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# In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent

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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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10 Jan 2013, 09:42
E is wrong because

"was" is wrong. fact which has no time is said, present tense is needed.

and because

the pattern

one of the nounS that ARE

is idiom .
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2013, 11:35
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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28 Sep 2013, 08:13
sandalphon wrote:
In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics.

(A) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(B) laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is
(C) laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(D) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845, it is
(E) laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is

I also got the answer as A. Want to make sure whether my logic is correct.

A) Correct
B) The sentence as a whole talks about the patent system. Hence use of which(non-essential modifier) is appropriate but introduces a parallelism error with and it is
C) namely, it was an.. makes the construction awkward.
D) Removing the fluff we get:
In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws ,an observation about electric current first made in 1845, it is now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics
Creates a run-on sentence
E) I have a doubt here. According to me, the use of that was is correct and also it maintains the parallel structure. Also that correctly modifies the one of the laws. What does first made in 1845 modify? (btw IMO it modifies observation correctly). So Why is this option wrong?

I marked this option as the answer using the following rule, the topic of discussion in the sentence is testifying of Richard Stallman, the use of that.. introduces a restrictive clause. Am I correct?

Also if one of the option would have been something as below then what would be the answer?

laws, which was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is

Can anyone or any expert help me out with this?
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Re: in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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24 Jan 2014, 06:46
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It simply means that in order to prove the vulnerability of patenting system, somebody hoodwinked the public by taking a patent on one of the oldest laws of physics; even a school-going child knows this rule, but nobody including the patenting department cared to verify
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Re: in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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02 Feb 2014, 06:30
daagh wrote:
It simply means that in order to prove the vulnerability of patenting system, somebody hoodwinked the public by taking a patent on one of the oldest laws of physics; even a school-going child knows this rule, but nobody including the patenting department cared to verify

Hi Sir,

laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included >>> This is the modifier

I think that this is a run on as obervation made and now included requires a verb?Isn't it?
I might be asking a silly one but pls clarify with any supportive examples.
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Re: in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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02 Feb 2014, 06:48
sanjeebpanda wrote:
daagh wrote:
It simply means that in order to prove the vulnerability of patenting system, somebody hoodwinked the public by taking a patent on one of the oldest laws of physics; even a school-going child knows this rule, but nobody including the patenting department cared to verify

Hi Sir,

laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included >>> This is the modifier

I think that this is a run on as obervation made and now included requires a verb?Isn't it?
I might be asking a silly one but pls clarify with any supportive examples.

Let's analyze the below sentence. Ignore the parenthetical elements (the non-essential information between two commas), modifiers and prepositional phrases.

in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics

Basically, the sentence means that Richard Stallman had managed to win a patent for Kirchhoff's laws. (Richard Stallman is the subject and had managed is the verb)

Now, the last underlined part is the extra piece of information on Kirchhoff's laws.
If we analyze the underlined portion -
an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics

-which perfectly describes Kirchhoff's laws. (This being an non-essential clause will not contain a 'helping verb')
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Re: in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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02 Feb 2014, 08:35
wininblue wrote:
in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbookof elementary physics.

A laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and

B laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is

C laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and

D laws, an aobservation about electric current first made in 1845, it is

E laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is

hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had

From the SC Grail,

The structure for such questions is:

One of the + Noun(will always be plural) + Singular Verb(usually 'is')

It is only when the plural noun is followed by 'that/who' that the singular verb changes into plural.
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Re: in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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02 Feb 2014, 09:56
@sanjeebpanda

The confusion basically arises because the word 'clause' has been misunderstood. A clause is essentially a complete theme with a subject and a working verb, or often a verbal phrase that contains modifiers and objects. Thus A clause is different from a phrase, which does not have a verb;

Second, a modifier can either be a clause or even a phrase; the clause itself may be a subordinate clause or a compound clause. Its major job is to give additional info or describe somewhat more what it modifies.
The text under question is just a combination of two phrases joined by conjunction ‘and’. The coordinate conjunction can join both two nouns or two phrases or two clauses. Here, --an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics -- are both modifier phrases without verbs
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Re: in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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03 Feb 2014, 07:51
wininblue wrote:
in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbookof elementary physics.

A laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and

B laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is

C laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and

D laws, an aobservation about electric current first made in 1845, it is

E laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is

hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had

Daagh,

If you consider option A, shouldnt it actually be:

... a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, that is an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and ow included in virtually every textbookof elementary physics.

in absence of "that is", the phrase "an observation about..." modifies the entire phrase "a colleague of his had managed..." when it should ideally modify only "Kirchoff's laws".

