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# In addition to the boom in tax revenue

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20 Sep 2015, 10:56
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In addition to the boom in tax revenue, the federal government’s books are being helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, the automakers that were taken over by Washington in 2009.

(A) are being helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, the automakers
(B) have been helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and by proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, automakers
(C) have been helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, and by the automakers
(D) are being helped by lower defense spending, by a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, the automakers
(E) were helped by lower defense spending and a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, also by proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, the automakers
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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20 Sep 2015, 11:25
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In addition to the boom in tax revenue, the federal government’s books are being helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, the automakers that were taken over by Washington in 2009.

(A) are being helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, the automakers
(B) have been helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and by proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, automakers
(C) have been helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, and by the automakers
(D) are being helped by lower defense spending, by a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, the automakers
(E) were helped by lower defense spending and a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, also by proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, the automakers

After eliminating C, D,E base on their wrong appositive modifier. There are only A and B, B has present perfect tense, which is unnecessary because there is no sign of that tense in this sentence. The remaining correct answer is A
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20 Sep 2015, 21:25
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Expert's post
Just cast aside B, C and E for using in appropriate tense for a currently ongoing phenomenon. Between A and D, D misuses the prepositional parallelism by using the preposition for the first two items while missing the same for the third item. A maintains elegant parallelism by using the preposition for the first item and skipping it for the rest
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20 Sep 2015, 23:04
daagh wrote:
Just cast aside B, C and E for using in appropriate tense for a currently ongoing phenomenon. Between A and D, D misuses the prepositional parallelism by using the preposition for the first two items while missing the same for the third item. A maintains elegant parallelism by using the preposition for the first item and skipping it for the rest

Damn it!!! I again chose D over A.

Would this have been a correct sentence correction?

(D) are being helped by lower defense spending, by a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and BY proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, the automakers

Thanks,
Rohan
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21 Sep 2015, 21:11
rohan89 wrote:
Would this have been a correct sentence correction?

(D) are being helped by lower defense spending, by a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and BY proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, the automakers

The sentence is using "like". I am surprised because is it not the intent to mention "Medicaid" as an example? So, I believe the sentence should be using "such as".
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04 Oct 2015, 11:34
daagh wrote:
Just cast aside B, C and E for using in appropriate tense for a currently ongoing phenomenon. Between A and D, D misuses the prepositional parallelism by using the preposition for the first two items while missing the same for the third item. A maintains elegant parallelism by using the preposition for the first item and skipping it for the rest

I was wondering does B has any other problem apart the tense? If in B it was "are being"instead of "have been". Also, Though it is not -underlined isn't the use of like is wrong in each sentence rather it should be "such as.
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05 Oct 2015, 04:39
In addition to the boom in tax revenue, the federal government’s books are being helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, the automakers that were taken over by Washington in 2009.

GM and Chrysler are the automakers that were taken over by Washington.
and everything else is in present tense.
automakers are specific and therefore article is needed before them.

(A)correct choice

(B)present perfect tense is used instead of simple present tense,
by proceeds breaks the rule of parallelism
Article the is removed

(C) conjunction and is removed thereby hampering the sentence
present perfect tense error repeats here
and by the automakers incorrectly modifies GM and Chrysler

(D) by a drop in non essential modifier spoils the sentence here

(E) past tense were helped is used here instead of present tense
non essential modifier is forcibly made parallel to the main sentence
also by proceeds does not make any sense by meaning.

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06 Oct 2015, 16:10
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sahil7389 wrote:
daagh wrote:
Just cast aside B, C and E for using in appropriate tense for a currently ongoing phenomenon. Between A and D, D misuses the prepositional parallelism by using the preposition for the first two items while missing the same for the third item. A maintains elegant parallelism by using the preposition for the first item and skipping it for the rest

I was wondering does B has any other problem apart the tense? If in B it was "are being"instead of "have been". Also, Though it is not -underlined isn't the use of like is wrong in each sentence rather it should be "such as.

sahil7389
This is in response to you PM.

The federal government’s books are being helped by 4 factors
• boom in tax revenue,
• lower defense spending,
• a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and
• proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler

here note two things
• Proceeds means Money obtained from an event or activity.
• Outlay means an amount of money spent on something.

General Motors and Chrysler are the automakers that were taken over by Washington in 2009.

In the given sentence one of factor is added in subjunctive phrase added as an additional info modifying the subject government books.
the structure is similar to
In addition to D, books are helped by A, B and C.
All the factors A, B, C and D are parallel in given sentence and is correct.

Coming to option B
In addition to the boom in tax revenue,
the federal government’s books have been helped by
• lower defense spending,
• a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and
• by proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler,

we can see that by proceeds is not parallel to other factors.
I hope this helps
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07 May 2016, 12:39
daagh wrote:
Just cast aside B, C and E for using in appropriate tense for a currently ongoing phenomenon. Between A and D, D misuses the prepositional parallelism by using the preposition for the first two items while missing the same for the third item. A maintains elegant parallelism by using the preposition for the first item and skipping it for the rest

Hi daagh / chetan2u,

Can you please suggest whats wrong with present perfect tense in option B and C.

Why can't we use present perfect tense in this sentence.

Just cast aside B, C and E for using in appropriate tense for a currently ongoing phenomenon.

How did you get to know that its an ongoing phenomenon..?

