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In addition to having more seats than the old theater, the seats in

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New post 28 May 2020, 22:15
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In addition to having more seats than the old theater, the seats in the new theater are more customer-friendly than those in the old theater, with reclining seat backs and cup holder armrests.

A) the seats in the new theater are more customer-friendly than those in

B) the seats in the new theater are more customer-friendly than in

C) the new theater has seats that are more customer-friendly than those in

D) the new theater seats are more customer friendly than

E) the customer-friendliness of the seats in the new theater is greater than that in

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New post Updated on: 25 Jun 2020, 22:30
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Note: the following is recommended for those who already have solid basics and aim for above 700.


The widespread notion that “the opening modifier should invariably talk about the subject following the comma” is not always valid and sometimes even dangerous. Sure, certain opening modifiers must do so, but not all. Especially, prepositional phrases (PP) are a bit complicated:

Case 1. PP with Participle – such modifiers act in the same way as ordinary participle modifiers (verbing), and thus MUST talk about the following subject. Let’s first try this similar official problem ourselves. Below is a spoiler:

- In addition to having more protein than wheat does, rice has protein of higher quality... (correct)
- In addition to having more protein than wheat does, the protein in rice is higher in quality... (wrong)

Here, the PP “in addition to” is followed by the participle “having”. Hence, the opening modifier MUST talk about rice, not about protein. The implied meaning - rice has more protein than wheat does. The same is true for the problem at hand:

- In addition to having more seats than the old theater, the seats in the new theater… (wrong)
- In addition to having more seats than the old theater, the new theater has seats… (correct)

Similarly, the PP MUST talk about the following subject that has more seats. Hence, “the new theater” should follow the comma.

Case 2. PP without Participle – generally, such modifiers DON’T necessarily have to talk about the following subject; rather, they MUST describe the VERB in the following clause. Here is an official example. Below is a spoiler:

- In addition to the increase in hourly wages, the employees are now seeking an expanded program of benefits.
Or shortly:
- In addition to A, the employees are now seeking B.

As we see, now the PP doesn’t directly talk about “the employees” because it is illogical to say that “the employees” are “in addition to the increase”. The logical parallel of “the increase in hourly wages” is “an expanded program of benefits”, yet it doesn’t follow the comma. The reason is that the PP here describes the verb “are seeking”, or gives additional info how “are seeking” is happening. The meaning: the employees are SEEKING A in addition to SEEKING B.

Let’s try another similar official example. Below is a spoiler:

A/ B/C) In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology.
D) In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovery.

The notion that “the opening modifier should always talk about the following subject” is especially dangerous here. If we follow it, then we may assume that “her work” in PP must be talking about “Mary Leakey”, not about “contributions”. As a result, we may hastily eliminate D and begin to choose among A/B/C while D is the correct answer. This PP describes not “Mary Leakey”, but again the following verb. Implied meanings:

D) Mary Leakey’s contributions INCLUDE her discovery in addition to INCLUDING her work. (makes sense)
A/B/C) Mary Leakey CONTRIBUTED to archaeology in addition to CONTRIBUTING to her work. (nonsense)

In a nutshell, both Case 1 and Case 2 are adverbial modifiers that describe the verb in the following clause. The main difference is that Case 1 must talk about the following subject, whereas Case 2 doesn’t necessarily have to do so.

__________________________________________________________________________________

1. Let’s dissect another similar official example that will further consolidate our understanding. Below is a spoiler:

- In assessing the problems, the question A is irrelevant. (wrong)
- In an assessment of the problems, the question A is irrelevant. (correct)

The PP “in assessing the problems” talks about “the question”. So, the sentence illogically suggests that the question itself is assessing the problems. The second PP describes the verb phrase “is irrelevant” and logically suggests that “the question A is irrelevant in an assessment of the problems”.

2. Try this one. Below is a spoiler:

- Analyzing campaign expenditures, the media have focused... (Participle modifier)
- In analyzing campaign expenditures, the media have focused... (Case 1)
- In their analysis of campaign expenditures, the media have focused... (Case 2)

All opening modifiers are correct.

