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# In a study conducted in Pennsylvania,Servers in various

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In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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07 Aug 2009, 06:50
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In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various restaurants wrote “Thank you” on randomly selected bills before presenting the bills to their customers. Tips on these bills were an average of three percentage points higher than tips on bills without the message. Therefore, if servers in Pennsylvania regularly wrote “Thank you” on restaurant bills, their average income from tips would be significantly higher than it otherwise would have been.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies?

A. The “Thank you” messages would have the same impact on regular patrons of a restaurant as they would on occasional patrons of the same restaurant
B. Regularly seeing “Thank you” written on their bills would not lead restaurant patrons to revert to their earlier tipping habits
C. The written “Thank you” reminds restaurant patrons that tips constitute a significant part of the income of many food servers
D. The rate at which people tip food servers in Pennsylvania does not vary with how expensive a restaurant is
E. Virtually all patrons of the Pennsylvania restaurants in the study who were given a bill with “Thank you” written on it left a larger tip than they otherwise would have.

Again, as in such questions, there are normally two very strong possible answers. In this case, it is A or B. Somehow, I don’t find the OA answer very convincing.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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07 Aug 2009, 07:02
is it E>>>coz the argument is assuming that the note 'Thank you' is responsible for the higher tips, whereas it is not taking into account the usual tip giving habits of customers....it culd be such a case where all the particular bill payers, generally leave a higher tip than the general public...
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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07 Aug 2009, 08:30
I am inclined towards B.

Regularly seeing “Thank you” written on their bills would not lead restaurant patrons to revert to their earlier tipping habits.

If servers wrote regularly Thank you notes and customers won't revert to earlier tipping habits then it would increase servers average income.
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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07 Aug 2009, 09:41
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I like your explanations on B as that was how I thought it should be. And the OA is B too.

But, is there anything wrong with A? Can't A function as an assumption too?

You see, if the impact was the same for both kinds of patrons, wouldn't A become an assumption that supports the argument?

I heard of the technique "If Yes/No" analysis. Shall we use it to go through choices A and B? From what ppl say, if an answer choice could support/weaken an argument whenever it switches from "If Yes" to "If No" or vice versa, then that is probably a correct answer. Choices that could not support or weaken whenever you use "If Yes" or "If No" would not be a correct answer. [Please, someone correct me if im wrong here]

For A

If Yes, A supports/strengthens the argument.

If No (ie. impact is different for both sets of patrons; some might tip a bit more and some a bit less, but ultimately all of them on average would tip more than previously), A cannot weaken the statement either. In fact, if you look closely, B actually still supports the statement.

Since both "If Yes/No" can only support the statement (Even when you swith to "If No", you still cannot weaken it), then this is probably not the answer.

For B
If Yes, B supports the statement. The reasonings are as provided by the previous posts

If No, B weakens the argument instantly. Say, if the patrons would revert back to tipping less, then the argument weakens.

Since both "If Yes/No" can support and weaken the argument, then this is probably the correct answer.

Hmm.... please let me know if you agree with my line of reasoning as it can be a bit hard to put it in words.

Thanks.
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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07 Aug 2009, 10:48
cialit0506 wrote:
I like your explanations on B as that was how I thought it should be. And the OA is B too.

But, is there anything wrong with A? Can't A function as an assumption too?

You see, if the impact was the same for both kinds of patrons, wouldn't A become an assumption that supports the argument?

I heard of the technique "If Yes/No" analysis. Shall we use it to go through choices A and B? From what ppl say, if an answer choice could support/weaken an argument whenever it switches from "If Yes" to "If No" or vice versa, then that is probably a correct answer. Choices that could not support or weaken whenever you use "If Yes" or "If No" would not be a correct answer. [Please, someone correct me if im wrong here]

For A

If Yes, A supports/strengthens the argument.

If No (ie. impact is different for both sets of patrons; some might tip a bit more and some a bit less, but ultimately all of them on average would tip more than previously), A cannot weaken the statement either. In fact, if you look closely, B actually still supports the statement.

Since both "If Yes/No" can only support the statement (Even when you swith to "If No", you still cannot weaken it), then this is probably not the answer.

For B
If Yes, B supports the statement. The reasonings are as provided by the previous posts

If No, B weakens the argument instantly. Say, if the patrons would revert back to tipping less, then the argument weakens.

Since both "If Yes/No" can support and weaken the argument, then this is probably the correct answer.

Hmm.... please let me know if you agree with my line of reasoning as it can be a bit hard to put it in words.

Thanks.

