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In an experiment, volunteers walked individually through a dark, aband

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Re: In an experiment, volunteers walked individually through a dark, aband  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2018, 22:31
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Quote:
In an experiment, volunteers walked individually through a dark, abandoned theater. Half of the volunteers had been told that the theater was haunted and the other half that it was under renovation. The first half reported significantly more unusual experiences than the second did. The researchers concluded that reports of encounters with ghosts and other supernatural entities generally result from prior expectations of such experiences.

Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the researchers’ reasoning?

A. None of the volunteers in the second half believed that the unusual experiences they reported were supernatural.
B. All of the volunteers in the first half believed that the researchers’ statement that the theater was haunted was a lie.
C. Before being told about the theater, the volunteers within each group varied considerably in their prior beliefs about supernatural experiences.
D. Each unusual experience reported by the volunteers had a cause that did not involve the supernatural.
E. The researchers did not believe that the theater was haunted.


CONCLUSION:
reports of encounters with ghosts and other supernatural entities generally result from prior expectations of such experiences.
If any option weakens this one that must be our answer.
Lets check each option
Quote:
A. None of the volunteers in the second half believed that the unusual experiences they reported were supernatural.

The conclusion is talking about first half of students not second half. IRRELEVANT.
Quote:
B. All of the volunteers in the first half believed that the researchers’ statement that the theater was haunted was a lie.

Hmm.. If first half of volunteers has not believed the researchers statement then the researchers conclusion is false because even without expectations they were scared.SO keep B .
Quote:
C. Before being told about the theater, the volunteers within each group varied considerably in their prior beliefs about supernatural experiences.

we should not assume something that is not mentioned in the passage.-OUT OF SCOPE.
Quote:
D. Each unusual experience reported by the volunteers had a cause that did not involve the supernatural.

This option is contradicting the argument because the researchers concluded that encounters of ghosts and other supernatural entities is because of prior expectations. we must take this as true and weaken the conclusion this ios not a reason to weaken the conclusion.In turn it is contradicting the original argument.ELIMINATE IT.
Quote:
E. The researchers did not believe that the theater was haunted.

This is IRRELEVANT.
so Bis the Left out and the winner.
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Re: In an experiment, volunteers walked individually through a dark, aband  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2018, 21:07
AbdurRakib wrote:
In an experiment, volunteers walked individually through a dark, abandoned theater. Half of the volunteers had been told that the theater was haunted and the other half that it was under renovation. The first half reported significantly more unusual experiences than the second did. The researchers concluded that reports of encounters with ghosts and other supernatural entities generally result from prior expectations of such experiences.

Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the researchers’ reasoning?

A. None of the volunteers in the second half believed that the unusual experiences they reported were supernatural.
B. All of the volunteers in the first half believed that the researchers’ statement that the theater was haunted was a lie.
C. Before being told about the theater, the volunteers within each group varied considerably in their prior beliefs about supernatural experiences.
D. Each unusual experience reported by the volunteers had a cause that did not involve the supernatural.
E. The researchers did not believe that the theater was haunted.

OG Verbal 2017 New Question(Book Question: 180)


Option B: If all of the volunteers in the first half believed that the researchers' statement was a lie, then there is probably not a big difference between the two groups. Hence the reports of encounters are not based on prior experiences.
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Re: In an experiment, volunteers walked individually through a dark, aband  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Oct 2018, 10:45
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pikolo2510 wrote:
Hello experts,

Can you explain why option D is incorrect?


becos we are concerned about the prior expectations and not cause
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Re: In an experiment, volunteers walked individually through a dark, aband  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2018, 00:30
In an experiment, volunteers walked individually through a dark, abandoned theater. Half of the volunteers had been told that the theater was haunted and the other half that it was under renovation. The first half reported significantly more unusual experiences than the second did. The researchers concluded that reports of encounters with ghosts and other supernatural entities generally result from prior expectations of such experiences.

main point:
prior expectation/information abt ghost dont result in reports of unusual experiences
given that
a) 50% were told abt presence of ghost b) 50% were told construction is going on c)both exp unusual but 1st grp exp more

pre-think:
what if actual ghost is present
what if unusual exp donot lead to ghost encounters

Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the researchers’ reasoning?

A. None of the volunteers in the second half believed that the unusual experiences they reported were supernatural.
there is again a chance that 1st group may/maynot believe the same. hence relevant but not conclusive

B. All of the volunteers in the first half believed that the researchers’ statement that the theater was haunted was a lie.
could be a possibility, if they dont believe, then not expecting. hence it address the link expectation-reports

C. Before being told about the theater, the volunteers within each group varied considerably in their prior beliefs about supernatural experiences.
the degree of variance in belief abt ghost is not a proof that people exncounter because of expectation/belief. out of scope

D. Each unusual experience reported by the volunteers had a cause that did not involve the supernatural.
here unusual is not supernatural. it is could be relevant but it is not talking abt the expectation part. hence not a complete story.