3. Try this one. Below is a spoiler:

- by devising an instrument, Henry Cavendish’s apparatus... (Case 1, wrong)
- by devising an instrument, Henry Cavendish... (Case 1, correct)

Cavendish’s apparatus couldn’t devise an instrument, whereas he himself certainly could. Hence, the second is correct.

4. Try this one. Below is a spoiler:

- With no natural predators and with expanses of green suburban neighborhoods where there is no hunting, the deer population in New Jersey has grown to exceed 175,000. (Case 2)
Or shortly:
- With no predators and with expanses of green neighborhoods, the deer population has grown.

The PP, consisting of two prepositional phrases, doesn’t directly talk about the following subject because “with expanses of green neighborhoods” doesn’t make sense with “the deer population”; rather, the PP describes the verb “has grown” and explains how the deer population has grown – it has grown with no predators and it has grown with expanses of green neighborhoods.

5. Try this one. Below is a spoiler:

- For protection from the summer sun, the Mojave lived in open-sided, flat-topped dwellings. (Case 2)

The PP doesn’t directly talk about “the Mojave” because “the Mojave” themselves are not “for protection from the sun”; instead, the PP describes “lived” and explains why they lived in such dwellings - the Mojave lived in such dwellings for protection from the sun.

6. Try this one. Below is a spoiler:

- In two letters to the historian Tacitus, the nephew of Pliny the Elder wrote the only eyewitness account of the great eruption of Vesuvius. (Case 2)
Or shortly:
- In two letters, the nephew wrote the account.

It must be already obvious that “the nephew” himself is not “in two letters”. The PP modifies “wrote” - the nephew wrote the account in two letters.

7. Try this one. Below is a spoiler:

- In contrast to the ongoing trade imbalances with China and Japan, the United States trade deficit with Mexico declined by $500 million as a result of record exports to that country. (Case 2, correct answer)
Or shortly:
- In contrast to the trade imbalances, the trade deficit declined.

Here “the trade deficit” itself is NOT in contrast to “the trade imbalances”. They are not contrasting things. The PP describes “declined” – the trade deficit declined in contrast to the trade imbalances. Implied meaning: the trade deficit declined whereas the trade imbalances didn’t decline (makes sense).

- In contrast to ongoing trade imbalances with China and Japan, the United States sold record exports to Mexico, reducing its trade deficit by $500 million. (Case 2, wrong answer)
Or shortly:
- In contrast to trade imbalances, the United States sold record exports.

Implied meaning: the US sold record exports whereas trade imbalances didn’t sell record exports. (nonsense, hence wrong)

8. Try this one. Below is a spoiler:

- On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles (Case 2, wrong answer)
Or shortly:
- On Earth, A is believed to be B.

The PP describes the verb phrase “is believed to be” and thus creates illogical meaning: A is believed to be B on Earth, or it is such believed on Earth, but not on other planets. It’s nonsense to say that earthlings believe A is B, whereas other planets’ inhabitants may believe otherwise.

9. Try this one. Below is a spoiler:

- Although limited in usefulness, several entrepreneurs believe that A is very important. (wrong)
- While limited in usefulness, several entrepreneurs believe that A is very important. (wrong)
- Despite the limited usefulness, several entrepreneurs believe that A is very important. (Case 2, correct)

Both “although limited” and “while limited” illogically denote that “several entrepreneurs” themselves are limited in usefulness. The PP “despite” describes the verb “is” - several entrepreneurs believe that A is very important despite the limited usefulness.

10. To easily discern whether PP is used correctly, try to append it to the end of the verb phrase and see whether it makes sense. Examples from RonPurewal:

- With all the noise in here, I can't focus on my work.
- I can't focus on my work with all the noise in here. (makes sense)

- On the train, I read the book.
- I read the book on the train. (makes sense)

- On the table, I read the book.
- I read the book on the table.

Here, the first implies that we were on the table, whereas the second correctly implies that the book was on the table.

__________________________________________________________________________________

1. Opening modifiers that MUST talk about the following subject – read generis here and RonPurewal here.

2. Opening modifiers that DON’T necessarily have to talk about the following subject – read generis here and RonPurewal here and GMATGuruNY here and here.


