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In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil

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In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil [#permalink]

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In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African cave paintings.

A. Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting
B. Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting
C. Leakey was a contributor to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of
D. Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of
E. Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil [#permalink]

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This question is among the brutual SC list. I remeber it well because as you i was stunned when my answer choice was wrong.

I found an explaination in another forum. Just sharring it with you.
--------------------------------------------------------------------
In this case, the right answer might actually look wrong to many people (which often happens on tricky questions). The opening phrase is talking about her work and saying "in addition to" her work on the fossil record - so we need to say what it is that is referring to this work. Her work on the fossil record was one of her contributions, just as her discovery of hominid activity was one of her contributions. But that's pretty subtle - if you're reading too quickly, you'll think that the opening modifier is referring to Mary Leakey and so we need to have her follow the comma. (But that's not really what's going on - what's actually going on is that we have a list of 3 contributions, but one comes at the beginning of the sentence and the other two come towards the end.)

A simpler sentence with the same set-up:
In addition to food, the mother's contributions to her child include shelter and love.
And as a straight list:
The mother's contributions to her child include food, shelter, and love.
Mary Leakey's contributions to archaelogy include her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity, and her painstaking documentation of East African paintings.
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil [#permalink]

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psharma21 wrote:
In addition to her work on the miocene homicide fosiil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaelogy with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African paintings.

(A) Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting

(B) Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting

(C) Leakey was a contributor to archaelogy with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of

(D) Leakey's contributions to archaelogy include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of

(E) Leakey's contributions to archaelogy include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of

In this question, many websites have quoted D as the OA... but "in addition to her.." the her here is not Leakey's Contribution. This seems to me like a modifier error. Please help.

ALSO i tried the GMAT prep questions on this website, and my accuracy was 60-70%, which is very scary because i have worked very hard to improve this part. Should i expect this level of difficulty on the exam day as well? RC is my nemesis and CR not extremely friendly so... SC was supposed to be my savior and mind you, my GMAT is in 3 days!! :?


The GMAT itself helps you in solving the SC questions. Look at the not underlined part; it talks about something "in addition to her work on the miocene bla bla". You may ask yourself-what is in addition of the work. Obviously, it can't be Mary Leaky. Since Mary is also not underlined, then it is quite clear that we must be concerned about about Mary. ABC immediately out.
Here the use of discovery as verbing in E, eliminates the answer choice. We need a noun.
Hope that helps.
P.S.- I shall say, just relax. There is no such rule that you can GMAT take only twice in your entire lifetime. Just calm your mind and use logic. Everything will be sorted out.
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil [#permalink]

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fozzzy wrote:
Can someone explain this one! Thanks!


In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African cave paintings.

A and B and E are not parallel with/by her discovery / painstakingly documenting
or her discovering and painstaking documentation in E.

C. Leakey was a contributor to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of
D. Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of

C and D remain, and they both look fine taken by them self. Look at the initial modifier "In addition to her work": what should complete it?

"In addition to her work" Leakey’s contributions <== correct - in addition to her work there is her contributions to etc...
"In addition to her work" Leakey <=== not correct as it states that "she" is an addition to her work.

Hope it's clear
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil [#permalink]

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kinghyts wrote:
Not convinced with the OA. The her in option D) cannot refer to Mary Leakey.

Experts please comment


Actually her in her work is used as a possessive pronoun, and it very neatly refers to the possessive noun: Mary Leakey’s contributions.

Even otherwise, GMAT is quite lenient when it comes to these kind of pronoun usage. For example, in the sentence below, the object pronoun her is referring to the possessive pronoun: Bona Dea's.

#109, OG-13:
Among the objects found in the excavated temple were small terra-cotta effigies left by supplicants who were either asking the goddess Bona Dea's aid in healing physical and mental ills or thanking her for such help.
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil [#permalink]

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psharma21 wrote:
In addition to her work on the miocene homicide fosiil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaelogy with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African paintings.

