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# In a monogamous culture, 100% of the adults are married. The average

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Re: In a monogamous culture, 100% of the adults are married. The average  [#permalink]

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14 Mar 2014, 22:54
clubzzang wrote:
In a monogamous culture, 100% of the adults are married. The average number of children per family is five and over-population is a threat. Programs to encourage birth-control have been ineffective. It has been suggested that this failure is due to these programs ignoring a tradition that values male children very highly, so that every parent wants to have at least one son. It is proposed that couples be encouraged to use birth-control measures after the birth of their first son.

If this proposal is widely accepted in the culture, we may expect that:

(A) the rate of population increase will be slowed, and future generations will contain a disproportionately high number of females.
(B) the rate of population increase will be slowed, and the gender balance in future generations will remain as it is at present.
(C) the rate of population growth will remain the same, and future generations will contain a disproportionately high number of females.
(D) there will be no significant effect either on population growth or on gender balance.
(E) the population will decline precipitously, because approximately half of all families will have only a single child.

I think "will" should be replaced by "may". It makes more sense.
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Re: In a monogamous culture, 100% of the adults are married. The average  [#permalink]

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16 Mar 2014, 03:32
I chose A. But B might be correct because how can I control the birth of female or male. Agreed that the birth will stop after the first male child, but, rest of the factors and events will be same. Suppose first child is not male, then all the births will take place just as they do now, and we do not have any control on whether the child is male or female. The only difference between now and after adopting the proposed birth control procedure is that births will stop after first male child, but rest will continue the way they are!!....
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Re: In a monogamous culture, 100% of the adults are married. The average  [#permalink]

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17 Mar 2014, 11:01
After the proposal is implemented, the probabilities of getting a male or female child do not change.
Till the first male is born, the same number of children before it would have been male, before or after the proposal is implemented.
After the first male is born, before the proposal was implemented, there was an equal chance of getting a boy child or a girl child. After the proposal is implemented, there are no more births, so no skewing of the probability ratios occurs.
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Re: In a monogamous culture, 100% of the adults are married. The average  [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2014, 11:08
B doesn't make sense, A makes the most sense. For example going forward how many sons can I couple have? Maximum of 1. If they keep going until they have a son at some point were going to see a significant imbalance in female and males. For example if a couple has one kid the likely good it will be a boy or a girl is even. So the population would stay the same. Now if they get a boy one their second try and they will have 1 boy 1 girl. Now on their third try is where it shifts. Because no matter what you'll have two females and never two male. You'll eventually end up seeing an imbalance. Just my two cents.

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Re: In a monogamous culture, 100% of the adults are married. The average  [#permalink]

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30 Mar 2015, 00:23
clubzzang wrote:
In a monogamous culture, 100% of the adults are married. The average number of children per family is five and over-population is a threat. Programs to encourage birth-control have been ineffective. It has been suggested that this failure is due to these programs ignoring a tradition that values male children very highly, so that every parent wants to have at least one son. It is proposed that couples be encouraged to use birth-control measures after the birth of their first son.

If this proposal is widely accepted in the culture, we may expect that:

(A) the rate of population increase will be slowed, and future generations will contain a disproportionately high number of females.
(B) the rate of population increase will be slowed, and the gender balance in future generations will remain as it is at present.
(C) the rate of population growth will remain the same, and future generations will contain a disproportionately high number of females.
(D) there will be no significant effect either on population growth or on gender balance.
(E) the population will decline precipitously, because approximately half of all families will have only a single child.

As per the passage,every parent wants to have "at least one son".
We have 3 kind of families.For 1st family,a girl child is born then a male child.Prior and after birth control measures ratio of male and female is same.
For second family,2 times a girl child is born an then a male child . Prior and after birth control measures ratio of female and male is 2:1.
Suppose,in a third family 1st son is born but again they try to have second one because they value male child highly.
On other hand ,if they use birth control measures,they will have to stop after the birth of first son.
So overall,female ratio will be high.
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Re: In a monogamous culture, 100% of the adults are married. The average  [#permalink]

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05 Apr 2015, 04:21
Hi Friends, I hope we could not answer this question..

(A) the rate of population increase will be slowed, and future generations will contain a disproportionately high number of females.
Yes the rate will be slowed.. But we cant give the balance thing.. Lets say If a father had G,S,G,G,G,G,G,G,S in an order we have 7 girls 2 boys. If he accepted the proposal, he would have 1 Girl and 1 Boy. Even proportion.

(B) the rate of population increase will be slowed, and the gender balance in future generations will remain as it is at present.
Yes the rate will be slowed.. But we cant give the balance thing again.. Lets say If a father had G,G,G,G,S,G,G,G,S in an order we have 7 girls 2 boys. If he accepted the proposal, he would have 4 Girls and 1 Boy. High G proportion.

