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In a study conducted in Pennsylvania,Servers in various

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In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2012, 09:24
In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various restaurants wrote “Thank you” on randomly selected bills before presenting the bills to their customers. Tips on these bills were an average of three percentage points higher than tips on bills without the message. Therefore, if servers in Pennsylvania regularly wrote “Thank you” on restaurant bills, their average income from tips would be significantly higher than it otherwise would have been.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies?
A. The “Thank you” messages would have the same impact on regular patrons of a restaurant as they would on occasional patrons of the same restaurant.
B. Regularly seeing “Thank you” written on their bills would not lead restaurant patrons to revert to their earlier tipping habits.
C. The written “Thank you” reminds restaurant patrons that tips constitute a significant part of the income of many food servers.
D. The rate at which people tip food servers in Pennsylvania does not vary with how expensive a restaurant is.
E. Virtually all patrons of the Pennsylvania restaurants in the study who were given a bill with “Thank you” written on it left a larger tip than they otherwise would have.
Quote:
why not A?

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Re: In a study conducted in [#permalink]

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maybeam wrote:
In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various restaurants wrote “Thank you” on randomly selected bills before presenting the bills to their customers. Tips on these bills were an average of three percentage points higher than tips on bills without the message. Therefore, if servers in Pennsylvania regularly wrote “Thank you” on restaurant bills, their average income from tips would be significantly higher than it otherwise would have been.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies?
A. The “Thank you” messages would have the same impact on regular patrons of a restaurant as they would on occasional patrons of the same restaurant.
B. Regularly seeing “Thank you” written on their bills would not lead restaurant patrons to revert to their earlier tipping habits.
C. The written “Thank you” reminds restaurant patrons that tips constitute a significant part of the income of many food servers.
D. The rate at which people tip food servers in Pennsylvania does not vary with how expensive a restaurant is.
E. Virtually all patrons of the Pennsylvania restaurants in the study who were given a bill with “Thank you” written on it left a larger tip than they otherwise would have.
Quote:
why not A?


(A) is incorrect because it expresses a difference between the regular and occasional patron, but here in the question stem we are looking for the assumption BASED on the premise given.(C) states that the importance of occasional "thank you" will loose value if all the bills start containing a thank you message.
(B) wins
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Last edited by thevenus on 26 Jul 2012, 21:47, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: In a study conducted in [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2012, 22:20
Is passage talking about old patrons and new patrons and their trends on tipping? If not, B is not making much sense.

C looks more appropriate to me, as it talks about only patrons who understand the significance of tips on the livelihood of servers.

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Re: In a study conducted in [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jul 2012, 03:15
maybeam wrote:
In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various restaurants wrote “Thank you” on randomly selected bills before presenting the bills to their customers. Tips on these bills were an average of three percentage points higher than tips on bills without the message. Therefore, if servers in Pennsylvania regularly wrote “Thank you” on restaurant bills, their average income from tips would be significantly higher than it otherwise would have been.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies?
A. The “Thank you” messages would have the same impact on regular patrons of a restaurant as they would on occasional patrons of the same restaurant.
B. Regularly seeing “Thank you” written on their bills would not lead restaurant patrons to revert to their earlier tipping habits.
C. The written “Thank you” reminds restaurant patrons that tips constitute a significant part of the income of many food servers.
D. The rate at which people tip food servers in Pennsylvania does not vary with how expensive a restaurant is.
E. Virtually all patrons of the Pennsylvania restaurants in the study who were given a bill with “Thank you” written on it left a larger tip than they otherwise would have.
Quote:
why not A?


'A' - It is classifying the customers. - Out of scope.
'B' - it is clearly saying and strengthening the argument. as author has study the mind of the customers and he has read some report which says recident of Pennsylvania will continue there habbit. - So it the best.
'C' - If the "thank you" reminds the customers that they have given heavy tip, then will it make any difference to restaurant owner? I think not. So 'C' is out
'D' - Out of scope. as it is not tell any thing about increasing / decreasing of income from TIP.
'E' - Out of scope. as it gives blame on the restaurant itself.

