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In an experiment, biologists repeatedly shone a bright light into a ta

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In an experiment, biologists repeatedly shone a bright light into a ta  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jan 2020, 13:21
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In an experiment, biologists repeatedly shone a bright light into a tank containing a sea snail and simultaneously shook the tank. The snail invariably responded by tensing its muscular “foot,” a typical reaction in sea snails to ocean turbulence. After several repetitions of this procedure, the snail tensed its “foot” whenever the biologists shone the light into its tank, even when the tank was not simultaneously shaken. Therefore, the snail must have learned to associate the shining of the bright light with the shaking of the tank.

Which one of the following is an assumption required by the argument?

(A) All sea snails react to ocean turbulence in the same way as the sea snail in the experiment did.
(B) Sea snails are not ordinarily exposed to bright lights such as the one used in the biologists’ experiment.
(C) The sea snail used in the experiment did not differ significantly from other members of its species in its reaction to external stimuli.
(D) The appearance of a bright light alone would ordinarily not result in the sea snail’s tensing its “foot.”
(E) Tensing of the muscular “foot” in sea snails is an instinctual rather than a learned response to ocean turbulence.

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In an experiment, biologists repeatedly shone a bright light into a ta  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jan 2020, 22:25
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Akela wrote:
In an experiment, biologists repeatedly shone a bright light into a tank containing a sea snail and simultaneously shook the tank. The snail invariably responded by tensing its muscular “foot,” a typical reaction in sea snails to ocean turbulence. After several repetitions of this procedure, the snail tensed its “foot” whenever the biologists shone the light into its tank, even when the tank was not simultaneously shaken. Therefore, the snail must have learned to associate the shining of the bright light with the shaking of the tank.

Which one of the following is an assumption required by the argument?

(A) All sea snails react to ocean turbulence in the same way as the sea snail in the experiment did.
(B) Sea snails are not ordinarily exposed to bright lights such as the one used in the biologists’ experiment.
(C) The sea snail used in the experiment did not differ significantly from other members of its species in its reaction to external stimuli.
(D) The appearance of a bright light alone would ordinarily not result in the sea snail’s tensing its “foot.”
(E) Tensing of the muscular “foot” in sea snails is an instinctual rather than a learned response to ocean turbulence.



The correct answer is Option D.
If we negate this option, the statement becomes - the appearance of a bright light would ordinarily result in the sea snail's tensing its "foot". This will prove that the sea snail tensed its foot not because it associated the bright light with the shaking of tank, but with the appearance of the bright light itself and hence will weaken the conclusion by showing that the snail did not learn to associate the bright light with the tank shaking.
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Re: In an experiment, biologists repeatedly shone a bright light into a ta  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Feb 2020, 08:04
We know the snail tenses its "foot" when the researchers shine light in the tank even if there is no shaking.
The researchers think its because the snail learns to associate the light with the shaking.
What is an assumption that this statement is true?

(A) All sea snails react to ocean turbulence in the same way as the sea snail in the experiment did.
Another snail could change its color instead of tensioning the "foot" in response to the shaking. The statement states that the snail would change its color because it associates the light with shaking. So A is out. It is not relevant.
(B) Sea snails are not ordinarily exposed to bright lights such as the one used in the biologists’ experiment.
They could be exposed to bright lights normally, but snails still could learn to associate the light with the shaking
(C) The sea snail used in the experiment did not differ significantly from other members of its species in its reaction to external stimuli.
We hope it does not, otherwise the experiment would not be generalizable. In respect to the argument this is however irrelevant.
(D) The appearance of a bright light alone would ordinarily not result in the sea snail’s tensing its “foot.”
This has to be true, otherwise the snail would tension its "foot" independent of the occurrence of the shaking
(E) Tensing of the muscular “foot” in sea snails is an instinctual rather than a learned response to ocean turbulence.
The argument states that the learning process is to associate light with the shaking. The reason for tensioning the foot is irrelevant to the argument.
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Re: In an experiment, biologists repeatedly shone a bright light into a ta   [#permalink] 01 Feb 2020, 08:04
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