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# In a plan to stop the erosion of East Coast beaches, the Army Corps of

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Re: In a plan to stop the erosion of East Coast beaches, the Army Corps of [#permalink]
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What is rise/act referring to? I feel it can't refer to a prepositional phrase "of rocks", so I see breakwater as singular..

Going by parallelism is fine, but we need to look at subject verb singular/plural agreement too, right?
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nakib77 wrote:
3. In a plan to stop the erosion of East Coast beaches, the Army Corps of Engineers proposed building parallel to shore a breakwater of rocks that would rise six feet above the waterline and act as a buffer, so that it absorbs the energy of crashing waves and protecting the beaches.
(A) act as a buffer, so that it absorbs
(B) act like a buffer so as to absorb
(C) act as a buffer, absorbing
(D) acting as a buffer, absorbing
(E) acting like a buffer, absorb

Is it C?

Act as a buffer seems correct. If we say absorbing then it agrees with the protecting (bold / underlined) part of the question
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In a plan to stop the erosion of East Coast beaches, the Army Corps of Engineers proposed building parallel to shore a breakwater of rocks that would rise six feet above the waterline and act as a buffer, so that it absorbs the energy of crashing waves and protecting the beaches.

(A) act as a buffer, so that it absorbs
(B) act like a buffer so as to absorb
(C) act as a buffer, absorbing
(D) acting as a buffer, absorbing
(E) acting like a buffer, absorb

Parallelism--that would rise and act
So that leaves us with A,B,C. act like vs. act as. Act like means act similar to. Act as means function as. Here Act as is correct use meaning wise. So between A and C, we have so that it absorbs vs. absorbing.
There is one more parallelism here. absorbing anf protecting. So D is correct.
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Re: In a plan to stop the erosion of East Coast beaches, the Army Corps of [#permalink]
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nakib77 wrote:
In a plan to stop the erosion of East Coast beaches, the Army Corps of Engineers proposed building parallel to shore a breakwater of rocks that would rise six feet above the waterline and act as a buffer, so that it absorbs the energy of crashing waves and protecting the beaches.
(A) act as a buffer, so that it absorbs
(B) act like a buffer so as to absorb
(C) act as a buffer, absorbing
(D) acting as a buffer, absorbing
(E) acting like a buffer, absorb

ideom + parallelism

Ideom:

you say "act AS", not "act LIKE" in this context. "You act like a crazy person" means you act in the same way that a crazy person does. You "act AS a crazy person" means you act as if you are a crazy person. The buffer is not supposed to mimic some other things MO, it is supposed to completely be the same as that other thing. So the breakwater functions precisely the same way that a buffer does, in this context.

Parallelism:

look to the right of the underlined portion.. We have protecting.. This is a present participle. So, we need a present participle in the underlined portion. Only C and D have this, the problem with D is that act is not supposed to be present participle, it distorts the meaning of the author.

So, C is our choice
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Re: In a plan to stop the erosion of East Coast beaches, the Army Corps of [#permalink]
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ShashwatPrakash wrote:
SWAT09 wrote:
Comma+verb-ing modifier modifies preceding clause immediately before it. here- act as buffer

But then 'act as buffer' is not doing the action of 'absorbing'. It is the 'buffer' that is doing the action, so ideally there should be no comma.

ShashwatPrakash the intention here is " absorbing the energy of crashing waves and protecting the beaches" is the result of an activity = a breakwater of rocks that would rise six feet above the waterline and act as a buffer. The whole activity of - a breakwater of rocks rising six feet above the waterline and acting as a buffer is doing the action of absorbing and protecting. Its like cause and effect.

if it was ..act as buffer absorbing the energy..... then "absorbing" here will only modify concrete subject "buffer" but then doing so will not present a cause and effect situation.
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Re: In a plan to stop the erosion of East Coast beaches, the Army Corps of [#permalink]
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What you read is sometimes but not always accurate, because, when a comma precedes a present participial phrase, or verb -ing modifier, what that phrase modifies is not always the subject of the sentence. Rather, such a phrase usually, but not 100 percent of the time, has as its agent, which is basically the subject of the participle, the subject of the preceding subject-verb pair, which subject is sometimes the subject of the sentence and sometimes the subject of a modifying clause.