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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania,Servers in various [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jan 2013, 00:20
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Premise: RANDOM TY NOTE -> INCREASED TIPS
Conclusion: REGULARLY WRITING TY NOTE -> INCREASED TIPS

GAP: RESULT THAT WAS OBSERVED ON "RANDOM" ACTS WILL HAPPEN WHEN THIS IS DONE "REGULARLY"

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies?

A. The "Thank you" messages would have the same impact on regular patrons of a restaurant as they would on occasional patrons of the same restaurant.
No need to assume on the behavior of regular vs occasional patrons... The issue is Random TY Writing vs. Regularly Writing TY Noes..

B. Regularly seeing "Thank you" written on their bills would not lead restaurant patrons to revert to their earlier tipping habits.
If Regularly doing so will lead to reverting to earlier tipping THEN the conclusion is invalid. This is the assumption.

C. The written "Thank you" reminds restaurant patrons that tips constitute a significant part of the income of many food servers.
What TY note reminds the customer was not mentioned in the stimulus

D. The rate at which people tip food servers in Pennsylvania Does not vary with how expensive a restaurant is.
We are concerned with average tips collected. The variation is not our concern.

E. Virtually all patrons of the Pennsylvania Restaurants in the study who were given a bill with "Thank you" written on it left a larger tip than they otherwise would have.
All patrons is a stretch.

Answer: B
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In a study conducted among servers in restaurants in Canada, [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2013, 21:37
In a study conducted among servers in restaurants in Canada, it was observed that the tips on bills with a "Thank you " note attached were on an average 3 percentage points higher than those without the note. Thus, regularly writing Thank you on the bills will increase the average income from tips significantly.
What is the assumption on which the argument depends.

A) the thank you would have the same effect on regular patrons of the restaurant as on the occasional ones
B) regularly seeing thank you written on the bill will not make the customers change their tipping habits.
C) The thank you reminds restaurant patrons that tips constitute a major part of the income to the servers
D)The rate at which the customers tip does not vary with how expensive the restaurant is
E) Virtually all patrons of the restaurant who were given a bill with a thank you written on it left a larger tip than they would have.


The clear assumption in this question is that the patrons of the restaurant will continue their tipping habits,even after regularly seeing a Thank you written on the bill.

Considering choice A: If the regular patrons contribute towards a larger portion of the revenue earned by the restaurant, the tips that they give will also constitute a significant part of the total income received from tips. In this case, if regular patrons are not affected by the new thank you note, average revenues might not go up significantly- the key word here.

On the other hand, if regular patrons constitute a very small proportion of the customer base, then whether they tip higher or not does not matter at all as far as significant increase in revenues from tips are concerned.

Regular patrons total customers
20 1000 -very small effect
700 1000 -significant effect

So, does the statement as it is stand as a strengthener?

Also, choice A says that the thank you will have the same effect on both regular ones and non regular ones? What effect is this, we do not know. It could mean that both are affected in a way that they tip higher or both are affected in a way that the thank you has no effect. Or are we to assume that the effect being talked about in this option is that they will tip higher?

Suppose we change this statement- " Regular patrons are as likely to tip higher than are occasional patrons"-

Now, we don't know how likely the occasional patrons are to tip. If the likelihood is high- revenues will go up. If not, then revenues will not go up.

What do you think?

Could you suggest possible strengtheners?

Last edited by Zarrolou on 21 Jul 2013, 22:02, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: In a study conducted among servers in restaurants in Canada, [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2013, 22:53
12bhang wrote:
So, does the statement as it is stand as a strengthener?

Also, choice A says that the thank you will have the same effect on both regular ones and non regular ones? What effect is this, we do not know. It could mean that both are affected in a way that they tip higher or both are affected in a way that the thank you has no effect. Or are we to assume that the effect being talked about in this option is that they will tip higher?

