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In a study published by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, researchers

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In a study published by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, researchers  [#permalink]

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New post 03 May 2018, 00:16
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A
B
C
D
E

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Question Stats:

37% (01:37) correct 63% (01:47) wrong based on 521 sessions

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In a study published by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, researchers proposed a cause for the chestnut die-off: a fungus called Cryphonectria parasitica, which was introduced to the United States in the early 1900s, invading the tree’s bark, forms cankers as it spreads and lowering the pH of infected tissue to toxic levels, leads to the death of the tree within a short period.


A. invading the tree’s bark, forms cankers as it spreads and lowering the pH of infected tissue to toxic levels, leads

B. invading the tree’s bark, forming cankers as it spreads, lowering the pH of infected tissue to toxic levels, and leading

C. invades the tree’s bark, forming cankers as it spreads and lowers the pH of infected tissue to toxic levels, leading

D. invades the tree’s bark, forms cankers as it spreads and lowering the pH of infected tissue to toxic levels, leading

E. invades the tree’s bark, forming cankers as it spreads and lowering the pH of infected tissue to toxic levels, leading

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Re: In a study published by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, researchers  [#permalink]

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New post 03 May 2018, 01:57
IMO E

I am not sure about ''invades''.. Can somebody please explain?

''Forming'' and ''lowering'' to respect the parallelism and ''leading'' in order to describe the result.
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In a study published by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, researchers  [#permalink]

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New post 03 May 2018, 09:36
IMO--E
As per parallelism, all the four words are parallel in structure invades()in terms of tense used ), forming,lowering and leading as an outcome
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Re: In a study published by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, researchers  [#permalink]

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New post 03 May 2018, 20:30
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Question Stem: "In a study published by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, researchers proposed a cause for the chestnut die-off: a fungus called Cryphonectria parasitica, which was introduced to the United States in the early 1900s, invading the tree’s bark, forms cankers as it spreads and lowering the pH of infected tissue to toxic levels, leads to the death of the tree within a short period."
Steps that I followed while solving this:

1. By not even reading the question, you can see that the options are typical parallelism type question's options.
2. The stem is trying to explain a cause and in that cause how a fungus kills the chestnut.
3. A, C, D are straight away out, a mixture of ing forms of the verb and present tense.
4. Problems in B: It does not have a main verb, all are in -ing format, so it's a phrase, not a complete sentence.

Hence E.

Let me know if my assumptions are wrong.
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Re: In a study published by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, researchers  [#permalink]

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New post 04 May 2018, 03:02
Bunuel wrote:
In a study published by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, researchers proposed a cause for the chestnut die-off: a fungus called Cryphonectria parasitica, which was introduced to the United States in the early 1900s, invading the tree’s bark, forms cankers as it spreads and lowering the pH of infected tissue to toxic levels, leads to the death of the tree within a short period.


A. invading the tree’s bark, forms cankers as it spreads and lowering the pH of infected tissue to toxic levels, leads

B. invading the tree’s bark, forming cankers as it spreads, lowering the pH of infected tissue to toxic levels, and leading

C. invades the tree’s bark, forming cankers as it spreads and lowers the pH of infected tissue to toxic levels, leading

D. invades the tree’s bark, forms cankers as it spreads and lowering the pH of infected tissue to toxic levels, leading

E. invades the tree’s bark, forming cankers as it spreads and lowering the pH of infected tissue to toxic levels, leading


can someone explain why E over C?
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New post 05 May 2018, 01:26
I think E is better because it respects the parallelism among "forming","lowering" and "leading"

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Re: In a study published by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, researchers  [#permalink]

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New post 07 May 2018, 01:33
Bunuel wrote:
In a study published by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, researchers proposed a cause for the chestnut die-off: a fungus called Cryphonectria parasitica, which was introduced to the United States in the early 1900s, invading the tree’s bark, forms cankers as it spreads and lowering the pH of infected tissue to toxic levels, leads to the death of the tree within a short period.


A. invading the tree’s bark, forms cankers as it spreads and lowering the pH of infected tissue to toxic levels, leads

B. invading the tree’s bark, forming cankers as it spreads, lowering the pH of infected tissue to toxic levels, and leading

C. invades the tree’s bark, forming cankers as it spreads and lowers the pH of infected tissue to toxic levels, leading

D. invades the tree’s bark, forms cankers as it spreads and lowering the pH of infected tissue to toxic levels, leading

E. invades the tree’s bark, forming cankers as it spreads and lowering the pH of infected tissue to toxic levels, leading


VERITAS PREP OFFICIAL SOLUTION:



The colon in this sentence tells you that the second half of the sentence explains the first half. In this case, the second half of the sentence explains how the fungus caused the chestnut die-off. After determining this, it’s a matter of making the sentence logical and making sure that all lists are in parallel. Using the “Slash & Burn” technique, you can see that the phrase “which was introduced to the United States in the early 1900s” is unnecessary information, and that (for this sentence to have a main verb and thus be complete) you need the next word to be “invades” rather than “invading.” This means that you can eliminate choices (A) and (B).

