this: The correct answer choice will ALWAYS be backed up by the passage. So before you determine your answer make sure that EVERYTHING in the answer choice is backed up by the passage. One, I say ONE (1), word can make or break an answer choice. This also applies to critical reasoning. Hope you learned something.
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08 Aug 2012, 18:14
Took 5:10 mins
Q 1: was stuck bet C & E.
Somebody clarify how to eliminate option E in first Question.
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11 Aug 2012, 05:36
My take is CBDCB , can someone explain why is D not correct for 3rd question
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Re: In 1988 services moved ahead of manufacturing as the main [#permalink]

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03 Nov 2012, 03:47
The author refers to "service workers employed by manufacturers" (line 23) primarily in order to point out
(A) a type of worker not covered by the United States government's system of classifying occupations
(B) a flaw in the United States government's definition of services
(C) a factor that has influenced the growth of the service economy in the United States
(D) a type of worker who is classified on the basis of work performed rather than on the basis of the company's final product
(E) the diversity of the workers who are referred to as service workers

Can anyone explain Why B is the answer ? What's wrong with A & D ?
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Re: In 1988 services moved ahead of manufacturing as the main [#permalink]

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03 Nov 2012, 07:12
diptonsu wrote:
The author refers to "service workers employed by manufacturers" (line 23) primarily in order to point out
(A) a type of worker not covered by the United States government's system of classifying occupations
(B) a flaw in the United States government's definition of services
(C) a factor that has influenced the growth of the service economy in the United States
(D) a type of worker who is classified on the basis of work performed rather than on the basis of the company's final product
(E) the diversity of the workers who are referred to as service workers

Can anyone explain Why B is the answer ? What's wrong with A & D ?

Focus on Line 17-20. Author has an intention to bring out the flaw in the US definition of service. The line with However..... sets the context of the author.
A & D does not capture the primary intention/goal of the author.
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Re: In 1988 services moved ahead of manufacturing as the main [#permalink]

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26 Feb 2013, 00:53
26. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with

It is clear that the author discusses both the advantages and disadvantages of two definitions. Anything less would not be the answer. Hence, A is too passive for this passage.

(A) Incorrect.
(B) the author is not arguing for anyone particular definition. Incorrect.
(C) Correct.

27. In comparing the United States government's definition
of services with the classical definition, the author
suggests that the classical definition is
(A) classical is less pragmatic than government definition
(B) more difficult to apply - " more hard to sustain" Correct.
(C) nothing was more ambiguous than the other... The issue is more of scope and not ambiguity....
(D) widely used.... Not mentioned....
(E) not mentioned.,,,

28. The passage suggests which of the following about
service workers in the United States?
(A) Correct. Some service workers fall under industry using the government definition. Hence, there will be an underestimation.
(B) and (C) and (D) mention exact statistical comparison which we don't know about....
(E) What falls under classical is irrelevant to the definition of the government... The issue is some workers not being counted based on the gov definition,, Incorrect...

29. The author of the passage mentions which of the
following as one disadvantage of the United States
government's definition of services?

(B) It is actually broader than classical
(C) It is based on the final product produced rather
than on the type of work performed. correct.
(E) It misclassifies many workers who are employed
in service industries. * this is tempting but those that were not classified as service workers fall in the industry not those in the industry were misclassified. This will tend to confuse especially given the time constraint during the test.... But we do not know whether service industries workers were misclassified....

30. The author refers to "service workers employed by
manufacturers" (line 23) primarily in order to point out

(B) a flaw in the United States government's
definition of services
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Re: In 1988 services moved ahead of manufacturing as the main [#permalink]

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27 Feb 2013, 01:11
I took 10 min (overall 2 min per ques) to ans this passage . My ANS: CBAEB. One incorrect.
Is this the average time for most of you? Or I need to improve my speed??
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Re: In 1988 services moved ahead of manufacturing as the main [#permalink]

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09 May 2013, 01:12
Hi Souvik,

Can you provide explanation for que #3,what was your approach?

Thanks and Regards,
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Re: In 1988 services moved ahead of manufacturing as the main [#permalink]

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28 Oct 2013, 04:41
hi Souvik
Thus, the many service workers employed by manufacturers bookkeepers or janitors, for example-would fall under the industrial rather than the services category. Such ambiguities reveal the arbitrariness of this definition and suggest that, although practical for government purposes, it does not accurately reflect the composition of the current United States economy.
from these lines we clearly understood about service worker ................
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Re: In 1988 services moved ahead of manufacturing as the main [#permalink]

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28 Oct 2013, 23:37
On the basis of "more hard to SUSTAIN", how can we interpret that it is difficult to APPLY?
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Re: In 1988 services moved ahead of manufacturing as the main [#permalink]

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09 Aug 2015, 22:49
I think Answer for 27 should be A because of below. Author did not talk about any 'difficult to apply' talk...