Suppose we change this statement- " Regular patrons are as likely to tip higher than are occasional patrons"-

Now, we don't know how likely the occasional patrons are to tip. If the likelihood is high- revenues will go up. If not, then revenues will not go up.

What do you think?

Could you suggest possible strengtheners?


The conclusion uses the word "significantly". Because we do not know the percentages, A as it is NOT a strengthener. It could either increase the income significantly or not, it depends on how many regular/occasional consumers the restaurant has and how much tips they left.

We have to assume that the effect will be higher tips. Because if the same effect were "no effects", then who left the tips?

A strengthener here IMO could be something like:
"All consumers who were given the "thank you" bill left a tip, and came back to the restaurant soon after"
This shows two things:
1)The effect of the bill are predictable and affect all consumers (so the case: "one consumer left a 1000$ bill, the other none, and the average was 3%" is not a realistic scenario).
2)This procedure does not discourage consumers, because they returned to the restaurant.

Hope this helps
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Re: In a study conducted among servers in restaurants in Canada, [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jul 2013, 00:55
12bhang wrote:
In a study conducted among servers in restaurants in Canada, it was observed that the tips on bills with a "Thank you " note attached were on an average 3 percentage points higher than those without the note. Thus, regularly writing Thank you on the bills will increase the average income from tips significantly.
What is the assumption on which the argument depends.

A) the thank you would have the same effect on regular patrons of the restaurant as on the occasional ones
B) regularly seeing thank you written on the bill will not make the customers change their tipping habits.
C) The thank you reminds restaurant patrons that tips constitute a major part of the income to the servers
D)The rate at which the customers tip does not vary with how expensive the restaurant is
E) Virtually all patrons of the restaurant who were given a bill with a thank you written on it left a larger tip than they would have.


The clear assumption in this question is that the patrons of the restaurant will continue their tipping habits,even after regularly seeing a Thank you written on the bill.

Considering choice A: If the regular patrons contribute towards a larger portion of the revenue earned by the restaurant, the tips that they give will also constitute a significant part of the total income received from tips. In this case, if regular patrons are not affected by the new thank you note, average revenues might not go up significantly- the key word here.

In the context of the passage, "significant" means around 3%. The argument can't sensibly refer to a sample in which tips increased by 3% and say that in the future it will be a 10% increase.
Secondly, we don't know how much of the revenue of the restaurant or tips of the servers are generated from regular patrons or from occassional patrons, so comparing them does not help us any bit. We don't know about any of these and the option statement makes a comparison between these two.

12bhang wrote:
On the other hand, if regular patrons constitute a very small proportion of the customer base, then whether they tip higher or not does not matter at all as far as significant increase in revenues from tips are concerned.

Regular patrons total customers
20 1000 -very small effect
700 1000 -significant effect

So, does the statement as it is stand as a strengthener?

Also, choice A says that the thank you will have the same effect on both regular ones and non regular ones? What effect is this, we do not know. It could mean that both are affected in a way that they tip higher or both are affected in a way that the thank you has no effect. Or are we to assume that the effect being talked about in this option is that they will tip higher?

Suppose we change this statement- " Regular patrons are as likely to tip higher than are occasional patrons"-

Now, we don't know how likely the occasional patrons are to tip. If the likelihood is high- revenues will go up. If not, then revenues will not go up.

What do you think?

Could you suggest possible strengtheners?


Whatever you do with option A, it is going to remain on OFS answer choice till it keeps comparing regular patrons with occasional ones. We don't know about any of these. What would we gain by a comparison of these two? If we had known about tipping habits of one category of guys, then, by comparison, we might have gained something but as is, option A is completely non-nonsensical and out of scope.

Thanks,
Chiranjeev
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania,Servers in various [#permalink]

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New post 02 Aug 2013, 11:52
Please see the article below:

article-what-and-how-to-negate-4-exercise-questions-138510.html

Also attend the free session. Link below:

http://egmat.adobeconnect.com/sc1-july/ ... ation.html

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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania,Servers in various [#permalink]

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zaarathelab wrote:
In a study conducted in Pennsylvania,Servers in various restaurants wrote "Thank you" on randomly selected bills before presenting the bills to their customers. Tips on these bills were an average of three percentage points higher than tips on bills without the message. Therefore, if servers in Pennsylvania Regularly wrote "Thank you" on restaurant bills, their average income from tips would be significantly higher than it otherwise would have been.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies?