(A) Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting
(B) Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting
(C) Leakey was a contributor to archaelogy with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of
(D) Leakey's contributions to archaelogy include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of
(E) Leakey's contributions to archaelogy include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of

ankurgupta03 wrote:
Hey Mike,
Can you please help me with this question.
If the OA of the problem here is D, then there is no antecedent of her. Please let me know what is wrong in my reasoning.
Regards,
Ankur

Dear Ankur,
I'm happy to respond. :-)

Here's a blog you may find helpful:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/gmat-pronoun-traps/

The rule is: a noun in the possessive (such as "Leakey's") cannot be an antecedent of a pronoun unless the pronoun is also in the possessive. A noun in the possessive can be the antecedent for a possessive pronoun. Thus, "Leakey's" can be the antecedent of "her." This appears often on the GMAT SC, and it often trips up the students who believe that a possessive noun can never be an antecedent.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil [#permalink]

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It is said that GMAT Prep has two versions of this question, one different from the other not only in the stimulus but also in the choices and the OAs.

Version 1.
In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology through her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and through her painstaking documentation of East African cave paintings.

A. Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology through her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and through her painstaking documentation of
B. Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting
C. Mary Leakey was a contributor to archaeology by discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of
D. Mary Leakey's contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting
E. Mary Leakey's contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of
OA. A

Version 2.
In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African cave paintings.
A. Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting
B. Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting
C. Leakey was a contributor to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of
D. Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of
E. Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of
OA. D.

The first version is said to be somewhat suspect according to RON. The second version is supposed to be authentic. Please look at the following links.
https://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/foru ... t4854.html
https://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/foru ... -t499.html
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil [#permalink]

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D for me ..

In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African cave paintings.

calls for Leakey's contributions.. thus A,B,C are out

now between D&E

D is the best, E modifies the meaning

A. Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting

B. Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting-> by her .. is awkward..

C. Leakey was a contributor to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of->

D. Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of

E. Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of-> "her discovering" ?
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil [#permalink]

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I got C
D and E are wrong because of the dangling modifier problem. "her" in the introductory modifier certainly does not modify Leakey's contributions.
B is wrong because the proper syntax is "X contributes to science with X's research on/discovery of"
A is wrong on the basis of parallellism
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil [#permalink]

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I came a little late to the party but got D as the answer and here is why.

The sentence starts out 'In addition to'. For this reasons we need to say 'Leakey's contributions to acheology include' because we must include the work on the hominid fossil as one of them.

ex. If we say;

In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of ....

This implies that the work on the Miocene hominid fossil is not a contribution.

ex. In addition to X, Mary Leakey contributed to Y..
This sentence structure suggest that X and Y are different.

ex. In addtion to X, Mary Leakey's contributions to Y include..
This sentence structure suggest that X and Y are related.
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil [#permalink]

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in the following sentences, the usage of "ML's" is not the key
the // is

here is how // goes:

1. OA is D
In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African cave paintings.
A. Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting
B. Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting
C. Leakey was a contributor to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of
D. Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of
E. Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of


2.OA is A
In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology through her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and through her painstaking documentation of East African cave paintings.
A. Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology through her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and through her painstaking documentation of
B. Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting
C. Mary Leakey was a contributor to archaeology by discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of
D. Mary Leakey's contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting
E. Mary Leakey's contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil [#permalink]

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thanks marcab, that's a solid point you made there.

Marcab wrote:
I shall say, just relax. There is no such rule that you can GMAT take only twice in your entire lifetime. Just calm your mind and use logic. Everything will be sorted out.



well, yes true that there's no such rule; but i am applying for IIFT through the NRI quota and i need, i NEED to hit the 700 mark, any which way... or well all this preparation and missing college is for, well, nothing.

I am trying to relax, but looking at the level of difficulty in these gmat prep problems, i am spooked. don't know whether i should even bother to go on practicing or just let it be. i need to send in my score by 15th March, so well i can't postpone my date either. funny thing is, i did finish OG, manhattan and verbal guide of OG and yet, i am taking 1:30 minutes in solving the SC questions and averaging 60-70% accuracy.

i have no idea by what divine intervention i got a 740 on my gmat prep, but in there, all my RC answers were correct. that Never happens to me. And i don't know what i am doing wrong and i just do not feel confident.

what do i do now? :?
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil [#permalink]

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In addition to her work on the Miocene homicide fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African paintings.

