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# In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of

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In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2009, 03:11
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The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2016

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 44

In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria, later generations lost all but the Iliad and Odyssey among Greek epics, most of the poetry of Pindar and Sappho, and dozens of plays by Aeschylus and Euripides.

(A) resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria,
(B) the destroying of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria resulted and
(C) because of the result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
(D) as a result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
(E) Alexandria’s largest library of the ancient world was destroyed, and the result was

Note : This question was deleted in Verbal Review 2017.
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Re: In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of [#permalink]

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04 Oct 2010, 13:08
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the "library at Alexandria" is the subject in the sentence, not "Alexandria"
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Re: In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of [#permalink]

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04 Aug 2011, 19:03
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superfreak wrote:
Hello, not sure why D (the OA) is better than A. Any thoughts?

In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria, later generations lost all but the Iliad and Odyssey among Greek epics, most of the poetry of Pindar and Sappho, and dozens of plays by Aeschylus and Euripides.

(A) resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria,
(B) the destroying of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria resulted and
(C) because of the result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
(D) as a result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
(E) Alexandria’s largest library of the ancient world was destroyed, and the result was

elevinty wrote:
harikattamudi wrote:
Please explain why what is wrong with 'E' and also, what makes 'E' to be correct.

Thanks
-H

you have an idiom problem here, if you are going to say (the result was) you have to add (that) after was, and in E it's omitted.

Hi Elevinty,

Buddy, We don't have any idiom like "result was that". The idiom for result are below :
as a result (of something)
because of something that has happened. As a result of the accident, Tom couldn't walk for six months. We couldn't afford to borrow money for a house as a result of the rise in interest rates.

result from something
to emerge from something; to be the outcome of something. It will be interesting to see what results from your efforts. Nothing resulted from all that work.

result in something
to achieve something; to bring about something; to cause something to happen. I hope that this will result in the police finding your car. All my effort resulted in nothing at all.

Hi superfreak,
Let's analyze original sentence after removing all middlemen (prepositional phrases).

In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction [strike]of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria[/strike], later generations lost all [strike]all but[/strike] (just using "except" for idiom "all but") the Iliad and Odyssey among Greek epics, most of the poetry[strike]of Pindarand Sappho[/strike] , and dozens of plays [strike]by Aeschylus and Euripides[/strike].
so sentence is :
In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction, later generations lost all except the Iliad and Odyssey among Greek epics,most of the poetry and dozens of plays.
Now we can see clearly that "resulting from the destruction" is modifying "Later Generation" which is wrong. The meaning of sentence is more or less that later generation which is resulting from the destruciton.
So A is wrong.

(B) the destroying [strike]of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria[/strike] resulted and
Here looks like, "destroying resulted" and "later generation" both lost something.
(C) because of the result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
"because of the result of" comes many time in GMAT and this construction is wrong because of redundancy.
(D) as a result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
Correct and concise. as a result of destruction, later generation lost something.
(E) Alexandria’s largest library of the ancient world was destroyed, and the result was[/quote]
"Alexandria’s largest library of the ancient world was destroyed" is a complete sentence so can not be followed with "and the result was",
moreover for coordinating conjunction "and", both part should be parallel which is not the case here.

I hope my explanation helped, If indeed please give me Kudos.
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Re: In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of [#permalink]

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05 Aug 2011, 13:06
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rphardu wrote:
superfreak wrote:
Hello, not sure why D (the OA) is better than A. Any thoughts?

In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria, later generations lost all but the Iliad and Odyssey among Greek epics, most of the poetry of Pindar and Sappho, and dozens of plays by Aeschylus and Euripides.

(A) resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria,
(B) the destroying of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria resulted and
(C) because of the result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
(D) as a result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
(E) Alexandria’s largest library of the ancient world was destroyed, and the result was

elevinty wrote:
harikattamudi wrote:
Please explain why what is wrong with 'E' and also, what makes 'E' to be correct.

Thanks
-H

you have an idiom problem here, if you are going to say (the result was) you have to add (that) after was, and in E it's omitted.

Hi Elevinty,

Buddy, We don't have any idiom like "result was that". The idiom for result are below :
as a result (of something)
because of something that has happened. As a result of the accident, Tom couldn't walk for six months. We couldn't afford to borrow money for a house as a result of the rise in interest rates.

result from something
to emerge from something; to be the outcome of something. It will be interesting to see what results from your efforts. Nothing resulted from all that work.

result in something
to achieve something; to bring about something; to cause something to happen. I hope that this will result in the police finding your car. All my effort resulted in nothing at all.

Hi superfreak,
Let's analyze original sentence after removing all middlemen (prepositional phrases).