A. The "Thank you" messages would have the same impact on regular patrons of a restaurant as they would on occasional patrons of the same restaurant.

B. Regularly seeing "Thank you" written on their bills would not lead restaurant patrons to revert to their earlier tipping habits.

C. The written "Thank you" reminds restaurant patrons that tips constitute a significant part of the income of many food servers.

D. The rate at which people tip food servers in Pennsylvania Does not vary with how expensive a restaurant is.

E. Virtually all patrons of the Pennsylvania Restaurants in the study who were given a bill with "Thank you" written on it left a larger tip than they otherwise would have.


conclusion:write regularly THANK YOU on restaurant bills ===> income with tip will rise significantly i.e 3 percent (as per the argument)

premise: study conducted on various restaurant ==>bills with thank you earned 3 percent more tips.

A. The "Thank you" messages would have the same impact on regular patrons of a restaurant as they would on occasional patrons of the same restaurant.==.whatever is the effect of patrons whether they are regular or occasional patrons==>end result is that we have received 3 percent more tip which is already proved in premise...==>so this has no effect.

B. Regularly seeing "Thank you" written on their bills would not lead restaurant patrons to revert to their earlier tipping habits.
now according to premise we gained 3 percent increase on tip having thank you message in an experiment.
that was only in the experiment period.what is different in that experiment period and the conclusion?
the only difference is that time duration==>THE experiment was/must be for some period of time==>in conclusion we are putting THANK YOU message regularly....so thats the only difference if that factor doesnt affect then or conclusion is perfect.hence this is correct

C. The written "Thank you" reminds restaurant patrons that tips constitute a significant part of the income of many food servers.
we are not concerned what it reminds or not==>if it reminds then it was reminding too during experiment also and viceversa.
so if you negate==>it doesnt remind===>this means experiment was successfull in the absence of reminder...so this one doesnt affects conclusion.


D. The rate at which people tip food servers in Pennsylvania Does not vary with how expensive a restaurant is.
again same as A...we are not concerned how it affects in different types of restaurant ==>end result is we are getting 3 percent increase in tip.
hence out of scope.


E. Virtually all patrons of the Pennsylvania Restaurants in the study who were given a bill with "Thank you" written on it left a larger tip than they otherwise would have.==>again conclusion doesnt depends on this because whether the increment was because of ALL or because of SOME we are not concerned.

hope this helps
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania,Servers in various [#permalink]

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New post 29 Oct 2013, 22:52
I just looked through the explanations, but just wondering why the answer can't be D.
I thought that if the answer to the statement D. is
1. Yes, Then when people perceive certain restaurants are more luxurious than others, they will give more tips.
2. No, Then they gonna tip less
To make this argument to be true, don't we have to asssume that this is an assumption?
I thought this statement works as a defender??? or I just misunderstood?
Could anyone please explain this for me??
Thanks
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania,Servers in various [#permalink]

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New post 30 Oct 2013, 01:19
phunneyz wrote:
I just looked through the explanations, but just wondering why the answer can't be D.
I thought that if the answer to the statement D. is
1. Yes, Then when people perceive certain restaurants are more luxurious than others, they will give more tips.
2. No, Then they gonna tip less
To make this argument to be true, don't we have to asssume that this is an assumption?
I thought this statement works as a defender??? or I just misunderstood?
Could anyone please explain this for me??
Thanks


Hi Phunneyz

Glad to help :)

First of all, this question is about defender assumption. You're correct. But you misled the point because you did not determine the conclusion correctly (I guessed). The conclusion is " Therefore, if servers in Pennsylvania Regularly wrote "Thank you" on restaurant bills, their average income from tips would be significantly higher than it otherwise would have been"
--OR--
The more "thank you", the more tip for servers. <== This is the point, it doesn't matter how expensive a restaurant is. The KEY is the relation between the frequency of the "thank you" shown on a bill with the average tip.