If you finished reading the post and internalized the content, then high five! Good job.
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Originally posted by JonShukhrat on 30 May 2020, 03:29.
Last edited by JonShukhrat on 25 Jun 2020, 22:30, edited 1 time in total.
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In addition to having more seats than the old theater, the seats in  [#permalink]

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New post 28 May 2020, 22:19
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OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

Project SC Butler: Sentence Correction (SC2)




Quote:
In addition to having more seats than the old theater, the seats in the new theater are more customer-friendly than those in the old theater, with reclining seat backs and cup holder armrests.

A) the seats in the new theater are more customer-friendly than those in

B) the seats in the new theater are more customer-friendly than in

C) the new theater has seats that are more customer-friendly than those in

D) the new theater seats are more customer friendly than ????? [COMPARISON ERROR]

E) the customer-friendliness of the seats in the new theater is greater than that in

• Split #1- what is the introductory modifier talking about?

What has more seats than the old theater (has)?
The new theater.
With some few exceptions, the introductory modifier must modify the immediately following subject or clause.
(I write about six kinds of intro phrases, including one that behaves unusually, here.)

Options A and B say that the new seats have more seats than the old theater has.
No.
Option E says that the customer-friendliness has more seats than the old theater has.
No.

Eliminate A, B, and E
(In addition, eliminate B because it compares [more] customer friendly [than] IN THE OLD THEATER. The italicized items are not parallel.

Split #2: Compare the right things

Option D says that the new theater seats are more customer-friendly than the old theater is customer-friendly.
If you are in doubt, compare to (C).
What is being compared? Seats and [those] seats.
Somethings of X are more customer-friendly than those somethings ("those") of Y.

Option C solves the mismatch issue in option D.
The new theater has seats that are more customer-friendly than those [SEATS] in

Eliminate D.

The correct answer is C.

Rachit4126 , welcome to SC Butler.

JonShukhrat , so good to see you! Long time.

Answers that don't explain don't get kudos.
The answers that do explain range from good to outstanding, and get kudos.
JonShukhrat , that post is hella good. I'd bump it to Best Community Reply but I don't think you answered this question exactly, although you used it as a spring board.
As usual, you find, follow, and dissect GMAT patterns—which is the single best way I know to beat this test.
SC Butler crew, read his post, here. Doing so is a good way to expand the way you think about the GMAT.

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Re: In addition to having more seats than the old theater, the seats in  [#permalink]

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New post 28 May 2020, 23:03
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In addition to HAVING
this has to modify the subject of the next clause, which can’t be seats and has to be The Old theater.So the next clause has to start with The Theater
So only option left are C and D
Now if you see option D, the non underlined portion starts with old theater.
So according to option D the new theater seats are compared to the old theater, not it’s seats. Hence this option is also out.
Option C communicates the comparison clearly with the intended meaning in tact.
Hence option C is the correct choice.

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Re: In addition to having more seats than the old theater, the seats in  [#permalink]

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New post 28 May 2020, 23:17
1
In addition to having more seats than the old theater, the seats in the new theater are more customer-friendly than those in the old theater, with reclining seat backs and cup holder armrests.

A) the seats in the new theater are more customer-friendly than those inIn addition to having more seats than the old theater,..it says than something has more seats that old theater.So the thing come after the comma should be that something which has more seats.Here it is new theater which has more seats than the old theater.So after comma the new theater should come.

B) the seats in the new theater are more customer-friendly than in Same as A

C) the new theater has seats that are more customer-friendly than those inCorrect

D) the new theater seats are more customer friendly than the new theater seats are comparing with the old theater

E) the customer-friendliness of the seats in the new theater is greater than that in Same as A
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Re: In addition to having more seats than the old theater, the seats in  [#permalink]

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New post 29 May 2020, 00:43
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In addition to having more seats than the old theater, the seats in the new theater are more customer-friendly than those in the old theater, with reclining seat backs and cup holder armrests.