Here are examples, one of each type.

The dog barked loudly, waking everyone in the house. - The agent of the participle "waking," which begins the closing phrase, is the subject of the sentence, "dog," and the phrase modifies the main clause of the sentence.

The Army Corps of Engineers proposed building parallel to shore a breakwater of rocks that would rise six feet above the waterline and act as a buffer, absorbing the energy of crashing waves and protecting the beaches. - The agent of the participle "absorbing," which begins the closing phrase, is the subject of the preceding modifying clause, "that," which refers to "breakwater," and the closing phrase modifies the preceding modifying clause.
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Re: In a plan to stop the erosion of East Coast beaches, the Army Corps of [#permalink]
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C.

Parallelism is being used here - it must be act to parallel rise and must be absorbing to mirror protecting.
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Re: In a plan to stop the erosion of East Coast beaches, the Army Corps of [#permalink]
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I would appreciate if someone explain the reason behind using "as" in this sentence.

Like - is used to compare "noun"
As - is used to compare "verbs"

Are we are using "as" because we are comparing "breakwater of rocks will act as a buffer". If yes, dont we need "does" after the word "buffer"....like this...

"breakwater of rocks will act as a buffer [does]"?
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Re: In a plan to stop the erosion of East Coast beaches, the Army Corps of [#permalink]
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-as is used to compare clause so we have to fix it by using like.
-absorbing is parallel to protecting
(C) wins.
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Re: In a plan to stop the erosion of East Coast beaches, the Army Corps of [#permalink]
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ankurgupta03 wrote:
as should be followed by a verb and like compares noun,
So shouldn't B be the answer?

The OA according to OG13 is C

Nope. B is not parallel first of all.

In a plan to stop the erosion of East Coast beaches, the Army Corps of Engineers proposed building parallel to shore a breakwater of rocks that would rise six feet above the waterline and act as a buffer, so that it absorbs the energy of crashing waves and protecting the beaches.

(B) act like a buffer so as to absorb
(C) act as a buffer, absorbing

Moreover "as" is used also to compare FUNCTIONS, "like" cannot do that: as-vs-like-correct-and-incorrect-usages-133950.html
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Re: In a plan to stop the erosion of East Coast beaches, the Army Corps of [#permalink]
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fozzzy wrote:
In a plan to stop the erosion of East Coast beaches, the Army Corps of Engineers proposed building parallel to shore a breakwater of rocks that would rise six feet above the waterline
and act as a buffer, so that it absorbs the energy of crashing waves and protecting the beaches.

These are the subject-verb pairs so in option C the absorbing and Protecting is presenting the result of the clause " act as buffer" Is this correct?

Hi fozzy.

You're not totally correct.

Verb-ing modifier + comma ==> always modifies a preceding clause. "absorbing" || "protecting" are verb-ing modifiers that modify a preceding clause. Let think, what can absorb water? ==> a buffer. What can protect the beaches? ==> a breakwater of rock.

So, the modifier part modifies the preceding clause "a breakwater of rocks that would rise six feet above the waterline and act as a buffer", not only "act as a buffer".

Hope it helps.
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Re: In a plan to stop the erosion of East Coast beaches, the Army Corps of [#permalink]
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LucyDang wrote:
Can anyone help to demonstrate what the role of "building parallel" in the non-underlined portion is? I can't understand why GMAC doesn't use "proposed to build parallel"? I thought the correct idiom is "propose to V" or "propose +Noun".

When two verb forms appear together (propose and build in this case), there are no grammatical rules that govern whether the second verb (build in this case) should be in infinitive (to build) or gerund (building).

Since this is just a matter of writing preference, it is unlikely that test takers would be presented with two answer choices, whose only difference is Verb1 + infinitive Verb2 and Verb1 + Gerund Verb2.

Having said that, there is a question in OG-13, where the only difference is Verb1 + infinitive Verb2 and Verb1 + Gerund Verb2.