As you knowthe KEY of defender assumption is to ELIMINATE answers that can weaken the conclusion. That differs from supporter assumption that will close the gap between premise and conclusion. Just a small remind of theories.

Now look back to D.
D. The rate at which people tip food servers in Pennsylvania Does not vary with how expensive a restaurant is.

Do you think D weaken the conclusion? Nope, D just talks about the rate of tip varying with how expensive a restaurant is, BUT NOT with how often the "thank you" is written on a bill. Do not infer too far, you should stick to the information provided in the argument. In fact, the argument does not say about the expensive of a restaurant.

Hope it helps.
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania,Servers in various [#permalink]

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New post 30 Oct 2013, 17:38
pqhai wrote:
phunneyz wrote:
I just looked through the explanations, but just wondering why the answer can't be D.
I thought that if the answer to the statement D. is
1. Yes, Then when people perceive certain restaurants are more luxurious than others, they will give more tips.
2. No, Then they gonna tip less
To make this argument to be true, don't we have to asssume that this is an assumption?
I thought this statement works as a defender??? or I just misunderstood?
Could anyone please explain this for me??
Thanks


Hi Phunneyz

Glad to help :)

First of all, this question is about defender assumption. You're correct. But you misled the point because you did not determine the conclusion correctly (I guessed). The conclusion is " Therefore, if servers in Pennsylvania Regularly wrote "Thank you" on restaurant bills, their average income from tips would be significantly higher than it otherwise would have been"
--OR--
The more "thank you", the more tip for servers. <== This is the point, it doesn't matter how expensive a restaurant is. The KEY is the relation between the frequency of the "thank you" shown on a bill with the average tip.

As you knowthe KEY of defender assumption is to ELIMINATE answers that can weaken the conclusion. That differs from supporter assumption that will close the gap between premise and conclusion. Just a small remind of theories.

Now look back to D.
D. The rate at which people tip food servers in Pennsylvania Does not vary with how expensive a restaurant is.

Do you think D weaken the conclusion? Nope, D just talks about the rate of tip varying with how expensive a restaurant is, BUT NOT with how often the "thank you" is written on a bill. Do not infer too far, you should stick to the information provided in the argument. In fact, the argument does not say about the expensive of a restaurant.

Hope it helps.


Thank you so much pqhai for the answer.
Now I realize that the good way is to practice more so that I can stay in SCOPE though quite difficult for me not to be tricked. :cry:
your post really helped. Now It's clear to me :wink:
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In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2016, 17:48
manalq8 wrote:
In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various restaurants wrote "Thank you" on randomly selected bills before presenting the bills to their customers. Tips on these bills were an average of three percentage points higher than tips on bills without the message. Therefore, if servers in Pennsylvania regularly wrote "Thank you" on restaurant bills, their average income from tips would be significantly higher than it otherwise would have been. Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies?

A. The "Thank you" messages would have the same impact on regular patrons of a restaurant as they would on occasional patrons of the same restaurant.
B. Regularly seeing "Thank you" written on their bills would not lead restaurant patrons to revert to their earlier tipping habits.
C. The written "Thank you" reminds restaurant patrons that tips constitute a significant part of the income of many food servers.
D. The rate at which people tip food servers in Pennsylvania does not vary with how expensive a restaurant is.
E. Virtually all patrons of the Pennsylvania restaurants in the study who were given a bill with "Thank you" written on it left a larger tip than they otherwise would have.



just wanted to know if the answer would have changed had the conclusion stated "their (income) from tips would be significantly higher than it otherwise would have been".i guess then option E would be the answer.