A) the seats in the new theater are more customer-friendly than those in

B) the seats in the new theater are more customer-friendly than in

C) the new theater has seats that are more customer-friendly than those in CORRECT

D) the new theater seats are more customer friendly than

E) the customer-friendliness of the seats in the new theater is greater than that in


This sentence is testing mainly comparison. As the first sentence mentions the old theater as its main subject, it is clear that the subsequent subject to be compared is the "new theater". We can deduce this is the case when we see "than the old theater" the word "than" is a strong indicator that a comparison is being made here, in this case between the "old theater" and "new theater".
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Re: In addition to having more seats than the old theater, the seats in  [#permalink]

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New post 29 May 2020, 04:32
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Answer: Option C

Issue: "In addition to having more seats than the old theater" should modify "the new theater" not "the seats".

A) the seats in the new theater are more customer-friendly than those in
=> Modifying wrong noun.

B) the seats in the new theater are more customer-friendly than in
=> Modifying wrong noun.

C) the new theater has seats that are more customer-friendly than those in
=> Correctly modifying "the new theater".

D) the new theater seats are more customer friendly than
=> This option corrected the noun, which the modifier is modifying. But "those in" is needed to compare the seats from the new and the old theater.

E) the customer-friendliness of the seats in the new theater is greater than that in
=> Wrongly modifying "the customer-friendliness of the seats".
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New post 29 May 2020, 04:43
In addition to having more seats than the old theater, the seats in the new theater are more customer-friendly than those in the old theater, with reclining seat backs and cup holder armrests.

POE:
Eliminate (A),(B),(E) - Modifier error.
Eliminate (D) - comparison error


A) the seats in the new theater are more customer-friendly than those in

B) the seats in the new theater are more customer-friendly than in

C) the new theater has seats that are more customer-friendly than those in - CORRECT

D) the new theater seats are more customer friendly than

E) the customer-friendliness of the seats in the new theater is greater than that in
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Re: In addition to having more seats than the old theater, the seats in  [#permalink]

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New post 29 May 2020, 23:41
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IMO C,

Split between A,B & E and C & D


We can easily eliminate the split A, B and E for the reason mentioned below.

A) the seats in the new theater are more customer-friendly than those in
Modifier Error - 'Having more seats' in the previous sentence should modify the new theater rather than the seats in the new theater. Hence eliminate

B) the seats in the new theater are more customer-friendly than in
Modifier error as in A and also Comparison error - 'those' is missing. Hence eliminate


C) the new theater has seats that are more customer-friendly than those in
Correctly modifying and Comparing. Hence correct answer

D) the new theater seats are more customer friendly than
Comparison error - 'those' is missing. Hence eliminate

E) the customer-friendliness of the seats in the new theater is greater than that in
Modifier error - Incorrectly modifying the seats. Hence eliminate
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Re: In addition to having more seats than the old theater, the seats in  [#permalink]

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New post 30 May 2020, 09:25
generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Sentence Correction (SC2)


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In addition to having more seats than the old theater, the seats in the new theater are more customer-friendly than those in the old theater, with reclining seat backs and cup holder armrests.



A) the seats in the new theater are more customer-friendly than those in

B) the seats in the new theater are more customer-friendly than in

C) the new theater has seats that are more customer-friendly than those in

D) the new theater seats are more customer friendly than

E) the customer-friendliness of the seats in the new theater is greater than that in
IMO C
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The official explanation is here.
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New post 31 May 2020, 05:20
Dear generis,

Love the way you support and encourage us. It’s so generous of you to appreciate even the smallest achievements of us. You are, surely, part of them. All the blessings to you and your loved ones.
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In addition to having more seats than the old theater, the seats in  [#permalink]

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New post 31 May 2020, 06:52
JonShukhrat wrote:
Note: the following is recommended for those who already have solid basics and aim for above 700.


The widespread notion that “the opening modifier should invariably talk about the subject following the comma” is not always valid and sometimes even dangerous. Sure, certain opening modifiers must do so, but not all. Especially, prepositional phrases (PP) are a bit complicated:

Case 1. PP with Participle – such modifiers act in the same way as ordinary participle modifiers (verbing), and thus MUST talk about the following subject. Let’s first try this similar official problem ourselves. Below is a spoiler:

- In addition to having more protein than wheat does, rice has protein of higher quality... (correct)
- In addition to having more protein than wheat does, the protein in rice is higher in quality... (wrong)

Here, the PP “in addition to” is followed by the participle “having”. Hence, the opening modifier MUST talk about rice, not about protein. The implied meaning - rice has more protein than wheat does. The same is true for the problem at hand:

- In addition to having more seats than the old theater, the seats in the new theater… (wrong)
- In addition to having more seats than the old theater, the new theater has seats… (correct)

Similarly, the PP MUST talk about the following subject that has more seats. Hence, “the new theater” should follow the comma.