In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction [strike]of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria[/strike], later generations lost all [strike]all but[/strike] (just using "except" for idiom "all but") the Iliad and Odyssey among Greek epics, most of the poetry[strike]of Pindarand Sappho[/strike] , and dozens of plays [strike]by Aeschylus and Euripides[/strike].
so sentence is :
In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction, later generations lost all except the Iliad and Odyssey among Greek epics,most of the poetry and dozens of plays.
Now we can see clearly that "resulting from the destruction" is modifying "Later Generation" which is wrong. The meaning of sentence is more or less that later generation which is resulting from the destruciton.
So A is wrong.

(B) the destroying [strike]of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria[/strike] resulted and
Here looks like, "destroying resulted" and "later generation" both lost something.
(C) because of the result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
"because of the result of" comes many time in GMAT and this construction is wrong because of redundancy.
(D) as a result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
Correct and concise. as a result of destruction, later generation lost something.
(E) Alexandria’s largest library of the ancient world was destroyed, and the result was

"Alexandria’s largest library of the ancient world was destroyed" is a complete sentence so can not be followed with "and the result was",
moreover for coordinating conjunction "and", both part should be parallel which is not the case here.

I hope my explanation helped, If indeed please give me Kudos.[/quote]

I agree with your explanation except for the option E. First off, to use coordinating conjunction, I don't think both parts should be in parallel. The only requirement for coordinating conjunction is two independent clauses that should be related. And even if there is requirement for parallelism, I am not sure why "result was" is not in parallel. Could you please clarify?
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Re: In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2011, 07:27
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As usual, let me give a forthright and simple pathway to this topic, which can get complicated by the way one looks at it.

it is the library at Alexandria that is an issue. Any choice that separates library and at Alexandria is essentially therefore uses a wrong word-order. You can kick out A, B and E in one stroke. Between C and D, C is wrong because of the redundancy ‘of because of the result of’

Then make merry with D, the remainder.
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Re: In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of [#permalink]

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14 Jan 2012, 23:51
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I think we should not miss the fine point of the text. Please read the underlined portion yet again and you will find that this is testing a style error i.e. wrong word order.
The question is: where was the library? : It was in Alexandria; it was the largest library of the ancient world; we should not take to think that the ancient world was at Alexandria, giving an absurd meaning

That is the reason A and B are thrown out.
C is wrong because of redundancy, as all have pointed out
D is the right choice
E tends to distort that meaning that there were many libraries in Alexandria and the one that was the largest was destroyed , leaving smaller ones without destruction, This meaning is not what the text intends to convey.

Incidentally, is a B run-on? A run-on is one where the conjugation is wrong. Either a comma is simply used where a conjunction or a different punctuation such as a period or semicolon is required. B is amply conjuncted with a coordinate conjunctiuon ‘and’. The first portion is a full sentence with a subject (the destroying of) and a full verb (resulted) and the second part is a full clause. So how is B a run-on?
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Re: In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2013, 06:35
in 'C' and 'D'
why option choice is incorrect what are the main difference
because of the result of 'X', later generations lost
As a result of the 'X',later generations lost

both convey same meaning that because of result of destruction of ....
later generations lost....some stuff.

can some one help me to resolve these ambiguity in my reasoning?

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Re: In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of [#permalink]

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14 Jun 2013, 02:52
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WarriorGmat wrote:
in 'C' and 'D'
why option choice is incorrect what are the main difference
because of the result of 'X', later generations lost
As a result of the 'X',later generations lost

both convey same meaning that because of result of destruction of ....
later generations lost....some stuff.

can some one help me to resolve these ambiguity in my reasoning?

Let me try

(C) because of the result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
This changes the meaning, it seems that the result was something else and because of that result, later generation lost acces
(D) as a result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
This correctly states that the access was lost due to destruction.

Hope it helps!
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Re: In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of [#permalink]

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12 Dec 2013, 04:38
In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria, later generations lost all but the Iliad and Odyssey among Greek epics, most of the poetry of Pindar and Sappho, and dozens of plays by Aeschylus and Euripides.

(A) resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria,
(B) the destroying of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria resulted and
(C) because of the result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
(D) as a result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
(E) Alexandria’s largest library of the ancient world was destroyed, and the result was

RE D AND E
in these 2 choices, we have to independent clauses connected by "and", which is used for two independent ideas which have no causal relation.
because "and" is used for two independent ideas, the use of "and" in these choice is not logic

in A, "resulting..." must refer to the word after the comma. This make a wrong

in C, "because of" and "result of" is redundant
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Re: In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of [#permalink]

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25 Oct 2014, 13:56
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DebWenger wrote:
Thabk wrote:
In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria, later generations lost all but the Iliad and Odyssey among Greek epics, most of the poetry of Pindar and Sappho, and dozens of plays by Aeschylus and Euripides.

