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In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Lea

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In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Lea  [#permalink]

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In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African cave paintings.


(A) Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting

(B) Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting

(C) Leakey was a contributor to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of

(D) Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of

(E) Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of


Verbal Question of The Day: Day 96: Sentence Correction


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Originally posted by sondenso on 02 May 2008, 23:02.
Last edited by Bunuel on 02 Nov 2018, 04:55, edited 3 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Lea  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2017, 11:06
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This is a sneaky, sneaky question. The most important part of the sentence comes right at the beginning: “in addition to her work…” It’s not quite a comparison, but imagine what would happen if this said “in contrast to her work…” You’d want to follow the comma with something that can be logically compared with “her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record”, right? And that would be “Leakey’s contributions…” not “Leakey” herself.

The same is true with the “in addition to.” It’s not ideal to say “in addition to her work…, Leakey…” (A), (B), and (C) are all flawed for that reason, but some of them have other issues, too.

Quote:
A. Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting

(A) also has a parallelism error. After the parallelism trigger “and”, we have “painstakingly documenting.” So we need something in the same format, and I just don’t see any options. “Her discovery” would be the closest thing, but that’s still not structurally parallel to “painstakingly documenting.” (A) is gone.

Quote:
B. Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting

The biggest problem with this is probably the “in addition to her work…, Leakey” thing we discussed at the top. But I also think it’s wrong to say “Leakey contributed… by her discovery…” You could talk me into “with her discovery” or “by documenting” – but not “by her discovery. Ditch (B).

Quote:
C. Leakey was a contributor to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of

“Leakey was a contributor to archaeology” is a very odd way to say that she “contributed to archaeology”, but I’m not 100% certain that it’s wrong. But we still have the same “in addition to her work…, Leakey” thing that we discussed at the beginning. (C) is out.

Quote:
D. Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of

The beginning makes much more sense now: “in addition to her work…, Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include…” That’s great, both because it’s parallel (two possessive nouns) and because it makes a whole lot of sense. The parallelism is better, too: “Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation…” Can’t ask for much better. Keep (D).

Quote:
E. Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of

This isn’t horrible, but it’s not as good as (D). First, “include her discovering” is pretty crappy – it makes much more sense to put the possessive “her” in front of the common noun “discovery” instead of the gerund “discovering.” The parallelism is also a little bit off: “Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation…” It’s weird to have the possessive + gerund in the first part, and then a nice noun in the second part of the parallel list.

Again, (E) isn’t a total disaster, but it’s clearly a weaker answer than (D).
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Lea  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Oct 2009, 05:12
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This question is among the brutual SC list. I remeber it well because as you i was stunned when my answer choice was wrong.

I found an explaination in another forum. Just sharring it with you.
--------------------------------------------------------------------
In this case, the right answer might actually look wrong to many people (which often happens on tricky questions). The opening phrase is talking about her work and saying "in addition to" her work on the fossil record - so we need to say what it is that is referring to this work. Her work on the fossil record was one of her contributions, just as her discovery of hominid activity was one of her contributions. But that's pretty subtle - if you're reading too quickly, you'll think that the opening modifier is referring to Mary Leakey and so we need to have her follow the comma. (But that's not really what's going on - what's actually going on is that we have a list of 3 contributions, but one comes at the beginning of the sentence and the other two come towards the end.)

A simpler sentence with the same set-up:
In addition to food, the mother's contributions to her child include shelter and love.
And as a straight list:
The mother's contributions to her child include food, shelter, and love.
Mary Leakey's contributions to archaelogy include her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity, and her painstaking documentation of East African paintings.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Lea  [#permalink]

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New post 06 May 2008, 09:37
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I came a little late to the party but got D as the answer and here is why.

The sentence starts out 'In addition to'. For this reasons we need to say 'Leakey's contributions to acheology include' because we must include the work on the hominid fossil as one of them.

ex. If we say;

In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of ....