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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania,Servers in various [#permalink]

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New post 01 Oct 2016, 12:15
pqhai wrote:
phunneyz wrote:
I just looked through the explanations, but just wondering why the answer can't be D.
I thought that if the answer to the statement D. is
1. Yes, Then when people perceive certain restaurants are more luxurious than others, they will give more tips.
2. No, Then they gonna tip less
To make this argument to be true, don't we have to asssume that this is an assumption?
I thought this statement works as a defender??? or I just misunderstood?
Could anyone please explain this for me??
Thanks


Hi Phunneyz

Glad to help :)

First of all, this question is about defender assumption. You're correct. But you misled the point because you did not determine the conclusion correctly (I guessed). The conclusion is " Therefore, if servers in Pennsylvania Regularly wrote "Thank you" on restaurant bills, their average income from tips would be significantly higher than it otherwise would have been"
--OR--
The more "thank you", the more tip for servers. <== This is the point, it doesn't matter how expensive a restaurant is. The KEY is the relation between the frequency of the "thank you" shown on a bill with the average tip.

As you knowthe KEY of defender assumption is to ELIMINATE answers that can weaken the conclusion. That differs from supporter assumption that will close the gap between premise and conclusion. Just a small remind of theories.

Now look back to D.
D. The rate at which people tip food servers in Pennsylvania Does not vary with how expensive a restaurant is.

Do you think D weaken the conclusion? Nope, D just talks about the rate of tip varying with how expensive a restaurant is, BUT NOT with how often the "thank you" is written on a bill. Do not infer too far, you should stick to the information provided in the argument. In fact, the argument does not say about the expensive of a restaurant.

Hope it helps.


Hi ,
I chose D - " The rate at which people tip food servers in Pennsylvania Does not vary with how expensive a restaurant is. "- because it means people's tipping habit does not depends on how expensive restaurants are in Pennsylvania. if we negate that statement, it means people habit of tipping depends on how expensive the restaurant. So that means conclusion of the argument " thank you note will increase the tips and hence increase their avg salary " is falsified.
whats wrong in that thought process?
thanks!

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In a study conducted in Pennsylvania,Servers in various [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jan 2017, 19:45
The supposition behind A is that the message "thank you" influences positively all sorts of customers. So,the avg earning of waiters is certain to rise if the message positively influences all patrons. It is beyond all shades of doubt and dispute that both regular and occasional customers need to be taken into consideration in order to choose the right option.
The option B obviously does not concern itself with all the patrons; it only applies to regular visitors. Since there is no hint in the text that regular visitors constitute an overwhelming majority of the total customers of the restaurant, this particular option does not merit serious consideration. Moreover,the warmth of the message is very likely to wear thin in course of time. So, it is nothing but a wild guess that regular visitors would not revert to their earlier tipping habits later on(for every time they visit)
I know option A is slightly out of scope.
But many times we have seen in GMAT that it takes new thinking and ideas in CR as a right answer.

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New post 17 Jun 2017, 07:32
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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New post 31 Dec 2017, 16:58
cialit0506 wrote:
In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various restaurants wrote “Thank you” on randomly selected bills before presenting the bills to their customers. Tips on these bills were an average of three percentage points higher than tips on bills without the message. Therefore, if servers in Pennsylvania regularly wrote “Thank you” on restaurant bills, their average income from tips would be significantly higher than it otherwise would have been.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies?

A. The “Thank you” messages would have the same impact on regular patrons of a restaurant as they would on occasional patrons of the same restaurant
B. Regularly seeing “Thank you” written on their bills would not lead restaurant patrons to revert to their earlier tipping habits
C. The written “Thank you” reminds restaurant patrons that tips constitute a significant part of the income of many food servers
D. The rate at which people tip food servers in Pennsylvania does not vary with how expensive a restaurant is
E. Virtually all patrons of the Pennsylvania restaurants in the study who were given a bill with “Thank you” written on it left a larger tip than they otherwise would have.

Again, as in such questions, there are normally two very strong possible answers. In this case, it is A or B. Somehow, I don’t find the OA answer very convincing.



For some reason, this took place in Canada in the GMAT prep version. I guess they never reuse the same question, hahah.

Anyway, the answer is B.