Possessive pronoun (her) can have a non-possessive noun (Mary Leaky) as its antecedent. So both Mary Leaky and Mary Leaky's are fine.

Parallelism: her work (noun), her discovery (noun) and her painstaking documentation (noun)

(A) Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting her work (noun), her discovery (noun) and painstakingly documenting (participle) - not parallel

(B) Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting Same as A

(C) Leakey was a contributor to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of was a contributor.. with is incorrect. It should be 'was a contributor through'

(D) Leakey's contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of correct

(E) Leakey's contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of her work (noun), her discovery (noun) and painstaking documentation (no her) - not parallel


In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology through her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and through her painstaking documentation of East African cave paintings.
A. Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology through her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and through her painstaking documentation of
B. Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting
C. Mary Leakey was a contributor to archaeology by discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of
D. Mary Leakey's contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting
E. Mary Leakey's contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of

Same reasons as for the 1st question. A is correct.
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil [#permalink]

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farhanabad wrote:
Brian, this is from GMATPrep. My only problem with the correct answer is that doesn't the antecedent need to be in the sentence for the pronoun? In ans D we have "Mary Leaky's contributions" but not "Mary Leaky" to reference "her work". Please explain; thanks.

Dear farhanabad,
I'm happy to respond. :-) My friend, I am going to refer you to my previous post in this thread, from July 5, 2014, in which I addressed this exact question. Read there to find out why this is perfectly fine grammatically.
Let me know if you have any questions.
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil [#permalink]

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mohish wrote:
mikemcgarry wrote:
The rule is: a noun in the possessive (such as "Leakey's") cannot be an antecedent of a pronoun unless the pronoun is also in the possessive.

Hello Mike, in view of this, can you suggest why the following is correct?

Among the objects found in the excavated temple were small terra-cotta effigies left by supplicants who were either asking the goddess Bona Dea's aid in healing physical and mental ills or thanking her for such help.

My understanding is that possessive noun "Bona Dea's aid" is an antecedent of object pronoun "her".

May be I am not interpreting your rule accurately:(.

Dear Mohish,
My friend, I am happy to help. :-) This, of course, is from the OA of OG13 SC#109.

Understand that grammar is not mathematics. The rules are not "absolute right" vs. "absolute wrong." If you think this way about grammar, you will get yourself confused.

The most important thing about a pronoun is that it is unambiguous in its referent. If we cannot discern the antecedent of a pronoun with complete clarity, the pronoun is useless. This is virtually non-negotiable.

The guideline that antecedents should not be in the possessive, unless the pronoun is in the possessive --- this is a stylistic point, not something absolutely necessarily for the sentence to have meaning, but something that tends to indicate elevated style. If the GMAT is testing you on this point, in all likelihood, they will be expecting you to make the "high style" choice. Is this an absolute rule? Technically, no, but this gets into subtleties.

Many folks thing of parallelism as a grammatical structure, but parallelism is primarily a logical structure. The grammar has to align itself with the logic, which is deeper. As a logical structure, parallelism can inform other logical relationships in this sentence. In this sentence, the "her" is unambiguous, because there is only one female entity in the sentence, and the parallelism reinforces this pronoun-antecedent link, making it utterly clear. With such powerful logical links in place, this allows us to relax the stylistic rule a bit. This is what GMAC is doing on its own, and is NOT a matter that it would ask you to apply. Notice that this particular SC question gives the student no choice about the pronoun.

All of this gets into more detail that you need to know. What you need to know is, that when the GMAT is asking you directly and putting the issue on the line for your to choose, stick with the guideline that the antecedent can't be in the possessive unless it's a possessive pronoun. You will be tested on that. You will not be tested on the more sophisticated stuff. Keep in mind that GMAC is aware of all the discussions we have here: they know the rules that students enshrine like mathematical truths, and they write questions such as this one, specifically designed to perplex the students who are too attached to the rules.

You simply cannot achieve SC mastery through memorizing some complete list of rules. You have to read. You have to develop a habit of reading every day, so that you develop an ear for sophisticated language. If you try to reduce grammar to rules, you will miss the forest for the trees.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil [#permalink]

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This Question is primarily testing your knowledge of the opening modifier with possessive reference. If the opening modifier starts with a possessive pronoun such as 'her' then the subject after the comma should also be possessive such as 'leakey's contribution' and not leakey (noun).