I am not sure of this technique. But let's discuss option A.
The “Thank you” messages would have the same impact on regular patrons of a restaurant as they would on occasional patrons of the same restaurant

To me it's a weaker choice than B. Who will contribute more to server's increased revenue? Occasional or Regular Patrons. It's regular patrons who will contribute more. So if I see an option, which focuses more on sustaining regular customer's behavior I would pick that one.
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2009, 14:14
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cialit0506 wrote:
In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various restaurants wrote “Thank you” on randomly selected bills before presenting the bills to their customers. Tips on these bills were an average of three percentage points higher than tips on bills without the message. Therefore, if servers in Pennsylvania regularly wrote “Thank you” on restaurant bills, their average income from tips would be significantly higher than it otherwise would have been.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies?

B. Regularly seeing “Thank you” written on their bills would not lead restaurant patrons to revert to their earlier tipping habits
.

If regularly seeing “Thank you” written on their bills would lead to divert the customer to their earlier tipping habits then the conclusion would not hold. Clearly B
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2009, 17:54
Let's use Kaplan's denial test to see what impact the opposite of this statement would have on the argument:
Regularly seeing thank you on bills WOULD lead to patrons reverting to their old tipping habits."

If tippers go back to tipping the same as they always did before the friendly message, then servers' income from tips wouldn't increase - it would remain the same.

Since the denial of (B) stops the prediction from coming true, (B) MUST BE TRUE in order for the argument to make sense: choose (B).

(E) says: "Virtually all patrons of the Pennsylvania Restaurants in the study who were given a bill with "Thank you" written on it left a larger tip than they otherwise would have."

How do you weaken E?If virtually all patrons DO not leave a larget tip then the earnings won't increase.Does'nt that weaken the statement??Please help.
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2009, 19:33
tejal777 wrote:
Let's use Kaplan's denial test to see what impact the opposite of this statement would have on the argument:
Regularly seeing thank you on bills WOULD lead to patrons reverting to their old tipping habits."

If tippers go back to tipping the same as they always did before the friendly message, then servers' income from tips wouldn't increase - it would remain the same.

Since the denial of (B) stops the prediction from coming true, (B) MUST BE TRUE in order for the argument to make sense: choose (B).

(E) says: "Virtually all patrons of the Pennsylvania Restaurants in the study who were given a bill with "Thank you" written on it left a larger tip than they otherwise would have."

How do you weaken E?If virtually all patrons DO not leave a larget tip then the earnings won't increase.Does'nt that weaken the statement??Please help.

Extracted: "Tips on these bills were an average of three percentage points higher than tips on bills without the message. "

VS

(E) Virtually all patrons of the Pennsylvania Restaurants in the study who were given a bill with "Thank you" written on it left a larger tip than they otherwise would have.

>>In agreement.
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In a study conducted in Pennsylvania,Servers in various [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2009, 06:24
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In a study conducted in Pennsylvania,Servers in various restaurants wrote "Thank you" on randomly selected bills before presenting the bills to their customers. Tips on these bills were an average of three percentage points higher than tips on bills without the message. Therefore, if servers in Pennsylvania Regularly wrote "Thank you" on restaurant bills, their average income from tips would be significantly higher than it otherwise would have been.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies?

A. The "Thank you" messages would have the same impact on regular patrons of a restaurant as they would on occasional patrons of the same restaurant.

B. Regularly seeing "Thank you" written on their bills would not lead restaurant patrons to revert to their earlier tipping habits.

C. The written "Thank you" reminds restaurant patrons that tips constitute a significant part of the income of many food servers.

D. The rate at which people tip food servers in Pennsylvania Does not vary with how expensive a restaurant is.

E. Virtually all patrons of the Pennsylvania Restaurants in the study who were given a bill with "Thank you" written on it left a larger tip than they otherwise would have.

Last edited by Zarrolou on 21 Jul 2013, 23:02, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: GMATprep CR : Pennsylvania waiters [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2009, 07:25
Agree with C

Conclusion: "Thank you" message- Higher tip by Customer- Higher average income of servers.
Assumption is that which establishes a link between the message and the average income. C serves the purpose.
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Re: GMATprep CR : Pennsylvania waiters [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2009, 11:29
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The argument states that waiters who write "thank you" on the bill on average get 3% higher tips on checks than those who don't. Therefore, the waiters believes that if they will get a more tips if they write "thank you" on each receipt. The questions asks for the assumption that the waiter's belief relies upon.