I feel none of the options are perfect. What are your thoughts? Thanks.
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Re: in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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10 Mar 2014, 13:23
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wininblue wrote:
in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbookof elementary physics.

A laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and

B laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is (GMAT Classic error : which blahh blahh and it blahh blahh - pronoun error)

C laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and (Namely is an adverbial conjunction but it can not join to ICs)

D laws, an aobservation about electric current first made in 1845, it is ( IC, it is blah blah : two ICs separated by comma)

E laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is ( Laws are plural thus technical subject of "is" is Richard Stallman included in textbook - non sense)

hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had

in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics.

to test the system, - is just a modifier, and we are lucky that it is not underlined.
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In 1995, Richard Stallman, a well-known [#permalink]

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18 Apr 2014, 11:01
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics.

(A) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(B) laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is
(C) laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(D) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845, it is
(E) laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is

SPOILER ALERT IN THE NEXT POST!
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Re: In 1995, Richard Stallman, a well-known [#permalink]

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18 Apr 2014, 11:03
Hi,

-Can eliminate B and E on the basis of parallelism.
-D can be removed based on structure. Original sentence has parallelism but D doesn't. Is that correct reasoning?
-Stuck between A & C - i took it out because of "namely" but that was a guess.

Any help to eliminate these answers more concretely would be appreciated. Thanks!
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Re: In 1995, Richard Stallman, a well-known [#permalink]

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18 Apr 2014, 19:32
Why is e incorrrect.??

cONFUSED BETWEENA & E
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Re: In 1995, Richard Stallman, a well-known [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2014, 05:48
russ9 wrote:
Hi,

-Can eliminate B and E on the basis of parallelism.
-D can be removed based on structure. Original sentence has parallelism but D doesn't. Is that correct reasoning?
-Stuck between A & C - i took it out because of "namely" but that was a guess.

Any help to eliminate these answers more concretely would be appreciated. Thanks!

IMO, in option D, there's a pronoun that does not clearly refer to an antecedent, hence it could not be the right option.
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Re: In 1995, Richard Stallman, a well-known [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2014, 11:46
B gives faulty parallelism
C is run on
D is run on
E has faulty modifier " first made in 1845" ---seems to suggest that "current" was " first made in 1845" also parallelism is faulty !!
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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20 Dec 2014, 06:16
This is a very good question on SVA and Parallelism.
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2015, 13:48
sandalphon wrote:
In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics.

(A) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(B) laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is
(C) laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(D) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845, it is
(E) laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is

Official Guide 12 Question

 Question: 40 Page: 41 Difficulty: 600

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Video Explanations:

B - 'which' refers to plural 'laws', but has a singular verb 'was'
C - The sentences/clauses are not connected properly
D - Same as C
E - 'that' refers to plural 'laws', but has a singular verb 'was'

Hence A is right
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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20 Oct 2015, 01:16
gmat2015p wrote:
sandalphon wrote:
In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics.

(A) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(B) laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is
(C) laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(D) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845, it is
(E) laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is

Official Guide 12 Question

 Question: 40 Page: 41 Difficulty: 600

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Video Explanations:

B - 'which' refers to plural 'laws', but has a singular verb 'was'
C - The sentences/clauses are not connected properly
D - Same as C
E - 'that' refers to plural 'laws', but has a singular verb 'was'

Hence A is right

Hi,
If 'which' was referring to 'laws' in option B, then in option A, the modifier - 'an observation.....' also modifies laws. If in that case - 'an observation' cannot refer to 'laws'.
I humbly request @e-gmat / mikemcgarry to share your views.
Thanks!
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2015, 23:38
Hi E-GMAT,

i have a doubt related to the sentence structure. The opening sentence is an prepositional phrase ,"In 1995 Richard Stallman". So How could Richard Stallman can be the subject of the verb "testified". Although the other options were stands incorrect.

Thanks
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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16 Nov 2015, 06:00
sandalphon wrote:
In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics.

(A) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(B) laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is
(C) laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(D) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845, it is
(E) laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is

Official Guide 12 Question

 Question: 40 Page: 41 Difficulty: 600

Find All Official Guide Questions

Video Explanations:

b) ..1845 and it is ... : a dependent clause starting here without a proper connector...
c) laws, namely, it was an observation .... : again I see a dependent clause starting here with "it was .." without a proper connector - namely cannot be a clause connector
d) antecedent to "it" is suspect - one of the laws? observation ? current ?
e) try hiding the non-essential modifier "first made in 1845" the sentence reads : observation about electric current and is now included in every text book ... ; now included should've been parallel to first made in 1845 , not with "observation about electric current"
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent   [#permalink] 16 Nov 2015, 06:00

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