(A) resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria,
(B) the destroying of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria resulted and
(C) because of the result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
(D) as a result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
(E) Alexandria’s largest library of the ancient world was destroyed, and the result was

Please provide explanation for the right answer. I am looking for some clarifications.

Although OA is D,should it not be E.In D,to me it seems like The result of the destruction of the library took place in AD 391.
I might be totally wrong here though!WOuld like to get some views on this.

Hello DebWenger

I may help in some ways. Let me try.

In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria, later generations lost all but the Iliad and Odyssey among Greek epics, most of the poetry of Pindar and Sappho, and dozens of plays by Aeschylus and Euripides.

(A) resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria,
Wrong. Be aware of "RESULTING FROM......". This verb-ing modifier is always wrong in GMAT.

(B) the destroying of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria resulted and
Wrong. "resulted and...." does not make any sense. Absolutely wrong.

(C) because of the result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
Wrong. "Because of the result of" is redundant.

(D) as a result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
CORRECT.

(E) Alexandria’s largest library of the ancient world was destroyed, and the result was
Wrong. 2 problems.
- Meaning: let read "Alexandria’s largest library of the ancient world". It's very unclear. Let break the phrase into two parts (1) Alexandria (2) the largest library of the ancient world, the structure is Alexandria’s largest library of the ancient world. It means the largest library of the ancient world OF Alexandria. Does it make sense? Nope. Double possessive should be avoided in GMAT.
- Parallelism problem: "and" is a sign of parallel structure. But we have cause and effect, thus "and" is wrong.

Hope it helps.
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Re: In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of [#permalink]

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12 Nov 2016, 13:28
Split1) Meaning. The original highlighted sentence says "the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria" which suggests that Alexandria was the Ancient world. Therefore, I want to break it a little bit with a comma. This one is a subtle meaning that if possible we can clarify.

Split2) Logic. in B "the Destroying" is horrible, makes the whole sentence awkward.

Split3) Redundant. "because" "of the result" = redundant. C is out.

Split4) Meaning. In E: "Alexandria's largest library of the ancient world" is not what the original sentence says = changes the meaning to something illogical.

Split5) Idiom. After "was" you need to add "that" = Was + that. E is out.

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Re: In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of [#permalink]

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19 Feb 2017, 10:35
In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria, later generations lost all but the Iliad and Odyssey among Greek epics, most of the poetry of Pindar and Sappho, and dozens of plays by Aeschylus and Euripides.

Issues: Modifier | Construction

By PoE:

(A) resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria,
- Meaning issue

(B) the destroying of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria resulted and
- "the destroying of ... later generations..." is non-sensical

(C) because of the result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
- "because of the result of the" is redundant

(D) as a result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,

(E) Alexandria’s largest library of the ancient world was destroyed, and the result was
- "the result was later generations..." is ungrammatical as "the result was" should be followed by that

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Re: In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of [#permalink]

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14 May 2017, 13:01
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Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of [#permalink]

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16 May 2017, 18:58
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I understood why wrong answers are incorrect.But i m unable to digest the right answer as well for the following reason.
d) as a result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world
what is the largest of the ancient world modifying.?
It seems ambiguous to covey the meaning
1) the largest (library at Alexandria) of the ancient world.
2) the largest(city that is Alexandria) of the ancient world.
Can someone explain this ?

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Re: In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of [#permalink]

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17 May 2017, 00:39
daagh wrote:
I think we should not miss the fine point of the text. Please read the underlined portion yet again and you will find that this is testing a style error i.e. wrong word order.
The question is: where was the library? : It was in Alexandria; it was the largest library of the ancient world; we should not take to think that the ancient world was at Alexandria, giving an absurd meaning

That is the reason A and B are thrown out.
C is wrong because of redundancy, as all have pointed out
D is the right choice
E tends to distort that meaning that there were many libraries in Alexandria and the one that was the largest was destroyed , leaving smaller ones without destruction, This meaning is not what the text intends to convey.

Incidentally, is a B run-on? A run-on is one where the conjugation is wrong. Either a comma is simply used where a conjunction or a different punctuation such as a period or semicolon is required. B is amply conjuncted with a coordinate conjunctiuon ‘and’. The first portion is a full sentence with a subject (the destroying of) and a full verb (resulted) and the second part is a full clause. So how is B a run-on?

among the lot, D is better. But what follows "In A.D. 391," should be an event right?Not the result of the event.