The United States government's definition is more practical[/color ..... Such ambiguities reveal the arbitrariness of this definition and suggest that, [color=#ff0000]although practical for government purposes, it does not accurately reflect the composition of the current United States economy.
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Re: In 1988 services moved ahead of manufacturing as the main [#permalink]

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10 Oct 2015, 18:08
Aristocrat wrote:
Hi Souvik,

Can you provide explanation for que #3,what was your approach?

Thanks and Regards,
Aristocrat

Posted from my mobile device

About the approach for this question, I think we should begin with finding where the word "service workers" is in the passage. After that, read one (sometimes two) sentence before it and one sentence after it to understand the purpose of the author of using this word.

"It categorizes workers based on their company's final product rather than on the actual work the employees perform. Thus, the many service workers employed by manufacturers bookkeepers or janitors, for example-would fall under the industrial rather than the services category"

These 2 sentences mean that because of the government's classification, many service workers were categorized in industrial group. In another word, the number of services worker is less than the actual number.

(A) The number of service workers may be underestimated by the definition of services used by the government.
Correct!

(B) There were fewer service workers than agricultural workers before 1988.
The passage does not mention about agricultural workers

(C) The number of service workers was almost equal to the number of workers employed in manufacturing until 1988.
There is no place in the passage comparing the numbers of service workers and manufacturing workers

(D) Most service workers are employed in service occupations rather than in service industries.
The passage talked about the distinction between 2 group, but not about the their proportions

(E) Most service workers are employed in occupations where they provide services that do not fall under the classical definition of services
Again, nowhere the proportion is talked about
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Re: In 1988 services moved ahead of manufacturing as the main [#permalink]

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10 Oct 2015, 18:24
schazamhuzzah wrote:
I think Answer for 27 should be A because of below. Author did not talk about any 'difficult to apply' talk...

The United States government's definition is more practical[/color ..... Such ambiguities reveal the arbitrariness of this definition and suggest that, [color=#ff0000]although practical for government purposes, it does not accurately reflect the composition of the current United States economy.

The above sentences meant that the government's definition was more practical than the classical definition. Practical means pragmatic. SO the classical definition is "less pragmatic".

Also, the word "practical" means "can be applied in reality". So "less practical" means "more difficult to apply" -> Choice B is CORRECT

I think in this question, Choice C "less ambiguous" is a contender to the Choice B. The word "Such ambiguities ...." in the last sentence mean that the government's definition is somewhat ambiguous. But it does not mean that it is more or less ambiguous than the classical definition.
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Re: In 1988 services moved ahead of manufacturing as the main [#permalink]

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22 Dec 2015, 06:47
mbaiseasy wrote:
26. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with

27. In comparing the United States government's definition
of services with the classical definition, the author
suggests that the classical definition is
(A) classical is less pragmatic than government definition
(B) more difficult to apply - " more hard to sustain" Correct.
(C) nothing was more ambiguous than the other... The issue is more of scope and not ambiguity....
(D) widely used.... Not mentioned....
(E) not mentioned.,,,

Hi mbaiseasy
Will you please elaborate how did you eliminate option e ,
Such ambiguities reveal the arbitrariness of this definition and suggest that, although practical for government purposes,
it does not accurately reflect the composition of the current United States economy.

Can we not on the basis of this bold sentence infer that the classical definition is more arbitrary ?
if no why ?

Thanks
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Re: In 1988 services moved ahead of manufacturing as the main [#permalink]

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26 Jan 2016, 06:00
SOURH7WK wrote:
Took 5:10 mins
Q 1: was stuck bet C & E.
Somebody clarify how to eliminate option E in first Question.

It is because no evidence in the passage regarding classical defination in terms of arbitariness.
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Re: In 1988 services moved ahead of manufacturing as the main [#permalink]

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26 Jan 2016, 06:06
crackHSW wrote:
My take is CBDCB , can someone explain why is D not correct for 3rd question

It is because many and most are not same nor synonymous. So,you can't infer that much.
Re: In 1988 services moved ahead of manufacturing as the main   [#permalink] 26 Jan 2016, 06:06
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