This implies that the work on the Miocene hominid fossil is not a contribution.

ex. In addition to X, Mary Leakey contributed to Y..
This sentence structure suggest that X and Y are different.

ex. In addtion to X, Mary Leakey's contributions to Y include..
This sentence structure suggest that X and Y are related.
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Lea  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Nov 2017, 17:06
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kamalakarthi wrote:
Hi GmatNinja,

The sentence is talking about "her" but we have Micky Haley's contributions in OA. Is it not a pronoun issue. I eliminated D and E because I thought both the sentences have pronoun issue.

Can you help me on understanding this.

I'm not quite sure what you mean, but in (D) and (E), "her work" is properly compared with "Leakey's contributions", as explained here. (And by "Micky Haley", I assume that you mean "Mary Leakey"?) And there's no ambiguity problem with the pronoun at all in (D) or (E): the possessive pronoun "her" refers to "Leakey's" -- a possessive (female) noun.

Are you maybe thinking that the word "her" has to refer to "Mary Leakey", instead of "Mary Leakey's"? It's not a problem for a possessive pronoun to refer to a possessive noun.

I'm not sure if I'm on the right track, but I hope this helps!
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Lea  [#permalink]

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New post 03 May 2008, 03:05
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D for me ..

In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African cave paintings.

calls for Leakey's contributions.. thus A,B,C are out

now between D&E

D is the best, E modifies the meaning

A. Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting

B. Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting-> by her .. is awkward..

C. Leakey was a contributor to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of->

D. Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of

E. Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of-> "her discovering" ?
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Lea  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jul 2013, 06:40
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In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African cave paintings.

A and B and E are not parallel with/by her discovery / painstakingly documenting
or her discovering and painstaking documentation in E.

C. Leakey was a contributor to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of
D. Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of

C and D remain, and they both look fine taken by them self. Look at the initial modifier "In addition to her work": what should complete it?

"In addition to her work" Leakey’s contributions <== correct - in addition to her work there is her contributions to etc...
"In addition to her work" Leakey <=== not correct as it states that "she" is an addition to her work.

Hope it's clear
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Lea  [#permalink]

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psharma21 wrote:
In addition to her work on the miocene homicide fosiil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaelogy with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African paintings.

(A) Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting
(B) Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting
(C) Leakey was a contributor to archaelogy with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of
(D) Leakey's contributions to archaelogy include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of
(E) Leakey's contributions to archaelogy include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of

ankurgupta03 wrote:
Hey Mike,
Can you please help me with this question.
If the OA of the problem here is D, then there is no antecedent of her. Please let me know what is wrong in my reasoning.
Regards,
Ankur

Dear Ankur,
I'm happy to respond. :-)

Here's a blog you may find helpful:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/gmat-pronoun-traps/

The rule is: a noun in the possessive (such as "Leakey's") cannot be an antecedent of a pronoun unless the pronoun is also in the possessive. A noun in the possessive can be the antecedent for a possessive pronoun. Thus, "Leakey's" can be the antecedent of "her." This appears often on the GMAT SC, and it often trips up the students who believe that a possessive noun can never be an antecedent.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Lea  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2017, 17:08
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souvik101990 wrote:

Verbal Question of The Day: Day 96: Sentence Correction


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In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African cave paintings.

(A) Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting

(B) Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting

(C) Leakey was a contributor to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of

(D) Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of

(E) Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of

Every question of the day will be followed by an expert reply by GMATNinja in 12-15 hours. Stay tuned! Post your answers and explanations to earn kudos.


I choose D.

- "In addition to" is an appositive phrase, describes someone's work. A,B and C out because her work is not the same with the person itself.
- Now between D and E : E seems strange in "her discovering". What is the function of V-ing here?
- On the other hand, choice D seems parallel between "her discovery" and "her painstaking documentation".

Waiting for OA and wonderful explanation from GMATNinja !
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Lea  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Sep 2013, 10:42
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In addition to her work on the Miocene homicide fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African paintings.

Possessive pronoun (her) can have a non-possessive noun (Mary Leaky) as its antecedent. So both Mary Leaky and Mary Leaky's are fine.