#18, OG-13:

Warning that computers in the United States are not secure, the National Academy of Sciences has urged the nation to revamp computer security procedures, institute new emergency response teams, creating a special nongovernment organization to take charge of computer security planning.
(D) and create a special nongovernment organization for taking
(E) and create a special nongovernment organization to take

E is the correct answer above, and OE mentions for taking as unidiomatic.

However, as I mentioned above, we believe it is unlikely that these questions would come up in your exam.

Out of curiosity, I did a google search and landed on this page: https://www.englishpage.com/gerunds/gerund_or_infinitive_same_list.htm, which suggests that propose is one of the few verbs, which can be followed by both infinitives and gerunds, with a negligible difference in meaning.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses the concept of two verb forms appearing together, their application and examples in significant detail. If you can PM you email, I can send you the corresponding section.
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Re: In a plan to stop the erosion of East Coast beaches, the Army Corps of [#permalink]
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In a plan to stop the erosion of East Coast beaches, the Army Corps of Engineers proposed building parallel to shore a breakwater of rocks that would rise six feet above the waterline and act as a buffer, so that it absorbs the energy of crashing waves and protecting the beaches.

My analysis:
{Parallelism 1}
... building (VERB) parallel (NOUN) to shore ... (Descriptive) and (to - omitted in ans because understood) act ...
{Parallelism 2}
absorbing ... and protecting

Therefore, ans: C
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Re: In a plan to stop the erosion of East Coast beaches, the Army Corps of [#permalink]
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smartyman wrote:
My analysis:
{Parallelism 1}
... building (VERB) parallel (NOUN) to shore ... (Descriptive) and (to - omitted in ans because understood) act ...

I feel that "to shore" and "(to) act" is not the Parallelism that is being tested here.

Parallelism is between "rise" and "act".
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Re: In a plan to stop the erosion of East Coast beaches, the Army Corps of [#permalink]
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sepehrsafari wrote:
smartyman wrote:
In a plan to stop the erosion of East Coast beaches, the Army Corps of Engineers proposed building parallel to shore a breakwater of rocks that would rise six feet above the waterline and act as a buffer, so that it absorbs the energy of crashing waves and protecting the beaches.

My analysis:
{Parallelism 1}
... building (VERB) parallel (NOUN) to shore ... (Descriptive) and (to - omitted in ans because understood) act ...
{Parallelism 2}
absorbing ... and protecting

Therefore, ans: C

hi, thank you for your response but as i'd mentioned before, i DO understand the issue with parallelism but i do understand the explanation i have a problem with the coordinating conjunction " and" after "above the water line" . As far as i am concerned, coordinating conjunctions make independent clauses, but in the correct answer, after "and" there is no independent clause, consisting verb and subject

Hi,

AND has a role as coordinating conjunction, but it is not that it has to join ONLY two ICs..
I like to eat pasta and pizza....
there are no ICs... It is just one clause joining similar items..

same is the case here..
a breakwater of rocks that would rise six feet above the waterline and act as a buffer,
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Re: In a plan to stop the erosion of East Coast beaches, the Army Corps of [#permalink]
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In essence, the ' comma + verbing' phrase modifies both the subject of the preceding clause and the subject's action. The preceding clause may be an IC, a subordinate clause, or a relative clause.
Here, 'the army engineers proposed' is not the preceding clause. It is actually the "a breakwater of rocks that would rise six feet above the waterline and act as a buffer". It is "the breakwater that would rise and act", a relative clause that is modified by the absorbing and protecting.
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Re: In a plan to stop the erosion of East Coast beaches, the Army Corps of [#permalink]
Paul.. Got my answer.... Just for confirmation... Here Adjective Phrase is what we are calling Participle Phrase. Am I right?

Another kind of absolute phrase is found after a modified noun; it adds a focusing detail or point of focus to the idea of the main clause. This kind of absolute phrase can take the form of a prepositional phrase, an adjective phrase, or a noun phrase.

* The old firefighter stood over the smoking ruins, his senses alert to any sign of another flare-up.
* His subordinates, their faces sweat-streaked and smudged with ash, leaned heavily against the firetruck.
* They knew all too well how all their hard work could be undone â€” in an instant.

Source: https://webster.commnet.edu/grammar/phrases.htm
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