Case 2. PP without Participle – generally, such modifiers DON’T necessarily have to talk about the following subject; rather, they MUST describe the VERB in the following clause. Here is an official example. Below is a spoiler:

- In addition to the increase in hourly wages, the employees are now seeking an expanded program of benefits.
Or shortly:
- In addition to A, the employees are now seeking B.

As we see, now the PP doesn’t directly talk about “the employees” because it is illogical to say that “the employees” are “in addition to the increase”. The logical parallel of “the increase in hourly wages” is “an expanded program of benefits”, yet it doesn’t follow the comma. The reason is that the PP here describes the verb “are seeking”, or gives additional info how “are seeking” is happening. The meaning: the employees are SEEKING A in addition to SEEKING B.

Let’s try another similar official example. Below is a spoiler:

A/ B/C) In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology.
D) In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovery.

The notion that “the opening modifier should always talk about the following subject” is especially dangerous here. If we follow it, then we may assume that “her work” in PP must be talking about “Mary Leakey”, not about “contributions”. As a result, we may hastily eliminate D and begin to choose among A/B/C while D is the correct answer. This PP describes not “Mary Leakey”, but again the following verb. Implied meanings:

D) Mary Leakey’s contributions INCLUDE her discovery in addition to INCLUDING her work. (makes sense)
A/B/C) Mary Leakey CONTRIBUTED to archaeology in addition to CONTRIBUTING to her work. (nonsense)

In a nutshell, both Case 1 and Case 2 are adverbial modifiers that describe the verb in the following clause. The main difference is that Case 1 must talk about the following subject, whereas Case 2 doesn’t necessarily have to do so.

__________________________________________________________________________________

1. Let’s dissect another similar official example that will further consolidate our understanding. Below is a spoiler:

- In assessing the problems, the question A is irrelevant. (wrong)
- In an assessment of the problems, the question A is irrelevant. (correct)

The PP “in assessing the problems” must talk about “the question”. So, the sentence illogically suggests that the question itself is assessing the problems. The second PP describes the verb phrase “is irrelevant” and logically suggests that “the question A is irrelevant in an assessment of the problems”.

2. Try this one. Below is a spoiler:

- Analyzing campaign expenditures, the media have focused... (Participle modifier)
- In analyzing campaign expenditures, the media have focused... (Case 1)
- In their analysis of campaign expenditures, the media have focused... (Case 2)

All opening modifiers are correct.

3. Try this one. Below is a spoiler:

- by devising an instrument, Henry Cavendish’s apparatus... (Case 1, wrong)
- by devising an instrument, Henry Cavendish... (Case 1, correct)

Cavendish’s apparatus couldn’t devise an instrument, whereas he himself certainly could. Hence, the second is correct.

4. Try this one. Below is a spoiler:

- With no natural predators and with expanses of green suburban neighborhoods where there is no hunting, the deer population in New Jersey has grown to exceed 175,000. (Case 2)
Or shortly:
- With no predators and with expanses of green neighborhoods, the deer population has grown.

The PP, consisting of two prepositional phrases, doesn’t directly talk about the following subject because “with expanses of green neighborhoods” doesn’t make sense with “the deer population”; rather, the PP describes the verb “has grown” and explains how the deer population has grown – it has grown with no predators and it has grown with expanses of green neighborhoods.

5. Try this one. Below is a spoiler:

- For protection from the summer sun, the Mojave lived in open-sided, flat-topped dwellings. (Case 2)

The PP doesn’t directly talk about “the Mojave” because “the Mojave” themselves are not “for protection from the sun”; instead, the PP describes “lived” and explains why they lived in such dwellings - the Mojave lived in such dwellings for protection from the sun.

6. Try this one. Below is a spoiler:

- In two letters to the historian Tacitus, the nephew of Pliny the Elder wrote the only eyewitness account of the great eruption of Vesuvius. (Case 2)
Or shortly:
- In two letters, the nephew wrote the account.

