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# In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various

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Senior Manager
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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13 Dec 2011, 03:53
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Difficulty:

45% (medium)

Question Stats:

63% (02:04) correct 37% (01:30) wrong based on 672 sessions

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+1 for B
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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13 Dec 2011, 11:41
cialit0506 wrote:
In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various restaurants wrote “Thank you” on randomly selected bills before presenting the bills to their customers. Tips on these bills were an average of three percentage points higher than tips on bills without the message. Therefore, if servers in Pennsylvania regularly wrote “Thank you” on restaurant bills, their average income from tips would be significantly higher than it otherwise would have been.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies?

A. The “Thank you” messages would have the same impact on regular patrons of a restaurant as they would on occasional patrons of the same restaurant
B. Regularly seeing “Thank you” written on their bills would not lead restaurant patrons to revert to their earlier tipping habits
C. The written “Thank you” reminds restaurant patrons that tips constitute a significant part of the income of many food servers
D. The rate at which people tip food servers in Pennsylvania does not vary with how expensive a restaurant is
E. Virtually all patrons of the Pennsylvania restaurants in the study who were given a bill with “Thank you” written on it left a larger tip than they otherwise would have.

Again, as in such questions, there are normally two very strong possible answers. In this case, it is A or B. Somehow, I don’t find the OA answer very convincing.

We do one study and conclude that we can continue the practice "regularly" and continue to reap the same benefits.
B is the only assumption that is required to make this conclusion.

A) not a necessary assumption. even if it had different effects and all regular patrons could have tipped much more to generate the extra 3% in tips or it could have been the other way around.
C) Whether the notes remind the patrons of something, insults them or applauds their generosity is outside this discussion. We are only focused on the end result of more tips.
D) The tipping rate could be different for restaurants. We are comparing previous tipping rate at the same restaurant, not across various restaurants.
E) All (or for that matter significant) number of patrons don't have to leave a larger tip. Only few may be leaving large enough tip to get the "average" 3% higher tipping rate.

hope this helps.
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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23 Dec 2011, 05:05
Nice explanation sanjuro9. I used a similar logic. Clearly B on this one. If it does cause patrons to revert to their earlier tipping habits, then the conclusion does not hold true.
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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23 Dec 2011, 05:18
Initially went with E,

i have one doubt regarding Option B

B says "earlier habits" an earlier habit can a patron giving less tip or more tip if the tip is less then the servers are earning more and if the tip is more then the servers earn more........

so can anyone justify the above reasoning
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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24 Dec 2011, 00:01
kotela wrote:
Initially went with E,

i have one doubt regarding Option B

B says "earlier habits" an earlier habit can a patron giving less tip or more tip if the tip is less then the servers are earning more and if the tip is more then the servers earn more........

so can anyone justify the above reasoning

I am sorry. What is it that you are asking exactly? The lack of punctuation made your question confusing. Could you please elaborate?
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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24 Dec 2011, 07:57
[quote="siddharthmuzumdar"][quote="kotela"]Initially went with E,

i have one doubt regarding Option B

In Option B It says "Regularly seeing “Thank you” written on their bills would not lead restaurant patrons to revert to their earlier tipping habits" but an earlier habit can be a patron giving less tip or more tip if the tip is more then the servers are earning more and if the tip is less then the servers less........so how can this be an assumption

so can anyone justify the above reasoning.....
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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26 Dec 2011, 05:11
B

It has to be between A or B
A could be but talks abt regular and occasional patron , but no where its mention about them, statement states abt random selection of people not from occasional and random

Thus B is more logical
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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27 Dec 2011, 10:28
kotela wrote:
Initially went with E,

i have one doubt regarding Option B

In Option B It says "Regularly seeing “Thank you” written on their bills would not lead restaurant patrons to revert to their earlier tipping habits" but an earlier habit can be a patron giving less tip or more tip if the tip is more then the servers are earning more and if the tip is less then the servers less........so how can this be an assumption

so can anyone justify the above reasoning.....

Alright. I think I understand you now. Here goes my understanding of the argument:

The initial premises talk about the study conducted on the servers in Penn and refer to everything in the past tense. For example,
1. servers in various restaurants wrote “Thank you” on randomly selected bills and
2. Tips on these bills were an average of three percentage points higher than tips on bills without the message.