Thanks and Regards,
Prakhar
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Updated on: 15 Mar 2018, 20:26
daagh wrote:
Just cast aside B, C and E for using in appropriate tense for a currently ongoing phenomenon. Between A and D, D misuses the prepositional parallelism by using the preposition for the first two items while missing the same for the third item. A maintains elegant parallelism by using the preposition for the first item and skipping it for the rest

Hi daagh , MagooshExpert GMATNinja

Can we on first strike strike out B and C and choose A D E as A D E has "Automaker's name",THE automakers--- 'the' highlighting the automakers being referred... like "the Taj' ?

I selected A only as the correct answer but wanted to know if I can keep this as one strategy to strike out B and C.

Thanks,

ucb2k7

[edited]

Originally posted by ucb2k7 on 13 Mar 2018, 22:58.
Last edited by ucb2k7 on 15 Mar 2018, 20:26, edited 1 time in total.
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14 Mar 2018, 06:49
alphaseeker wrote:
In addition to the boom in tax revenue, the federal government’s books are being helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, the automakers that were taken over by Washington in 2009.

(A) are being helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, the automakers
(B) have been helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and by proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, automakers
(C) have been helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, and by the automakers
(D) are being helped by lower defense spending, by a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, the automakers
(E) were helped by lower defense spending and a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, also by proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, the automakers

Imo A
This question tests on two concepts 1) Tense
The federal government’s books are being helped by all the factors .It is an ongoing phenomenon so we have to use present continuous tense .

2)There is a list of factors which contribute to the government's books .

So we have to use correct list
By X , Y and Z or
BY X, by Y , and by Z

So only A fits the bill.
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15 Mar 2018, 17:30
ucb2k7 wrote:
Hi daagh , MagooshExpert GMATNinja

Can we on first strike strike out B and D and choose A C E as A C E has "Automaker's name",THE automakers--- 'the' highlighting the automakers being referred... like "the Taj' ?

I selected A only as the correct answer but wanted to know if I can keep this as one strategy to strike out B and D.

Thanks,

ucb2k7

Hi ucb2k7!

I want to make sure I'm understanding your question correctly -- I see "the automakers" in all answer choices except for B. Could you clarify a little more what you mean here?

Thanks!
-Carolyn
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15 Mar 2018, 20:23
MagooshExpert wrote:
ucb2k7 wrote:
Hi daagh , MagooshExpert GMATNinja

Can we on first strike strike out B and D and choose A C E as A C E has "Automaker's name",THE automakers--- 'the' highlighting the automakers being referred... like "the Taj' ?

I selected A only as the correct answer but wanted to know if I can keep this as one strategy to strike out B and D.

Thanks,

ucb2k7

Hi ucb2k7!

I want to make sure I'm understanding your question correctly -- I see "the automakers" in all answer choices except for B. Could you clarify a little more what you mean here?

Thanks!
-Carolyn

----------------------------------
Hi MagooshExpert,

I am sorry it is choice B and C to strike out. Answer choice B has 'automakers' . Answer choice C does the mistake of writing 'by the automakers' after the name of the automaker is mentioned. What I am asking here is can we strike out B on the basis of the missing 'the' before automakers as it should have 'the' before automakers as we are referring to a specific brand here...like 'the Taj'.

Thanks,

ucb2k7
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16 Mar 2018, 19:23
ucb2k7 wrote:
Hi MagooshExpert,

I am sorry it is choice B and C to strike out. Answer choice B has 'automakers' . Answer choice C does the mistake of writing 'by the automakers' after the name of the automaker is mentioned. What I am asking here is can we strike out B on the basis of the missing 'the' before automakers as it should have 'the' before automakers as we are referring to a specific brand here...like 'the Taj'.

Thanks,

ucb2k7

Hi ucb2k7!

Thanks for clarifying

Here, you are correct that removing "the" slightly changes the meaning of the sentence. However, I'm not sure that in this case we can be 100% sure of the intended meaning of the sentence, and so it shouldn't be a basis alone to eliminate choice B. We don't know from the context whether there were more than just those two automakers that were taken over by Washington in 2009. If there were more than two, then we would correctly remove "the". But if those are the only two, then we do need "the" there. If we knew the answer to that question, we could definitively say which one is correct, but since we don't, it's not necessarily a good reason to eliminate B right away.

Hope that helps!
-Carolyn
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18 Mar 2018, 22:50
alphaseeker wrote:
In addition to the boom in tax revenue, the federal government’s books are being helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, the automakers that were taken over by Washington in 2009.

(A) are being helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, the automakers
(B) have been helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and by proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, automakers
(C) have been helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, and by the automakers
(D) are being helped by lower defense spending, by a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, the automakers
(E) were helped by lower defense spending and a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, also by proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, the automakers

1st Split : Absolute phrase ' A drop in .....'

Since this phrase is modifying noun ' lower defense spending' it should be preceded by only comma . Therefore D and E can be eliminated.

2nd Split : parallelism between 2 verbs 'are being helped' and 'proceeds'

Therefore wrong parallelism shown in option B makes this option incorrect.

Last, between A and C , C is wrong because the last absolute modifier at the end is made parallel to 'lower defense spending', which doesn't make sense.

Hence, the winner is A despite of unusual phrase at the start.

Note: Don't discard a choice just because 'being' is used in that.
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01 Apr 2018, 17:48
sukanyar wrote:
rohan89 wrote:
Would this have been a correct sentence correction?

(D) are being helped by lower defense spending, by a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and BY proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, the automakers

The sentence is using "like". I am surprised because is it not the intent to mention "Medicaid" as an example? So, I believe the sentence should be using "such as".

I am still wondering the same thing here.. even though there are no answers with “such as”, wouldn’t that be the correct form?

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Re: In addition to the boom in tax revenue   [#permalink] 01 Apr 2018, 17:48
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