Because of that I went with option E, even though I was not that happy with the last phrase " and the result was" of option E
daagh ur insight will be helpful.

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Re: In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of [#permalink]

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20 May 2017, 12:07
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Expert's post
sandaki wrote:
daagh wrote:
I think we should not miss the fine point of the text. Please read the underlined portion yet again and you will find that this is testing a style error i.e. wrong word order.
The question is: where was the library? : It was in Alexandria; it was the largest library of the ancient world; we should not take to think that the ancient world was at Alexandria, giving an absurd meaning

That is the reason A and B are thrown out.
C is wrong because of redundancy, as all have pointed out
D is the right choice
E tends to distort that meaning that there were many libraries in Alexandria and the one that was the largest was destroyed , leaving smaller ones without destruction, This meaning is not what the text intends to convey.

Incidentally, is a B run-on? A run-on is one where the conjugation is wrong. Either a comma is simply used where a conjunction or a different punctuation such as a period or semicolon is required. B is amply conjuncted with a coordinate conjunctiuon ‘and’. The first portion is a full sentence with a subject (the destroying of) and a full verb (resulted) and the second part is a full clause. So how is B a run-on?

among the lot, D is better. But what follows "In A.D. 391," should be an event right?Not the result of the event.

Because of that I went with option E, even though I was not that happy with the last phrase " and the result was" of option E
daagh ur insight will be helpful.

The "event" that you seek is "lost". The later generations lost X in A.D. 391 - this loss was a result of the destruction of the library.

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Re: In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of [#permalink]

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20 May 2017, 22:03
sayantanc2k wrote:
sandaki wrote:
daagh wrote:
I think we should not miss the fine point of the text. Please read the underlined portion yet again and you will find that this is testing a style error i.e. wrong word order.
The question is: where was the library? : It was in Alexandria; it was the largest library of the ancient world; we should not take to think that the ancient world was at Alexandria, giving an absurd meaning

That is the reason A and B are thrown out.
C is wrong because of redundancy, as all have pointed out
D is the right choice
E tends to distort that meaning that there were many libraries in Alexandria and the one that was the largest was destroyed , leaving smaller ones without destruction, This meaning is not what the text intends to convey.

Incidentally, is a B run-on? A run-on is one where the conjugation is wrong. Either a comma is simply used where a conjunction or a different punctuation such as a period or semicolon is required. B is amply conjuncted with a coordinate conjunctiuon ‘and’. The first portion is a full sentence with a subject (the destroying of) and a full verb (resulted) and the second part is a full clause. So how is B a run-on?

among the lot, D is better. But what follows "In A.D. 391," should be an event right?Not the result of the event.

Because of that I went with option E, even though I was not that happy with the last phrase " and the result was" of option E
daagh ur insight will be helpful.

The "event" that you seek is "lost". The later generations lost X in A.D. 391 - this loss was a result of the destruction of the library.

That makes sense

Thank you

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Re: In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of [#permalink]

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30 Aug 2017, 10:12
How is there a modifier error in A? verb-ing modifier followed by a comma & a clause can modify either the subject of the clause or the entire clause. So, isn't 'resulting from the destruction' modifying 'later generations lost...', and not the just the later generation

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Re: In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of [#permalink]

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29 Sep 2017, 09:56
I have 2 general doubts in this question.
When and when not a comma is used before 'and'. ?
and can in any question a comma before 'and' be grounds enough to reject the option ?
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In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of [#permalink]

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29 Sep 2017, 12:39
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LoudGuardian wrote:
How is there a modifier error in A? verb-ing modifier followed by a comma & a clause can modify either the subject of the clause or the entire clause. So, isn't 'resulting from the destruction' modifying 'later generations lost...', and not the just the later generation

Hello LoudGuardian,

I am not sure if you still have this doubt. Nonetheless, here is the explanation in case someone else has the same doubt.

It is true that when a verb-ing modifier starts a clause, it can modify either the subject or the entire clause.

Even if the opening verb-ing modifier modifies the entire clause, it must make sense with the subject of the modified action.

In this official sentence, the opening verb-ing modifiers seems to modify the clause later generations lost all....

So, the modified action is lost. Now who is the subject of the action lost? Later generations.

So does the modifier resulting from the destruction... make sense with the subject? Did later generations result from the destruction? Most definitely not.

This is the reason why use of the opening verb-ing modifier in this official sentence is incorrect.

We cover in excruciating details the correct usage of Verb-ing Modifiers with ample examples. In fact, the concepts dealing with these modifiers is part of our Free Trial course. You can just register yourself at e-gmat.com for free and learn about these modifiers.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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