It’s must be already obvious that “the nephew” himself is not “in two letters”. The PP modifies “wrote” - the nephew wrote the account in two letters.

7. Try this one. Below is a spoiler:

- In contrast to the ongoing trade imbalances with China and Japan, the United States trade deficit with Mexico declined by $500 million as a result of record exports to that country. (Case 2, correct answer)
Or shortly:
- In contrast to the trade imbalances, the trade deficit declined.

Here “the trade deficit” itself is NOT in contrast to “the trade imbalances”. They are not contrasting things. The PP describes “declined” – the trade deficit declined in contrast to the trade imbalances. Implied meaning: the trade deficit declined whereas the trade imbalances didn’t decline (makes sense).

- In contrast to ongoing trade imbalances with China and Japan, the United States sold record exports to Mexico, reducing its trade deficit by $500 million. (Case 2, wrong answer)
Or shortly:
- In contrast to trade imbalances, the United States sold record exports.

Implied meaning: the US sold record exports whereas trade imbalances didn’t sell record exports. (nonsense, hence wrong)

8. Try this one. Below is a spoiler:

- On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles (Case 2, wrong answer)
Or shortly:
- On Earth, A is believed to be B.

The PP describes the verb phrase “is believed to be” and thus creates illogical meaning: A is believed to be B on Earth, or it is such believed on Earth, but not on other planets. It’s nonsense to say that earthlings believe A is B, whereas other planets’ inhabitants may believe otherwise.

9. Try this one. Below is a spoiler:

- Although limited in usefulness, several entrepreneurs believe that A is very important. (wrong)
- While limited in usefulness, several entrepreneurs believe that A is very important. (wrong)
- Despite the limited usefulness, several entrepreneurs believe that A is very important. (Case 2, correct)

Both “although limited” and “while limited” illogically denote that “several entrepreneurs” themselves are limited in usefulness. The PP “despite” describes the verb “is” - several entrepreneurs believe that A is very important despite the limited usefulness.

10. To easily discern whether PP is used correctly, try to append it to the end of the verb phrase and see whether it makes sense. Examples from RonPurewal:

- With all the noise in here, I can't focus on my work.
- I can't focus on my work with all the noise in here. (makes sense)

- On the train, I read the book.
- I read the book on the train. (makes sense)

- On the table, I read the book.
- I read the book on the table.

Here, the first implies that we were on the table, whereas the second most logically implies that the book was on the table.

__________________________________________________________________________________

1. Opening modifiers that MUST talk about the following subject – read generis here and RonPurewal here.

2. Opening modifiers that DON’T necessarily have to talk about the following subject – read generis here and RonPurewal here and GMATGuruNY here and here.


If you finished reading the post and internalized the content, then high five! Good job.


JonShukhrat hey this is an amazing post. I went through all the examples youve shared. I have a doubt about the 9th one. I understand we can't use "although" and "while" here as both would result in a dangling modifier issue but isn't the same true for the usage of "despite"? Why should despite not be followed by the thing it is describing?
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Re: In addition to having more seats than the old theater, the seats in  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jun 2020, 07:38
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Quote:
JonShukhrat hey this is an amazing post. I went through all the examples youve shared


Hi Kritisood

High five, well done! I am glad if I was of some help. By the way, a nice catch and a great follow-up question! There is an interesting group of modifiers called “verbless clauses” – actually, GMATGuruNY calls them so because he is probably the only expert who wrote about them a lot.

VERBLESS CLAUSES:
- A verbless clause typically begins with SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTION + VERBing or SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTION + VERBed.
- A SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTION serves to introduce a clause that cannot stand on its own. Examples include if, although, while, as, when, after, before, etc.
- When a verbless clause is set off by a comma, it modifies the closest noun or noun phrase. Therefore, it should be AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE to its implied subject.
- When a verbless clause is not set off by a comma, the implied subject of the verbless clause is the preceding subject.