From these two statements, it can be safely inferred that the servers wrote the notes in the past and received MORE money from tips in the past. They received MORE tips when they wrote the "Thank You" note. Thus, I think we can safely assume that the previous tips, without the "Thank You" note, were less. The tips with the "Thank You" note could not have been more than the tips without the "Thank You" note. If it were so, then the conclusion would not make sense anyway. The argument (and thus the entire question itself) would contradict itself. This is purely nonsensical.

Let us view mathematically. Let us say that the previous tips without the "Thank You" note were 100 (currency doesn't matter )
The study showed that the tips after the "Thank You" note were average 103. (3% higher than 100).
Based on this rise from 100 to 103 as the tip, the author concludes that if the servers keep writing "Thank You" notes, then they will keep receiving 103 as tips continuously and can thus increase their income.

Now let us look at the assumption. If regularly seeing "Thank You" notes leads restaurant patrons to revert to their earlier habits of tipping less (100 in our case), then the overall income of the server does not increase. The conclusion falls apart.
That is why the assumption in B is necessary to the conclusion.

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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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27 Dec 2011, 19:20
I'll go with B
navigate B is that people will change their tip habits if they see " thank you" regularly, therefore, this make the tip go down to the starting point. This result undermine the conclusion.
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2012, 22:47
IT is B.
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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09 Jan 2012, 09:19
+1 B
A defender assumption qn..
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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17 Jan 2012, 17:10
kotela wrote:
siddharthmuzumdar wrote:
kotela wrote:
Initially went with E,

i have one doubt regarding Option B

In Option B It says "Regularly seeing “Thank you” written on their bills would not lead restaurant patrons to revert to their earlier tipping habits" but an earlier habit can be a patron giving less tip or more tip if the tip is more then the servers are earning more and if the tip is less then the servers less........so how can this be an assumption

so can anyone justify the above reasoning.....

In the argument it is clearly given that on average, tips increased by 3% after seeing the message. So, we can take it for granted that the overall impact of the message is +ve.

Now, if we 'question' the assumptions, B is the only option that, without any doubt, would take us to the previous position (customers giving less tips).

All other options do not give such a concrete conclusion.
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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20 Jan 2012, 07:15
Conclusion: if servers in Pennsylvania regularly wrote “Thank you” on restaurant bills, their average income from tips would be significantly higher than it otherwise would have been.

Negation of B: Regularly seeing “Thank you” written on their bills would lead restaurant patrons to revert to their earlier tipping habits:-----> weaken the conclusion.

B
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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18 Feb 2012, 01:23
tuanquang269 wrote:
+1 B

This thread is very good. I like it. It help me to think about my ideals.

Tks again and pls keep posting.
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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19 Feb 2012, 22:19
+1 for B.Clearly its the answer !!
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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20 Feb 2012, 00:40
B is the correct answer because the author should have assumed that regularly seeing “Thank you” written on their bills would not lead restaurant patrons to revert to their earlier tipping habits.
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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20 Feb 2012, 21:10

B. Regularly seeing “Thank you” written on their bills would not lead restaurant patrons to revert to their earlier tipping habits.

Let's negate B. Regularly seeing “Thank you” written on their bills will lead restaurant patrons to revert to their earlier tipping habits.

If they revert, the argument falls apart and the substantial increase in tips is not possible. So by negating B we can easily deduce that it is the right answer.
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2012, 00:43
1
KUDOS
IMHO:

X: regularly write "Thank you" on bill
Y: avg income from tip is higher
Conclusion: Causation: X causes Y
Assumption: X does not cause (not Y) (not Y = "revert to their tipping habit = tip less")

Hence B
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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29 Oct 2013, 23:56
I just looked through the explanations, but just wondering why the answer can't be D.
I thought that if the answer to the statement D. is
1. Yes, Then when people perceive certain restaurants are more luxurious than others, they will give more tips.
2. No, Then they gonna tip less
To make this argument to be true, don't we have to asssume that this is an assumption?
I thought this statement works as a defender??? or I just misunderstood?
Could anyone please explain this for me??
Thanks
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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31 Dec 2014, 04:47
I chose B. however, I was a bit hesitant to choose answer "B" because of the word "would"...

"would" doesn't guarantee it will happen... any thoughts?
Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various   [#permalink] 31 Dec 2014, 04:47

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