“Leading” at the end of the underlined portion is consistent among all three choices, so you can ignore it. Now you just need to look at the middle clause. It is a short list, so both items must be parallel. You can either use the pair “forms… and lowers” or the pair “forming… and lowering” to describe the actions of the fungus. However, a mix of the two isn’t acceptable. Based on this, you can eliminate (C) and (D) since they mix and match these two forms, leaving you with (E).

You may ask why “lowering” must be parallel to “forming,” as opposed to “lowers” being parallel to “spreads.” If the phrase were “as it spreads and lowers,” the object of both verbs would be “the pH of infected tissue to toxic levels,” which is clearly illogical (the fungus doesn’t “spread levels of pH”). Remember: particularly if you’re unsure about a grammatical decision, always consider the meaning of the sentence.
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In a study published by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, researchers  [#permalink]

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New post 10 May 2018, 12:45
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My analysis of Option C.
invades the tree’s bark, forming cankers as it spreads AND lowers the pH of infected tissue to toxic levels, leading


The underlined portions present the result of the previous action . It is parallel now . Experts throw light mikemcgarry GMATNinjaTwo
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Re: In a study published by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, researchers  [#permalink]

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New post 13 May 2018, 08:02
my god. too hard
I have not seen any question in og or gmatprep in which, doing modifies another "doing". here choice E shows that this case happen.
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Re: In a study published by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, researchers  [#permalink]

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New post 13 May 2018, 09:43
a fungus called Cryphonectria parasitica invades the tree’s bark, forming cankers as it spreads and lowers the pH of infected tissue to toxic levels, leading to the death of the tree within a short period.

I do not under what is wrong with above sentence . Why E is prefered over c .
Thanks
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Re: In a study published by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, researchers  [#permalink]

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New post 13 May 2018, 12:24
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Perugu wrote:
My analysis of Option C.
invades the tree’s bark, forming cankers as it spreads AND lowers the pH of infected tissue to toxic levels, leading


The underlined portions present the result of the previous action . It is parallel now . Experts throw light mikemcgarry GMATNinjaTwo

Hello,
I too had opted for c but after pondering further I realized that for our logic ( the one that you mentioned) to be correct, C must have had a comma after spread to complete the modifier and start with the second item of list (lowers). Since C misses out comma, the modifier continues with a parallelism error.

Today I understood the value of a comma before 'and'.
Hope that helps.
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Re: In a study published by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, researchers  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Aug 2018, 03:53
rkpravi wrote:
a fungus called Cryphonectria parasitica invades the tree’s bark, forming cankers as it spreads and lowers the pH of infected tissue to toxic levels, leading to the death of the tree within a short period.

I do not under what is wrong with above sentence . Why E is prefered over c .
Thanks



Ans: C must have had a comma after spread to complete the modifier and start with the second item of list (lowers). Therefore E is the best option without and parallelism error in it.

Hope it will help
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In a study published by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, researchers  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Aug 2018, 14:08
thefibonacci wrote:
Bunuel wrote:
In a study published by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, researchers proposed a cause for the chestnut die-off: a fungus called Cryphonectria parasitica, which was introduced to the United States in the early 1900s, invading the tree’s bark, forms cankers as it spreads and lowering the pH of infected tissue to toxic levels, leads to the death of the tree within a short period.


A. invading the tree’s bark, forms cankers as it spreads and lowering the pH of infected tissue to toxic levels, leads

B. invading the tree’s bark, forming cankers as it spreads, lowering the pH of infected tissue to toxic levels, and leading

C. invades the tree’s bark, forming cankers as it spreads and lowers the pH of infected tissue to toxic levels, leading

D. invades the tree’s bark, forms cankers as it spreads and lowering the pH of infected tissue to toxic levels, leading

E. invades the tree’s bark, forming cankers as it spreads and lowering the pH of infected tissue to toxic levels, leading


can someone explain why E over C?


Hi,

I'm not an expert but I think the real difference between E and C is the meaning:

Option C:

Cryphonectria parasitica
    * which was introduced to the United States in the early 1900s - modifies parasitica

    <-- invades the tree’s bark - parasitica is acting

    ** forming cankers as it spreads - describes/(modifies) how parasitica invades

    <-- and lowers the pH of infected tissue to toxic levels - parasitica is acting again?

    ***, leading to the death of the tree within a short period - as a result, leading to the death: describing the previous clause (forming...and lowers): comma+verb-ing rule

    ", forming....and lowers...., leading to ..."

Option E:

Cryphonectria parasitica:
    * which was introduced to the United States in the early 1900s - modifies parasitica


    <--invades the tree’s bark - parasitica is acting

    ** forming cankers as it spreads - describes/(modifies) how parasitica invades

    ** and lowering the pH of infected tissue to toxic levels - describes/(modifies) how parasitica invades

    ***, leading to the death of the tree within a short period - describes the result of forming cankers and lowering the PH; comma + verb-ing modifier modifies preceding clause

"invades tree ..., forming crankers... and lowering the PH..., leading to the death..."
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