A. The "Thank you" messages would have the same impact on regular patrons of a restaurant as they would on occasional patrons of the same restaurant. The question does not distinguish between occassional and regular patrons. It only states that the patrons who see "Thank you" pay tip 3% higher than those who don't have "Thank you" on their checks.

B. Regularly seeing "Thank you" written on their bills would not lead restaurant patrons to revert to their earlier tipping habits.If this is true then it would not undermine the conclusion that people who see "thank you" will tip more.

C. The written "Thank you" reminds restaurant patrons that tips constitute a significant part of the income of many food servers. This statement is not necessary because it touches upon the reason why people might pay more. ie. Patrons could be paying more bc the "Thank you" makes them think that their waiter is friendlier. This does not undermine the conclusion.

D. The rate at which people tip food servers in Pennsylvania Does not vary with how expensive a restaurant is. Out of scope.

E. Virtually all patrons of the Pennsylvania Restaurants in the study who were given a bill with "Thank you" written on it left a larger tip than they otherwise would have.This is not an assumption made to draw the conclusion. This is the result of the study.
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Re: GMATprep CR : Pennsylvania waiters [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2009, 13:59
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I'm pretty sure it's E. Google it for me. I'm at work and can't access sites with the OA on them. This question was posted before on GMAT Club before, though. Here’s why I think it’s E.

Quote:
In a study conducted in Pennsylvania,Servers in various restaurants wrote "Thank you" on randomly selected bills before presenting the bills to their customers. Tips on these bills were an average of three percentage points higher than tips on bills without the message. Therefore, if servers in Pennsylvania Regularly wrote "Thank you" on restaurant bills, their average income from tips would be significantly higher than it otherwise would have been.

This explicitly assumes a cause and effect relationship with the thank you causing the 3% tips increase. There could have been several reasons why these waiters got higher tips. They may have been more customer focused and therefore worked harder- and the Thank You might have just been the icing on the cake rather than the cake itself. The point is that there is nothing in the stem that says we can control for the differences in service among the servers. E addresses this dead on IMO.

E. Virtually all patrons of the Pennsylvania Restaurants in the study who were given a bill with "Thank you" written on it left a larger tip than they otherwise would have.

E displays this cause and affect and is more than just the result of the study because the evidence of the study doesn’t necessitate that the Thank you’s were the cause of the increased tips. E’s the missing link. B IMO is a booby trap answer. It goes beyond the scope of the claim. Where in the claim is “regular tipping habits” defined or mentioned. Who has the habit? - those in the Thank you group or those who aren’t? I’d argue that both probably have tipping habits. Is B arguing that the Thank you’s would desensitize patrons to the Thank you’s? Even so, That’s a future statement. The actual claim is about what the servers “could have” received so it’s in the past.

Any way these are just my thoughts sometimes I'm wrong. But if B is the answer I can't see it's logic at all. I can see E's.
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Re: GMATprep CR : Pennsylvania waiters [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2009, 15:37
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Here's my reasoning for why it's not E. The conclusion is that if waiters write "thank you" on the checks, then they will receive a higher tip. The conclusion is drawn from the fact that in a previous study those who wrote "thank you" received 3% higher tips than those who did not.

According to E. Virtually all patrons of the Pennsylvania Restaurants in the study who were given a bill with "Thank you" written on it left a larger tip than they otherwise would have. This not an assumption that the conclusion depends on. Not all the patrons need to leave more tip than they otherwise would have in order for the conclusion to be drawn that writing "thank you" will increase the tip. The question states ON AVERAGE those who had "thank you" tipped 3% higher. Perhaps only half of the people left a higher tip. Perhaps only a quarter left a higher tip. Or perhaps only one person left a higher tip (a really really big tip). The number of patrons who left a higher tip does not matter in this argument. It's merely stated that ON AVERAGE tips were 3% higher. If the "thank you" induced anyone at all to leave a higher tip then they would have, then the overall tip would be higher.

Vannbj, I understand your reasoning that it's possible that the patrons who got "thank you" on their bill were incidentally the ones who also got better treatment from the waiters. Therefore the better service and not the "thank you" per say was the reason for the higher tip. However, statement E says that virtually all patrons of the Pennsylvania Restaurants in the study who were given a bill with "Thank you" written on it left a larger tip than they otherwise would have. Yes this argument does distinguish that the "thank you" was the cause of the higher tip, but like I mentioned before, it's not necessary for virtually all of the patrons to tip more in order for the conclusion to be drawn.
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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18 Feb 2011, 17:00
boeinz wrote:
tejal777 wrote:
Let's use Kaplan's denial test to see what impact the opposite of this statement would have on the argument:
Regularly seeing thank you on bills WOULD lead to patrons reverting to their old tipping habits."