That leaves one with option D and E and then it should be a cake walk to go for D, given that option E changes the tense to present continuous and so changes the intended meaning.
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jul 2015, 17:24
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gurpreet07 wrote:
In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African cave paintings.
A. Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting
B. Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting
C. Leakey was a contributor to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of
D. Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of
E. Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of



Two Issues: Parallelism, Modifier

Modifier:

'In addition to her work ..., Mary Leakey contributed to ...

Structurally this sentence is wrong. It seems as if Mary Leakey contributed to both, archaeology and her work, which does not make sense. Eliminate A, B

C is even worse: In addition to her work ..., Mary Leakey was a contributor ...
It seems as if both Mary Leakey and her work on the Miocene ... have been both contributors: nonsense.


Parallelism:

Point. If an action noun already exists in English language,discovery, don't use the gerund form, discovering

Point. Don't put simple and complex gerunds parallel. Don't put action nouns and simple gerunds parallel.

A: Puts discovery and documenting (here a simple gerund) parallel. Wrong
B: The same issue as in A. by does not seem appropriate here
E: Discovering is awkward. Discovery is better.

So, the only choice that has no problems with respect to the above mentioned issues is: D
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil [#permalink]

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New post 09 Feb 2016, 16:46
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In the case of the possessive pronoun, the norm is:

Possessive Noun with Non-Possessive Pronoun Is Not Ok. ----
Tom’s + he, him --- is not ok.
In spite of Tom’s high scores in GMAT, he was not considered by the Ivy League for admission -- wrong
Though Tom’s score was high in the GMAT, Wharton did not consider him for admission. --- wrong.

However, all other combinations are ok.

1. a possessive noun with a possessive pronoun is ok.
Tom’s + his --- is ok
Marlon Brando’s acting skills towered his personality
2. non-possessive noun with non-possessive pronoun .
Tom + he, him ---- is ok
Even though he died at a very young age for a President, Kennedy was one of the most charismatic.
3. a non-possessive noun with possessive pronoun
Tom + his-- is ok
Churchill showed great leadership even as his country was being decimated in the war against Germany

Be careful about ‘her’; her is both possessive and non-possessive.

Theresa told her mother --- ‘her’ is possessive
Theresa told her ----- ‘her’ is non-possessive – it is in object case.
Example:

Agatha Christie's travels with her archaeologist husband inspired her to write several mystery novels; travelers to Egypt can still stay at the Old Cataract Hotel, the model for the hotel in one of Christie's most famous books.

A) Agatha Christie’s (possessive noun) travels with her (possessive) archaeologist husband inspired her (non-possessive object) to write several mystery novels --- Here the first [color=#00ffff]her is a possessive while the second her is a non- possessive (an object pronoun). The first one is acceptable while the second one trying to stand for Agatha Christie’s is not correct. [/color]

E) Agatha Christie's travels with her archaeologist husband served as inspiration for several of her mystery novels – the correct pronoun reference. Both the first her and the second her are possessives and hence can very well refer to another possessive namely Agatha Christie’s.


OA is E.

In the Mary Leaky's case, in the second version, the OA is D; In D, Leaky's contribution is possessive, in addition to her is possessive and her discovery and her painstaking documentation are also possessive. So where is the pronoun mismatch? Even if we take Choice A, Mary Leaky is non - possessive, but it can very well take possessive pronoun 'her', wherever it appears.
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil [#permalink]

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New post 03 May 2008, 18:18
DE are out , Dangling modifier must be followed by a proper noun.

The reason why I pick C is || ism . To rephrase ML contributed with her work <on fossil>, her discovery <of evidence> , her documentation <of caves>. Only C holds that ||ism.

sondenso wrote:
37. In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African cave paintings.
A. Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting
B. Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting
C. Leakey was a contributor to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of
D. Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of
E. Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil [#permalink]

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New post 03 May 2008, 23:44
Sondenso, if A is the OA then perhaps there's a typo :

37. In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African cave paintings.

Maybe that "documenting" is actually "documented" ?? Could you double check for us ?
Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil   [#permalink] 03 May 2008, 23:44

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