Could you give us the source of this question?
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Re: In a monogamous culture, 100% of the adults are married. The average  [#permalink]

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10 May 2015, 02:57
Hi Experts!
Can we get the explanation of solution for this question ??
also please explain difference between A and B
Looking e-gmat experts views too.
thanks
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Re: In a monogamous culture, 100% of the adults are married. The average  [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2015, 20:14
Good question! But how is the answer not E?

- It's stated as fact that the mean births per woman is 5
- It's stated that the proposal would lead to families having no more children after their first male child
- Therefore, for half of families (assuming even chances) the mean births per woman drops to 1

That is precipitous.
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Re: In a monogamous culture, 100% of the adults are married. The average  [#permalink]

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21 Sep 2015, 21:15
durgesh79 wrote:
lets put some quants in this ...

lets assume probability of a birth of a male or female child is same 1/2....

So if the program is effective there'll be parents who'll stop at 1st, 2nd, 3rd ..... child, so the rate of population grwith will go down ... option C and D are out

even if half of the familes will have only one child, there'll be familes with more than 2 children also ... so option E is also out.

between A and B, I'd go for B, it wont effect the balance ...... Suppose there are 16 familes, so with a probability of 1/2, the birth of M and F child will have a pettern like this

First birth : 8M 8F
Second birth : 4M, 4F (only with F in first round will go for second)
Third birth : 2M, 2F (same logic as above)
Forth birts : 1M, 1F

Total M = Total F = 15 ... so there will be a balance......

Math was perfect but missing a premise mentioned in question.
"this failure is due to these programs ignoring a tradition that values male children very highly".
The families having male or female child is similar to coins tossed for heads or tails.
There is a chance that 16 families may end up in having male child in first attempt and may not go for second child.
The 1/2 probability pertains to a family having a male or female child but does not pertain to 1 male child out of 2 families.
Just like a head or tails is for a particular coin and it does not have any effect on the probability of next coin to be tossed.
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Re: In a monogamous culture, 100% of the adults are married. The average  [#permalink]

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21 Sep 2015, 21:32
talismaaniac wrote:
I chose A. But B might be correct because how can I control the birth of female or male. Agreed that the birth will stop after the first male child, but, rest of the factors and events will be same. Suppose first child is not male, then all the births will take place just as they do now, and we do not have any control on whether the child is male or female. The only difference between now and after adopting the proposed birth control procedure is that births will stop after first male child, but rest will continue the way they are!!....

There is still possibility that every child born is male child.
Factually the male and female population are never in proportion.
I prefer A.
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Re: In a monogamous culture, 100% of the adults are married. The average  [#permalink]

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22 Sep 2015, 22:23
Confused between B and C but we cannot determine that by this there will be more number of females so, i opted for B
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Re: In a monogamous culture, 100% of the adults are married. The average  [#permalink]

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17 Nov 2015, 15:13
IMO B is correct
But option A is also equally correct
Looking forward to experts analysis on this
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Re: In a monogamous culture, 100% of the adults are married. The average  [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2015, 07:47
Quote:
durgesh79 wrote:
lets put some quants in this ...

lets assume probability of a birth of a male or female child is same 1/2....

So if the program is effective there'll be parents who'll stop at 1st, 2nd, 3rd ..... child, so the rate of population grwith will go down ... option C and D are out

even if half of the familes will have only one child, there'll be familes with more than 2 children also ... so option E is also out.

between A and B, I'd go for B, it wont effect the balance ...... Suppose there are 16 familes, so with a probability of 1/2, the birth of M and F child will have a pettern like this

First birth : 8M 8F
Second birth : 4M, 4F (only with F in first round will go for second)
Third birth : 2M, 2F (same logic as above)
Forth birts : 1M, 1F

Total M = Total F = 15 ... so there will be a balance......

Hi,
I think choice E is underestimated. Even in the above explanation, which is excellent by the way, the total no. of children from 16 families = 2x15 = 30.
Whereas, without the birth control plan the families were expected to have, on an average, 16x5 = 80 children.
80 to 30 drop is definitely not just slow decline in rate. It can be termed as precipitous decline.
Thanks.
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Re: In a monogamous culture, 100% of the adults are married. The average  [#permalink]

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18 Jul 2016, 03:53
GMATobliterator wrote:
Great CR, clubzzang! +1

I was leaning towards E on a quick glance, but now I'm leaning more towards B

We will have two types of families:

1) Those who get a boy first (stop at 1 boy)
2) Those who get a girl first, then stop at the 1st boy after that

Assuming a 50/50 chance of getting a boy in the first place, we must assume that 50% of all the families will just have one boy.
The other 50% will have 1+ girls and a boy

I don't see how the number of girls will be higher in the long run, hence I'm going for B. Although I must admit there are quite a few assumptions that should be made for this question (I hope I don't see a similar one on the actual GMAT!)

Other answers are clearly explained before my post.

Can you confirm which is the OA?

