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Senior Manager
Joined: 28 May 2017
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07 Aug 2017, 07:49
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Difficulty:

65% (hard)

Question Stats:

48% (01:21) correct 52% (01:34) wrong based on 252 sessions

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In addition to negotiating the North American Free Trade Agreement, Mexican President Carlos Salinas reformed the Clerical Laws, which had forbidden priests to vote and had kept the Catholic church from owning land.
(A) reformed the Clerical Laws, which had forbidden priests to vote and had kept
(D) reformed the Clerical Laws, which had forbade priests to vote and kept
(E) was reforming the Clerical Laws, which forbade priests to vote and kept
Manager
Joined: 15 Jun 2016
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07 Aug 2017, 11:43
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Expert, why option a is correct?

In my knowledge, 'had' is used when there are 2 actions being done in the past, and the action which was performed first in the past will use 'had'..

But here, there are no two past actions, so why had is used?
Senior Manager
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07 Aug 2017, 14:47
In addition to negotiating the North American Free Trade Agreement, Mexican President Carlos Salinas reformed the Clerical Laws, which had forbidden priests to vote and had kept the Catholic church from owning land.
(A) reformed the Clerical Laws, which had forbidden priests to vote and had kept - Correct choice as it is
(B) had reformed the Clerical Laws, which had forbade priests to vote and had kept - He reformed laws after priests were forbidden
Plus forbade is a wrong formof verb.
(D) reformed the Clerical Laws, which had forbade priests to vote and kept
(E) was reforming the Clerical Laws, which forbade priests to vote and kept
Even if continuos part is not bad here we have to use past perfect in the second part of the sentence because these actions were before
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07 Aug 2017, 21:08
elegantm wrote:
In addition to negotiating the North American Free Trade Agreement, Mexican President Carlos Salinas reformed the Clerical Laws, which had forbidden priests to vote and had kept the Catholic church from owning land.
(A) reformed the Clerical Laws, which had forbidden priests to vote and had kept
(D) reformed the Clerical Laws, which had forbade priests to vote and kept
(E) was reforming the Clerical Laws, which forbade priests to vote and kept

Hello elegantm - What is the source of this question? And by any chance do you have Official Explanation?
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Best AWA Template: https://gmatclub.com/forum/how-to-get-6-0-awa-my-guide-64327.html#p470475
Intern
Joined: 05 Feb 2014
Posts: 21
GMAT 1: 700 Q45 V40

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15 Aug 2017, 11:08
VKat wrote:
Expert, why option a is correct?

In my knowledge, 'had' is used when there are 2 actions being done in the past, and the action which was performed first in the past will use 'had'..

But here, there are no two past actions, so why had is used?

You are correct in your understanding that past perfect is used to denote the sequence of two past events. In this question, we have 3 past events :
1. President Carlos Salinas reformed the Clerical Laws (occurred in the past)
2. the Clerical Laws had forbidden the priests from voting (occurred in the past before the president reformed the Clerical Laws)
3. the Clerical Laws had kept the Catholic church from owning land (occurred in the past before the president reformed the Clerical Laws and in conjunction with the 2nd event)

Option A correctly uses simple past to represent the 1st action and then uses past perfect to represent the 2nd and 3rd. Hope this is helpful.
Manager
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12 Aug 2019, 03:36
Is the use of "forbade" wrong in GMAT or is it wrong in this instance?
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Joined: 15 Jul 2015
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12 Aug 2019, 22:35
1
devavrat wrote:
Is the use of "forbade" wrong in GMAT or is it wrong in this instance?
Hi devavrat,

In case your question is for B, C, and D: forbade is the past form of forbid. The past perfect is had + past participle. The past participle of forbid is forbidden, not forbade. That means that had forbidden is possible, but had forbade is not.
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