Please, try this official problem. Below is a spoiler:

- While studying the genetic makeup of corn, a new class of mutant genes was discovered by Barbara McClintock. (wrong)
- While studying the genetic makeup of corn, Barbara McClintock discovered a new class of mutant genes. (correct)

The sentence starts with the verbless clause “while studying the genetic makeup of corn”, which must talk about the closest noun phrase. Who studied the genetic makeup? Barbara McClintock did. So, she must follow the verbless clause. Now, please, try this official problem. Below is a spoiler:

- Although accounting for only 5 percent of the world's population, 28 percent of its nonrenewable resources are consumed by United States citizens. (wrong)
- Although accounting for only 5 percent of the world's population, United States citizens consume 28 percent of its nonrenewable resources. (correct)

Similarly, the verbless clause “although accounting for only 5 percent of the world's population” talks about the closest noun phrase following the comma. Who accounts for 5% of the world’s population? US citizens do. So, they must follow the clause. Next, please, try this official problem. Below is a spoiler:

- Despite recent increases in sales and cash flow, industry analysts expect automakers to be more conservative. (Case2, correct)

The huge difference between “although verbing”/”while verbing” and “despite” is that the first are verbless clauses, whereas the latter is a preposition. Verbless clauses “although verbing” and ”while verbing” modify the closest noun phrase. However, the preposition “despite” modifies the verb phrase “to be conservative”. Implied meaning: automakers will be more conservative despite recent increases in sales and cash flow.

Quote:
I have a doubt about the 9th one. I understand we can't use "although" and "while" here as both would result in a dangling modifier issue but isn't the same true for the usage of "despite"? Why should despite not be followed by the thing it is describing?


9th official problem. Below is a spoiler:

- Although limited in usefulness, several entrepreneurs believe that A is very important. (wrong)
- While limited in usefulness, several entrepreneurs believe that A is very important. (wrong)
- Despite the limited usefulness, several entrepreneurs believe that A is very important. (Case 2, correct)

A very similar scenario: both “although limited” and “while limited” are verbless clauses, so both talk about the closest noun phrase “several entrepreneurs”. As a result, the implied meaning is illogical: several entrepreneurs are limited in usefulness. The correct sentence should say that A is limited in usefulness. Note that both verbless clauses are NOT dangling modifiers. A modifier is considered dangling when the sentence isn't clear about what is being modified. However, here both very clearly refer to “several entrepreneurs”.

On the contrary, the preposition “despite” isn’t obliged to refer to “several entrepreneurs”; instead, it modifies the verb phrase “is very important” - several entrepreneurs believe that A is very important despite the limited usefulness.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

1. Before reading GMATGuruNY ‘s elucidations, you first should try these problems (did you notice that I started the sentence with a verbless cluase ?): Link 1, Link 2, Link 3, Link 4, and Link 5. Try to spot verbless clauses.

2. GMATGuruNY ‘s elucidations: Link 6, Link 7, and Link 8.

3. Try to identify whether verbless clauses are used correctly: Link 9, Link 10, Link 11, Link 12, Link 13, Link 14, and Link 15.

4. Try to identify whether “despite” is used correctly by reading it together with the following verb: Link 16, Link 17, Link 18, and Link 19.

Happy studying :D
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Re: In addition to having more seats than the old theater, the seats in  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jun 2020, 01:11
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JonShukhrat wrote:
Quote:
JonShukhrat hey this is an amazing post. I went through all the examples youve shared


Hi Kritisood

High five, well done! I am glad if I was of some help. By the way, a nice catch and a great follow-up question! There is an interesting group of modifiers called “verbless clauses” – actually, GMATGuruNY calls them so because he is probably the only expert who wrote about them a lot.

VERBLESS CLAUSES:
- A verbless clause typically begins with SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTION + VERBing or SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTION + VERBed.
- A SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTION serves to introduce a clause that cannot stand on its own. Examples include if, although, while, as, when, after, before, etc.
- When a verbless clause is set off by a comma, it modifies the closest noun or noun phrase. Therefore, it should be AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE to its implied subject.
- When a verbless clause is not set off by a comma, the implied subject of the verbless clause is the preceding subject.

