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In an trial, 100 people received thirty non-injurious

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In an trial, 100 people received thirty non-injurious [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2012, 05:05
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In an trial, 100 people received thirty non-injurious electric shocks. Fifty of them received twenty strong shocks,
but the other half received weak shocks, except for three random strong shocks. The volunteers were told in
advance which group they were in. The researchers discovered that the volunteers who consistently received
strong shocks showed much milder physical signs of anxiety than the other volunteers did.

Which of the following would, if true, most help to explain the results of the experiment?

A. Other studies have found that the inability to predict when an anticipated unpleasant experience will occur usually
provokes anxiety.
B. Most people feel more anxiety when anticipating a strong electric shock than when anticipating a mild shock.
C. Many of the volunteers who consistently received strong shocks reported that the shocks made them feel quite anxious.
D. The volunteers who received mostly mild shocks showed stronger physical signs of anxiety after each strong shock
than after each mild shock.
E. People who knowingly volunteer for an experiment in which they will receive electric shocks typically feel less anxiety
about such shocks than most other people would.

OA later
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Re: In an trial, 100 people received thirty non-injurious shocks [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2012, 05:19
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gmatbull wrote:
In an trial, 100 people received thirty non-injurious electric shocks. Fifty of them received twenty strong shocks,
but the other half received weak shocks, except for three random strong shocks. The volunteers were told in
advance which group they were in. The researchers discovered that the volunteers who consistently received
strong shocks showed much milder physical signs of anxiety than the other volunteers did.

Which of the following would, if true, most help to explain the results of the experiment?

A. Other studies have found that the inability to predict when an anticipated unpleasant experience will occur usually
provokes anxiety.
B. Most people feel more anxiety when anticipating a strong electric shock than when anticipating a mild shock.
C. Many of the volunteers who consistently received strong shocks reported that the shocks made them feel quite anxious.
D. The volunteers who received mostly mild shocks showed stronger physical signs of anxiety after each strong shock
than after each mild shock.
E. People who knowingly volunteer for an experiment in which they will receive electric shocks typically feel less anxiety
about such shocks than most other people would.

OA later


Ans A it should be. when volunteers expected that they would recieve all strong shocks they would be mentally prepared for it. However, those, who did not which one would be strong and which one mild, would be more anxious due to anticipation.

Ans A it is.
Edited: Choice A. explained A and chose D :oops:
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Last edited by Vips0000 on 14 Nov 2012, 20:55, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: In an trial, 100 people received thirty non-injurious shocks [#permalink]

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New post 17 Nov 2012, 18:02
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IMO A.

Here's why:

The important language in the stem is "explain."

(D) does not explain the results of the study, but simply repeats them. It is stated that the "researchers discovered that the volunteers who consistently received strong shocks showed much milder physical signs of anxiety than the other volunteers did." This information is basically a rephrasing of what (D) states.

Ivan91 wrote:
'A' says that people are more anxious when they cannot anticipate an unpleasant feeling. The problem explicitly says that participants were told in advance in which group they are, so they are supposed to be able to anticipate which group will receive what shocks. So I believe we cannot talk about anticipations here.


(A) is the better choice since it actually offers support (i.e. an explanation) for the results of the study. There is anticipation that is relevant, but it is is contextual. There is a much higher level of anticipation within the second group (whose participants receive 3 random strong shocks among 30) since they are less able to predict when they will receive a strong shock, as compared to the first group. Thus, (A) best explains why the first group showed milder signs of anxiety.

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Re: In an trial, 100 people received thirty non-injurious [#permalink]

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New post 27 Nov 2012, 01:37
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+1 for A
B. Most people feel more anxiety when anticipating a strong electric shock than when anticipating a mild shock. Contradicts
C. Many of the volunteers who consistently received strong shocks reported that the shocks made them feel quite anxious.Contradicts
D. The volunteers who received mostly mild shocks showed stronger physical signs of anxiety after each strong shock
than after each mild shock. We are concerned about only the continuous strong shock
E. People who knowingly volunteer for an experiment in which they will receive electric shocks typically feel less anxiety
about such shocks than most other people would. Looks good. But it says 'most other people would'

Between A and E will choose A
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Re: In an trial, 100 people received thirty non-injurious shocks [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2012, 05:39
IMO D.

People who receive strong shocks have adapted to the strong shocks (gained experience) and thus, are less anxious while people who receive mild shocks react to strong shocks and are more anxious.

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Re: In an trial, 100 people received thirty non-injurious shocks [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2012, 05:43
yes +1 for D....! What the OA sir?

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Re: In an trial, 100 people received thirty non-injurious shocks [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2012, 19:35
Can someone explain why A doesnt work?

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Re: In an trial, 100 people received thirty non-injurious shocks [#permalink]

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New post 15 Nov 2012, 01:52
I also opt for D.

pls post OA and OE,
the wordings are complicated, core meaning is simple.
Can anyone take a dig at all the options.

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Re: In an trial, 100 people received thirty non-injurious shocks [#permalink]

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New post 15 Nov 2012, 16:53
'A' says that people are more anxious when they cannot anticipate an unpleasant feeling. The problem explicitly says that participants were told in advance in which group they are, so they are supposed to be able to anticipate which group will receive what shocks. So I believe we cannot talk about anticipations here.

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Re: In an trial, 100 people received thirty non-injurious [#permalink]

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New post 17 Nov 2012, 23:22
gmatbull wrote:
In an trial, 100 people received thirty non-injurious electric shocks. Fifty of them received twenty strong shocks,
but the other half received weak shocks, except for three random strong shocks. The volunteers were told in
advance which group they were in. The researchers discovered that the volunteers who consistently received
strong shocks showed much milder physical signs of anxiety than the other volunteers did.

Which of the following would, if true, most help to explain the results of the experiment?

A. Other studies have found that the inability to predict when an anticipated unpleasant experience will occur usually
provokes anxiety.
B. Most people feel more anxiety when anticipating a strong electric shock than when anticipating a mild shock.
C. Many of the volunteers who consistently received strong shocks reported that the shocks made them feel quite anxious.
D. The volunteers who received mostly mild shocks showed stronger physical signs of anxiety after each strong shock
than after each mild shock.
E. People who knowingly volunteer for an experiment in which they will receive electric shocks typically feel less anxiety
about such shocks than most other people would.

OA later


IMO A
I chose A because it clearly explains the reason behind mild shock group's higher anxiety levels.D adds more info without explaining the reason for high anxiety levels.

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Re: In an trial, 100 people received thirty non-injurious [#permalink]

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New post 21 Nov 2012, 00:44
The question looks more of a paradox..
why would ppl with strong shocks show mild anxiety while those who received mostly weak shock show strong anxiety?
The answer is rightly explained by Vips0000 and seths22.
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Re: In an trial, 100 people received thirty non-injurious   [#permalink] 21 Nov 2012, 00:44
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In an trial, 100 people received thirty non-injurious

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