My strategy was to first look at what weakens the conclusion, and from there, find the underlying assumption. The argument looks like this in basic form: 1. Thank you written on bill makes customer happy with server. 2. When customer is happy with server, server's tip increases 3%. 3. Therefore, if server wants more tip, server should write thank you. What weakens this argument rests in the patrons happiness or lack thereof. Seeing thank you, over and over again if you are a regular customer is subject to the law of diminishing return; in other words, the original spark of happiness upon seeing thank you will fade away. Given that the argument overlooks this weakness, the argument assumes the opposite of that weakness. The argument assumes regularly seeing thank you will always produce the same result in regular customers.


Choice A is wrong, because the study which the argument is based off of does not discuss occasional patrons, only random patrons, so this is not a relevant assumption. C is wrong because the argument is not relying on the patrons knowledge of general server income, rather, it is sentiment based. D is wrong because it goes beyond the arguments scope by introducing expensive restaurants. Supposing E to be true, it would not be the arguments underlying assumption, because E would actually hurt the argument because it suggests the thank you is an arbitrary factor in determining the tip.

Therefore B is the answer.

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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania,Servers in various [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jan 2018, 05:19
An assumption if proven wrong, will negate the conclusion.
Conclusion here is: Thank you letters increases -> tip increases.

A. The “Thank you” messages would have the same impact on regular patrons of a restaurant as they would on occasional patrons of the same restaurant
- even if it does not have same impact on the regular and occasional patrons, it doesn't matter. It is not mentioned who will be impacted much or who will not be impacted at all.

B. Regularly seeing “Thank you” written on their bills would not lead restaurant patrons to revert to their earlier tipping habits
negating: Regularly seeing “Thank you” written on their bills would lead restaurant patrons to revert to their earlier tipping habits. Hence, tip will not increase.

C. The written “Thank you” reminds restaurant patrons that tips constitute a significant part of the income of many food servers
- does not remind - no conclusion whether tip needs reminders or not.


D. The rate at which people tip food servers in Pennsylvania does not vary with how expensive a restaurant is
?? Out of context.


E. Virtually all patrons of the Pennsylvania restaurants in the study who were given a bill with “Thank you” written on it left a larger tip than they otherwise would have.
- I had earlier chosen this. But later I realized it is almost what is mentioned in the passage, and hence not unstated assumption.

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This is my first answer explanation. Not sure how convincing I might sound, but would appreciate if you will hit kudos to keep me motivated. :-)
Should there be any flaw, please let me know. :(

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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania,Servers in various [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jan 2018, 20:46
cialit0506 wrote:
In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various restaurants wrote “Thank you” on randomly selected bills before presenting the bills to their customers. Tips on these bills were an average of three percentage points higher than tips on bills without the message. Therefore, if servers in Pennsylvania regularly wrote “Thank you” on restaurant bills, their average income from tips would be significantly higher than it otherwise would have been.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies?

A. The “Thank you” messages would have the same impact on regular patrons of a restaurant as they would on occasional patrons of the same restaurant
B. Regularly seeing “Thank you” written on their bills would not lead restaurant patrons to revert to their earlier tipping habits
C. The written “Thank you” reminds restaurant patrons that tips constitute a significant part of the income of many food servers
D. The rate at which people tip food servers in Pennsylvania does not vary with how expensive a restaurant is
E. Virtually all patrons of the Pennsylvania restaurants in the study who were given a bill with “Thank you” written on it left a larger tip than they otherwise would have.

Again, as in such questions, there are normally two very strong possible answers. In this case, it is A or B. Somehow, I don’t find the OA answer very convincing.


The correct answer here is B.

Situation: A bill with the "Thank You" return on it will increase the bill amount by 3 percentage points than the bill without the message return on it. And the prediction is if the servers regularly write the "Thank You" message that would increase their tip amount.

Reasoning: Which of information is the assumption that would based on the information given. Clearly if it is assumed that regularly written "Thank you" message would not turn patron to earlier tipping habits would make the conclusion given true.

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