Please, try this official problem. Below is a spoiler:

- While studying the genetic makeup of corn, a new class of mutant genes was discovered by Barbara McClintock. (wrong)
- While studying the genetic makeup of corn, Barbara McClintock discovered a new class of mutant genes. (correct)

The sentence starts with the verbless clause “while studying the genetic makeup of corn”, which must talk about the closest noun phrase. Who studied the genetic makeup? Barbara McClintock did. So, she must follow the verbless clause. Now, please, try this official problem. Below is a spoiler:

- Although accounting for only 5 percent of the world's population, 28 percent of its nonrenewable resources are consumed by United States citizens. (wrong)
- Although accounting for only 5 percent of the world's population, United States citizens consume 28 percent of its nonrenewable resources. (correct)

Similarly, the verbless clause “although accounting for only 5 percent of the world's population” talks about the closest noun phrase following the comma. Who accounts for 5% of the world’s population? US citizens do. So, they must follow the clause. Next, please, try this official problem. Below is a spoiler:

- Despite recent increases in sales and cash flow, industry analysts expect automakers to be more conservative. (Case2, correct)

The huge difference between “although verbing”/”while verbing” and “despite” is that the first are verbless clauses, whereas the latter is a preposition. Verbless clauses “although verbing” and ”while verbing” modify the closest noun phrase. However, the preposition “despite” modifies the verb phrase “to be conservative”. Implied meaning: automakers will be more conservative despite recent increases in sales and cash flow.

Quote:
I have a doubt about the 9th one. I understand we can't use "although" and "while" here as both would result in a dangling modifier issue but isn't the same true for the usage of "despite"? Why should despite not be followed by the thing it is describing?


9th official problem. Below is a spoiler:

- Although limited in usefulness, several entrepreneurs believe that A is very important. (wrong)
- While limited in usefulness, several entrepreneurs believe that A is very important. (wrong)
- Despite the limited usefulness, several entrepreneurs believe that A is very important. (Case 2, correct)

A very similar scenario: both “although limited” and “while limited” are verbless clauses, so both talk about the closest noun phrase “several entrepreneurs”. As a result, the implied meaning is illogical: several entrepreneurs are limited in usefulness. The correct sentence should say that A is limited in usefulness. Note that both verbless clauses are NOT dangling modifiers. A modifier is considered dangling when the sentence isn't clear about what is being modified. However, here both very clearly refer to “several entrepreneurs”.

On the contrary, the preposition “despite” isn’t obliged to refer to “several entrepreneurs”; instead, it modifies the verb phrase “is very important” - several entrepreneurs believe that A is very important despite the limited usefulness.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

1. Before reading GMATGuruNY ‘s elucidations, you first should try these problems (did you notice that I started the sentence with a verbless cluase ?): Link 1, Link 2, Link 3, Link 4, and Link 5. Try to spot verbless clauses.

2. GMATGuruNY ‘s elucidations: Link 6, Link 7, and Link 8.

3. Try to identify whether verbless clauses are used correctly: Link 9, Link 10, Link 11, Link 12, Link 13, Link 14, and Link 15.

4. Try to identify whether “despite” is used correctly by reading it together with the following verb: Link 16, Link 17, Link 18, and Link 19.

Happy studying :D


JonShukhrat Hey, thanks a lot for taking the time out to explain this to me. I went through the entire text and all the examples. It is much clearer now. Apart from the said topic at discussion, the links provide really good practice of some typical SC nuances.

High five to you and +11111 kudos!!
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Re: In addition to having more seats than the old theater, the seats in  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jun 2020, 02:27
In addition to having more seats than the old theater, the seats in the new theater are more customer-friendly than those in the old theater, with reclining seat backs and cup holder armrests.

- The comparison is between the old theater and the new theater

A) the seats in the new theater are more customer-friendly than those in Incorrect comparison. Old theater vs new seats

B) the seats in the new theater are more customer-friendly than in Incorrect comparison. Old theater vs new seats

C) the new theater has seats that are more customer-friendly than those in Incorrect comparison. Old theater vs new seats

D) the new theater seats are more customer friendly than Correct

E) the customer-friendliness of the seats in the new theater is greater than that in Incorrect comparison. Old theater vs new seats
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Re: In addition to having more seats than the old theater, the seats in   [#permalink] 07 Jun 2020, 02:27

In addition to having more seats than the old theater, the seats in

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