Exactly, such question will not be asked on actual GMAT, if the proposal to encourage contraceptives is not working , how do we know that people will abide by government "proposal" for single male child? thus I selected D
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Re: In a monogamous culture, 100% of the adults are married. The average  [#permalink]

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19 Jul 2016, 02:57
shashanksagar wrote:
GMATobliterator wrote:
Great CR, clubzzang! +1

I was leaning towards E on a quick glance, but now I'm leaning more towards B

We will have two types of families:

1) Those who get a boy first (stop at 1 boy)
2) Those who get a girl first, then stop at the 1st boy after that

Assuming a 50/50 chance of getting a boy in the first place, we must assume that 50% of all the families will just have one boy.
The other 50% will have 1+ girls and a boy

I don't see how the number of girls will be higher in the long run, hence I'm going for B. Although I must admit there are quite a few assumptions that should be made for this question (I hope I don't see a similar one on the actual GMAT!)

Other answers are clearly explained before my post.

Can you confirm which is the OA?

Exactly, such question will not be asked on actual GMAT, if the proposal to encourage contraceptives is not working , how do we know that people will abide by government "proposal" for single male child? thus I selected D

The question stem already states that "If this proposal is widely accepted in the culture...". If the proposal is widely accepted, then option B is correct - there is a convincing explanation in this thread:

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Re: In a monogamous culture, 100% of the adults are married. The average  [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2018, 09:31
Hi all, I am confused about answer (B) the rate of population increase will be slowed, and the gender balance in future generations will remain as it is at present./// What is suppose to be the gender balance at present?¿?...from looking at the argument I infer there are many more women than men, yet as durgesh79 well explained adopting the new proposed plan we should only expect a 3% difference between men and women favoring women..that is 15males to 16 females..
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Re: In a monogamous culture, 100% of the adults are married. The average  [#permalink]

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19 Jul 2018, 08:45
GMATobliterator wrote:
aviator83 wrote:

IMO (C) is correct.

C can't be correct IMO...Think of it this way:

50% chance of getting a boy, 50% chance of getting a girl.

Two types of families. Those that get a boy first, and those that get a girl first:

If boy (50% chance), then take contraceptives (1 boy in family, no more reproduction after that)
If girl (50% chance), try again for boy. Most likely conclusion is 1 girl 1 boy (25%), slightly less likely is 2 girls 1 boy (12.5%), highly unlikely (6.25%) is 3 girls 1 boy.

Most likely result is:
Half all families will be 1boy only
Other half will be split predominantly "1 girl and 1 boy", with a portion being "2 girls 1 boy" and a much smaller portion being "3 girls 1 boy" and other even more unlikely divisions.

Overall the growth rate will slow down because now contraceptives will be adopted after the first son is born (as opposed to before when this was not actively encouraged)

Gender balance should remain about the same since the "power in numbers of boys" judging by the 50% of families with 1 boy only plus the 25% of families with 1 girl and 1 boy, will be somewhat driven down by the various other probabilities of "2 girls 1 boy, 3 girls 1 boy, etc..."

Hence, B

I hope this clarifies it... Its quite complicated for a CR :S

Most likely is that growth rate will go down and the gender balance will remain the same

I was thinking of this problem from a different perspective. As per the argument there is no mention of current gender imbalance. There may be equal number of boys and girls, may be not. As a result how can we say that the gender balance in future would be the same as that of now. Due to this reason I eliminated option B.
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Re: In a monogamous culture, 100% of the adults are married. The average  [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2018, 07:57
This seems to be a question with too many loopholes going deep. I don't think this is a good gmat question. Kindly confirm the source.

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Re: In a monogamous culture, 100% of the adults are married. The average  [#permalink]

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17 Aug 2018, 00:39
durgesh79 wrote:
lets put some quants in this ...

lets assume probability of a birth of a male or female child is same 1/2....

So if the program is effective there'll be parents who'll stop at 1st, 2nd, 3rd ..... child, so the rate of population grwith will go down ... option C and D are out

even if half of the familes will have only one child, there'll be familes with more than 2 children also ... so option E is also out.

between A and B, I'd go for B, it wont effect the balance ...... Suppose there are 16 familes, so with a probability of 1/2, the birth of M and F child will have a pettern like this

First birth : 8M 8F
Second birth : 4M, 4F (only with F in first round will go for second)
Third birth : 2M, 2F (same logic as above)
Forth birts : 1M, 1F

Total M = Total F = 15 ... so there will be a balance......

Looks right. But why assume that earlier probability is 1/2. you are supposed to compare the ratio of male to female earlier with the present. You have calculated that the presently the ratio will be half only if you assumed earlier it was half. What if ealier the probability was not half. You have assumed something extra to come to the conclusion. Therefore this question itself looks weak.
Re: In a monogamous culture, 100% of the adults are married. The average &nbs [#permalink] 17 Aug 2018, 00:39

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