Parallelism: her work (noun), her discovery (noun) and her painstaking documentation (noun)

(A) Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting her work (noun), her discovery (noun) and painstakingly documenting (participle) - not parallel

(B) Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting Same as A

(C) Leakey was a contributor to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of was a contributor.. with is incorrect. It should be 'was a contributor through'

(D) Leakey's contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of correct

(E) Leakey's contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of her work (noun), her discovery (noun) and painstaking documentation (no her) - not parallel


In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology through her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and through her painstaking documentation of East African cave paintings.
A. Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology through her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and through her painstaking documentation of
B. Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting
C. Mary Leakey was a contributor to archaeology by discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of
D. Mary Leakey's contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting
E. Mary Leakey's contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of

Same reasons as for the 1st question. A is correct.
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Lea  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Oct 2014, 10:27
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mohish wrote:
mikemcgarry wrote:
The rule is: a noun in the possessive (such as "Leakey's") cannot be an antecedent of a pronoun unless the pronoun is also in the possessive.

Hello Mike, in view of this, can you suggest why the following is correct?

Among the objects found in the excavated temple were small terra-cotta effigies left by supplicants who were either asking the goddess Bona Dea's aid in healing physical and mental ills or thanking her for such help.

My understanding is that possessive noun "Bona Dea's aid" is an antecedent of object pronoun "her".

May be I am not interpreting your rule accurately:(.

Dear Mohish,
My friend, I am happy to help. :-) This, of course, is from the OA of OG13 SC#109.

Understand that grammar is not mathematics. The rules are not "absolute right" vs. "absolute wrong." If you think this way about grammar, you will get yourself confused.

The most important thing about a pronoun is that it is unambiguous in its referent. If we cannot discern the antecedent of a pronoun with complete clarity, the pronoun is useless. This is virtually non-negotiable.

The guideline that antecedents should not be in the possessive, unless the pronoun is in the possessive --- this is a stylistic point, not something absolutely necessarily for the sentence to have meaning, but something that tends to indicate elevated style. If the GMAT is testing you on this point, in all likelihood, they will be expecting you to make the "high style" choice. Is this an absolute rule? Technically, no, but this gets into subtleties.

Many folks thing of parallelism as a grammatical structure, but parallelism is primarily a logical structure. The grammar has to align itself with the logic, which is deeper. As a logical structure, parallelism can inform other logical relationships in this sentence. In this sentence, the "her" is unambiguous, because there is only one female entity in the sentence, and the parallelism reinforces this pronoun-antecedent link, making it utterly clear. With such powerful logical links in place, this allows us to relax the stylistic rule a bit. This is what GMAC is doing on its own, and is NOT a matter that it would ask you to apply. Notice that this particular SC question gives the student no choice about the pronoun.

All of this gets into more detail that you need to know. What you need to know is, that when the GMAT is asking you directly and putting the issue on the line for your to choose, stick with the guideline that the antecedent can't be in the possessive unless it's a possessive pronoun. You will be tested on that. You will not be tested on the more sophisticated stuff. Keep in mind that GMAC is aware of all the discussions we have here: they know the rules that students enshrine like mathematical truths, and they write questions such as this one, specifically designed to perplex the students who are too attached to the rules.

You simply cannot achieve SC mastery through memorizing some complete list of rules. You have to read. You have to develop a habit of reading every day, so that you develop an ear for sophisticated language. If you try to reduce grammar to rules, you will miss the forest for the trees.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Lea  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2017, 12:05
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My answer: D (Awaiting OA)

In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African cave paintings.

(A) Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting -Both the parts are not parallel.

(B) Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting -Both the parts are not parallel.

(C) Leakey was a contributor to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of -We need present tense

(D) Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of -Correct. Both the parts are parallel. Also, I have seen quiet a few official questions that use a pronoun to refer back to noun+'s form. In this case "her" is referring to Mary Leakey.

(E) Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of -Both the parts are not parallel.
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Lea  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Sep 2017, 13:59
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There are two versions of the same sentence with different OAs. .Both are from GMAT prep...


The first version

In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology through her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and through her painstaking documentation of East African cave paintings.

A) Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology through her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and through her painstaking documentation of -- Parallelism ok

B) Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting --- discovery and documenting not parallel

C) Mary Leakey was a contributor to archaeology by discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of ----discovering and documentation not parallel

D) Mary Leakey's contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting discovery and documenting not parallel

E) Mary Leakey's contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of --- discovering and documentation not parallel


OA is A

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx


Another official version of the same topic,

In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African cave paintings.

A) Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting --- discovery and documenting not parallel

B) Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting---- discovery and documenting not parallel

C) Leakey was a contributor to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of -- was a contributor is unidiomtic

D) Leakey's contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of --- parallelism is ok

E) Leakey's contributions to archaeology include discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of --- discovering and documentation is not ok



OA is D
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Lea  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2017, 15:51
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IMO C

Phrase :- In addition to her work. Her demands a noun, hence Mary Leaky is required
Eliminate D and E

(A) Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting Not parallel

(B) Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting Not parallel

(C) Leakey was a contributor to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of Parallel yay!!
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Lea  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Mar 2020, 09:08
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gmatway wrote:
GMATNinja[/url]

I understood your deep & great explanation except the part explained in option E .
gerund and noun form can be parallel to each other .

You have mentioned 's + gerund ll to NOUN form is not allowed .Could you elaborate a bit about this as I don't see such format in opt E or may be my brain isn't able to catch what you are saying for opt E .
Leakey’s (apostrophe S format )contributions to archaeology include HER
1) discovering(GERUND ) the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and
2) painstaking documentation (NOUN) of

I am assuming here HER can act as common for both parallel things ... (i.e gerund & noun can share HER right? )

First off, I want to clarify that I did not say that (E) uses a structure that is "not allowed" :). As I say over and over again, there are very few concrete "rules" that you can apply to GMAT SC. You have to examine each answer choice, think about the meaning, and determine which choice is the best out of the five choices in THAT problem.

Back to your question... yes, the "her" could be applied to both items in the parallel list. But we could also only apply "her" to the first item in the list. In choice (E), the reader has to make that choice. Choice (D), however, is not open to interpretation, so that's one vote in favor of (D) over (E).

And is having a gerund parallel to a regular noun wrong or "not allowed"? No, but the parallelism in choice (D) is cleaner (two regular nouns). That's another vote in favor of (D) over (E).

Like I said in my original explanation, (E) isn’t a total disaster -- it's just weaker than choice (D).

I hope that helps!
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Lea  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Oct 2014, 21:34
mikemcgarry wrote:
The rule is: a noun in the possessive (such as "Leakey's") cannot be an antecedent of a pronoun unless the pronoun is also in the possessive.

Hello Mike, in view of this, can you suggest why the following is correct?

Among the objects found in the excavated temple were small terra-cotta effigies left by supplicants who were either asking the goddess Bona Dea's aid in healing physical and mental ills or thanking her for such help.

My understanding is that possessive noun "Bona Dea's aid" is an antecedent of object pronoun "her".

May be I am not interpreting your rule accurately:(.
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Lea  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Nov 2017, 12:50
Hi GmatNinja,

The sentence is talking about "her" but we have Micky Haley's contributions in OA. Is it not a pronoun issue. I eliminated D and E because I thought both the sentences have pronoun issue.

Can you help me on understanding this.
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Lea  [#permalink]

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New post 21 May 2018, 19:38
daagh wrote:
There are two versions of the same sentence with different OAs. .Both are from GMAT prep...


The first version

In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology through her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and through her painstaking documentation of East African cave paintings.

A) Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology through her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and through her painstaking documentation of -- Parallelism ok

B) Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting --- discovery and documenting not parallel

C) Mary Leakey was a contributor to archaeology by discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of ----discovering and documentation not parallel

D) Mary Leakey's contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting discovery and documenting not parallel

E) Mary Leakey's contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of --- discovering and documentation not parallel


OA is A

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx


Another official version of the same topic,

In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African cave paintings.

A) Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting --- discovery and documenting not parallel

B) Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting---- discovery and documenting not parallel

C) Leakey was a contributor to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of -- was a contributor is unidiomtic

D) Leakey's contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of --- parallelism is ok

E) Leakey's contributions to archaeology include discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of --- discovering and documentation is not ok



OA is D


GMATNinja wrote:
This is a sneaky, sneaky question. The most important part of the sentence comes right at the beginning: “in addition to her work…” It’s not quite a comparison, but imagine what would happen if this said “in contrast to her work…” You’d want to follow the comma with something that can be logically compared with “her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record”, right? And that would be “Leakey’s contributions…” not “Leakey” herself.

The same is true with the “in addition to.” It’s not ideal to say “in addition to her work…, Leakey…” (A), (B), and (C) are all flawed for that reason, but some of them have other issues, too.


It seems that there are 2 different questions with different OAs, one of which violates the above principle.

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , mikemcgarry , egmat , sayantanc2k, RonPurewal , DmitryFarber , MagooshExpert , ccooley , GMATNinjaTwo , other experts -- please enlighten.
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Lea  [#permalink]

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New post 22 May 2018, 11:28
Skywalker18 wrote:
It seems that there are 2 different questions with different OAs, one of which violates the above principle.

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , mikemcgarry , egmat , sayantanc2k, RonPurewal , DmitryFarber , MagooshExpert , ccooley , GMATNinjaTwo , other experts -- please enlighten.


AjiteshArun is correct here -- it might not be ideal, but it's not strictly incorrect to say something like "In addition to her work on X, she contributed to the field with her work on Y". Here, there is correct parallelism between "her work on X" and "her work on Y", so it's acceptable to use with "in addition to". To really see that this works, imagine flipping the sentence:

She contributed to the field with her work on Y in addition to her work on X.

This clearly is correct parallel structure.

:-)
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Lea  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2018, 22:18
Doesn't the absence of a noun to which her refers to make the options D & E incorrect ?
Please reply .



GMATNinja wrote:
This is a sneaky, sneaky question. The most important part of the sentence comes right at the beginning: “in addition to her work…” It’s not quite a comparison, but imagine what would happen if this said “in contrast to her work…” You’d want to follow the comma with something that can be logically compared with “her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record”, right? And that would be “Leakey’s contributions…” not “Leakey” herself.

The same is true with the “in addition to.” It’s not ideal to say “in addition to her work…, Leakey…” (A), (B), and (C) are all flawed for that reason, but some of them have other issues, too.

Quote:
A. Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting

(A) also has a parallelism error. After the parallelism trigger “and”, we have “painstakingly documenting.” So we need something in the same format, and I just don’t see any options. “Her discovery” would be the closest thing, but that’s still not structurally parallel to “painstakingly documenting.” (A) is gone.

Quote:
B. Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting

The biggest problem with this is probably the “in addition to her work…, Leakey” thing we discussed at the top. But I also think it’s wrong to say “Leakey contributed… by her discovery…” You could talk me into “with her discovery” or “by documenting” – but not “by her discovery. Ditch (B).

Quote:
C. Leakey was a contributor to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of

“Leakey was a contributor to archaeology” is a very odd way to say that she “contributed to archaeology”, but I’m not 100% certain that it’s wrong. But we still have the same “in addition to her work…, Leakey” thing that we discussed at the beginning. (C) is out.

Quote:
D. Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of

The beginning makes much more sense now: “in addition to her work…, Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include…” That’s great, both because it’s parallel (two possessive nouns) and because it makes a whole lot of sense. The parallelism is better, too: “Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation…” Can’t ask for much better. Keep (D).

Quote:
E. Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of

This isn’t horrible, but it’s not as good as (D). First, “include her discovering” is pretty crappy – it makes much more sense to put the possessive “her” in front of the common noun “discovery” instead of the gerund “discovering.” The parallelism is also a little bit off: “Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation…” It’s weird to have the possessive + gerund in the first part, and then a nice noun in the second part of the parallel list.

Again, (E) isn’t a total disaster, but it’s clearly a weaker answer than (D).
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Lea   [#permalink] 01 Sep 2018, 22:18

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