If tippers go back to tipping the same as they always did before the friendly message, then servers' income from tips wouldn't increase - it would remain the same.

Since the denial of (B) stops the prediction from coming true, (B) MUST BE TRUE in order for the argument to make sense: choose (B).

(E) says: "Virtually all patrons of the Pennsylvania Restaurants in the study who were given a bill with "Thank you" written on it left a larger tip than they otherwise would have."

How do you weaken E?If virtually all patrons DO not leave a larget tip then the earnings won't increase.Does'nt that weaken the statement??Please help.

Extracted: "Tips on these bills were an average of three percentage points higher than tips on bills without the message. "

VS

(E) Virtually all patrons of the Pennsylvania Restaurants in the study who were given a bill with "Thank you" written on it left a larger tip than they otherwise would have.

>>In agreement.

I know this is old, but am replying for the benefit of future readers:

The premise states that the tips were an average of 3% higher.
So even if some patrons didn't leave a larger tip than they normally would have (as per Least extreme negation of option E), the total tip amount would still average out to 3% higher than the normal amount.

Note that you should read every word carefully. The conclusion of the argument is
if servers in Pennsylvania regularly wrote "Thank you" on restaurant bills, their average income from tips would be significantly higher than it otherwise would have been
The key word here is 'regularly'. Once you get that, B makes complete sense.
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Re: GMATprep CR : Pennsylvania waiters [#permalink]

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06 Aug 2011, 08:42
Whys is the OA B and not A when A states that regular patrons will have same impact as occasional , the author assumes that the high income would be generated irrespective of the frequency of occurence of bills.
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In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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11 Nov 2011, 08:10
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In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various restaurants wrote "Thank you" on randomly selected bills before presenting the bills to their customers. Tips on these bills were an average of three percentage points higher than tips on bills without the message. Therefore, if servers in Pennsylvania regularly wrote "Thank you" on restaurant bills, their average income from tips would be significantly higher than it otherwise would have been. Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies?

A. The "Thank you" messages would have the same impact on regular patrons of a restaurant as they would on occasional patrons of the same restaurant.
B. Regularly seeing "Thank you" written on their bills would not lead restaurant patrons to revert to their earlier tipping habits.
C. The written "Thank you" reminds restaurant patrons that tips constitute a significant part of the income of many food servers.
D. The rate at which people tip food servers in Pennsylvania does not vary with how expensive a restaurant is.
E. Virtually all patrons of the Pennsylvania restaurants in the study who were given a bill with "Thank you" written on it left a larger tip than they otherwise would have.
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Re: STUDY CONDUCTED IN Penn. [#permalink]

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11 Nov 2011, 10:44
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Heres the explanation:

Option A states that both regular patrons and occasional patrons of the restaurant will be impacted in a similar way on seeing the 'Thank You' note. However, the impact is not mentioned clearly and hence this is out of scope.

Option B states that seeing the 'Thank You' note regularly would not lead restaurant patrons to revert to their earlier tipping habits. Thus, this option eliminates the possibility that would weaken the argument. In other words, using the assumption negation technique, we can see that if the patrons revert to their earlier tipping habits on seeing the note regularly, the average income of the servers would not be higher. This contradicts the original argument which concludes that higher tipping on seeing the 'Thank You' note will lead to a higher income for the servers. So this is the correct answer choice.

Option C seems to be a bit far fetched because in order for this option to be correct, we need to assume that the patrons would tip higher as they would think, on seeing the thank you note, that the tip is a significant part of the servers income.

Option D seems to be out of scope as we are not concerned with how expensive or less expensive a restaurant is.

Option E seems to be irrelevant as well because it adds on to the given premise that tip was high when the bill was accompanied by a Thank You note.

Hope this helps.

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Re: STUDY CONDUCTED IN Penn. [#permalink]

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13 Nov 2011, 01:08
I miss the word not regularly, instead read only "regularly revert" and think this sentence weaken (negate before the answer choice give ). After that, I belive B is the right :D
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2011, 04:03
For people who thought it might be A or E.

Don't you think A was narrowing down a little bit too specifically(probably going OOS0, and E, being a little too generic(again, OOS). E, is more like a general statement that would Strengthen the argument, but, didn't sound more like an assumption.
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various [#permalink]

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10 Dec 2011, 02:17
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+1 B
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Re: In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various   [#permalink] 10 Dec 2011, 02:17

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