E. The researchers did not believe that the theater was haunted.
belief of researchers is irrelevant.
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In an experiment, volunteers walked individually through a dark, aband  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2019, 08:21
AbdurRakib wrote:
In an experiment, volunteers walked individually through a dark, abandoned theater. Half of the volunteers had been told that the theater was haunted and the other half that it was under renovation. The first half reported significantly more unusual experiences than the second did. The researchers concluded that reports of encounters with ghosts and other supernatural entities generally result from prior expectations of such experiences.

Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the researchers’ reasoning?

A. None of the volunteers in the second half believed that the unusual experiences they reported were supernatural.
B. All of the volunteers in the first half believed that the researchers’ statement that the theater was haunted was a lie.
C. Before being told about the theater, the volunteers within each group varied considerably in their prior beliefs about supernatural experiences.
D. Each unusual experience reported by the volunteers had a cause that did not involve the supernatural.
E. The researchers did not believe that the theater was haunted.

OG Verbal 2017 New Question(Book Question: 180)


This question is fantastic, as all Official questions are.

1) Understand the stimulus
OK, so it's telling us that Group A was told it's spooky and Group B was told it's under renovation. More reports of spookiness in Group A than in Group B, therefore, expectation increases the number of reports of spookiness.

2) Identify your goal
It's a weaken question and the argument is based on data. We have to prove that the data is broken, that is not linked to the conclusion, or that there are other reasons for the data to be presented as such.

3) Identify trap answers and use POE MOST UNDERRATED STEP FOR CR
In a critical reasoning question, most test takers will assume that the answer choice should directly address their pre-think. On the more difficult questions, the correct answer will not directly address the argument but rather bring new information that seems to be out of scope but is actually the best answer.

A. None of the volunteers in the second half believed that the unusual experiences they reported were supernatural.
This is a great wrong answer. If Group B didn't report any spookiness although they experienced it, then that would certainly mean that the conclusion is based on broken data, correct? As we'll see in a moment, this isn't the best answer. It doesn't address the conclusion directly.

B. All of the volunteers in the first half believed that the researchers’ statement that the theater was haunted was a lie.
This actually directly attacks the conclusion that "expectation --> higher number of reports." If they thought that the researchers were lying about the theater being spooky, there was no expectation to see spooky things. Thus, breaking the conclusion that Group A had the expectation, resulting in a higher number of reports.

C. Before being told about the theater, the volunteers within each group varied considerably in their prior beliefs about supernatural experiences.
This is a slick answer. It tries to confuse you with expectation vs prior belief. But it is similar to Answer Choice E. It doesn't matter if they actually believe that supernatural forces exist, we need to address the fact that expectation of seeing supernatural events, increases the number of reports.

D. Each unusual experience reported by the volunteers had a cause that did not involve the supernatural.
Whether or not the experiences involved the supernatural, we need to break the conclusion that "expectation --> higher number/reports." It just doesn't attack the argument made.

E. The researchers did not believe that the theater was haunted.
This does not attack the argument, that when someone has the expectation of spookiness, there will be a higher number of reports. We don't care what the researchers actually believed. We have to address their argument.
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In an experiment, volunteers walked individually through a dark, aband  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Aug 2019, 01:27
In an experiment, volunteers walked individually through a dark, abandoned theater. Half of the volunteers had been told that the theater was haunted and the other half that it was under renovation. The first half reported significantly more unusual experiences than the second did. The researchers concluded that reports of encounters with ghosts and other supernatural entities generally result from prior expectations of such experiences.

Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the researchers’ reasoning?

Pre-thinking:
According to the author there is a cause-effect scenario here.
Cause: being told that the theater is haunted
Effect: unusual/supernatural encounters
A way to weaken this cause-effect relation is to weaken the the assumption that lies within the cause and the effect, id est the first group believes what it is told.


A. None of the volunteers in the second half believed that the unusual experiences they reported were supernatural.
This strengthen the set ups of the experiments but we are not concerned with this group particularly. Hence incorrect

B. All of the volunteers in the first half believed that the researchers’ statement that the theater was haunted was a lie.
If people in the first group did not believe the theatre to haunted or did not believe in ghost existence then the assumption through which the author draws the conclusion is unfounded. Hence incorrect

C. Before being told about the theater, the volunteers within each group varied considerably in their prior beliefs about supernatural experiences.
This option choice is very vague and it doesn't have a clear impact on the argument. Hence incorrect

D. Each unusual experience reported by the volunteers had a cause that did not involve the supernatural.
This kind of strengthens the conclusion because it states that probably without being told that the theater was haunted people probably would have not experienced those unusual encounters at all. However this option choice is very vague. Hence incorrect

E. The researchers did not believe that the theater was haunted.
Whether the researchers believed the theatre to be haunted or not is not of our concern and doesn't impact the conclusion at all. Hence incorrect
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In an experiment, volunteers walked individually through a dark, aband   [#permalink] 07 Aug 2019, 01:27

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