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# In archaeology, as in the physical sciences, new discoveries

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In archaeology, as in the physical sciences, new discoveries [#permalink]

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18 Nov 2012, 03:55
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In archaeology, as in the physical sciences, new discoveries frequently undermine accepted findings and give rise to new theories. This trend can be seen in the reaction to the recent discovery of a set of 3.3-million-year-old fossils in Ethiopia, the remains of the earliest well-preserved child ever found. The fossilized child was estimated to be about 3 years old at death, female, and a member of the Australopithecus afarensis species. The afarensis species, a major human ancestor, lived in Africa from earlier than 3.7 million to 3 million years ago. " Her completeness, antiquity and age at death make this find of unprecedented importance in the history of paleo-anthropology" said Zeresenay Alemseged, a noted paleo-anthropologist. Other scientists said that the discovery could reconfigure conceptions about the live and capacities of these early humans.

Prior to this discovery, it had been thought that the afarensis species had abandoned the arboreal habitat of their ape cousins. However, while the lower linbs of this fossil supported findings that afarensis walked upright, its gorilla-like arms and shoulders suggested that it retained the ability to swing through trees. This had initiated a reexamination of many accepted theories of early human development. Also, the presence of a hyoid bone, a rarely preserved bone in the larynx that supports muscles of the throat, has had a tremendous impact on the theories about the origins of speech. The fossil bone is primitive and more similar to that of the apes than to that of humans, but it is the first hyoid bone found in such an early human-related species.
1. The Organization of the passage could best be described as :
(A) Discussing a controversial scientific discovery
(B) Contrasting previous theories of development with current findings
(C) Illustrating a contention with a specific example
(D) Arguing for the importance of a particular field of study
(E) Refuting a popular misconception

[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

2. The passage quotes Zeresenay Alemseged in order to
(A) provide evidence to qualify the main idea of the first paragraph
(B) question the claims of other scientists
(C) provide evidence to support the linguistic abilities of afarensis species
(D) provide evidence that supports the significance of the find
(E) provide a subjective opinion that is refuted in the second paragraph

[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

3. Each of the following is cited as a fact in the importance of the discovery of the fossils EXCEPT
(A) the fact that remains were those of a child
(B) the age of the fossils
(C) the location of the discovery
(D) the species of the fossils
(E) the intact nature of the fossils

[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

4. It can be inferred from the passage's description of the discovered fossil hyoid bone that
(A) Australopithecus afarensis were capable of speech
(B) the discovered hyoid bone is less primitive than the hyoid bone of apes
(C) the hyoid bone is necessary for speech
(D) the discovery of the hyoid bone necessitated the reexamination of prior theories
(E) The hyoid bone was the most important fossil found at the site

[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

5. According to the passage, the impact of the discovery of the hyoid bone in the field of archaeology could best be compared to which of the following examples in another field?
(A) The discovery and analysis of cosmic rays lend support to a widely accepted theory of the origin of the universe
(B) The original manuscript of deceased 19th century author confirms ideas of the development of an important work of literature
(C) The continued prosperity of a state-run economy stirs debate in the discipline of macroeconomics
(D) Newly revealed journal entries by a prominent Civil War-era politician lead to a questioning of certain accepted historical interpretations about the conflict
(E) Research into the mapping of the human genome gives rise to nascent applications o individually tailored medicines

[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

Will provide OA's soon ..
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #4 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #5 OA

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Re: In archaeology, as in the physical sciences.. [#permalink]

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19 Nov 2012, 04:08
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I can do only the first 3 questions: BDC.
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Re: In archaeology, as in the physical sciences.. [#permalink]

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19 Nov 2012, 04:43
I believe the answers are - BDEDD
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Re: In archaeology, as in the physical sciences, new discoveries [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2012, 22:36
My answer is as follow :

1. b
2. d
3. c
4. c
5. d
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Re: In archaeology, as in the physical sciences, new discoveries [#permalink]

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04 Dec 2012, 21:02
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My answers
B
D
E
C
D

Third question is the only one where I have my doubts. It cannot be c) for this question as the location (Ethiopia) was stated in paragraph 1. Can anyone post the correct answers?
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Re: In archaeology, as in the physical sciences, new discoveries [#permalink]

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16 Dec 2012, 06:47
Oh i guess i'm odd, with different answers....

A
A
A
B
D

Took 8.24

Please post OA and OE
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Re: In archaeology, as in the physical sciences, new discoveries [#permalink]

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16 Dec 2012, 10:11
1 - b
2 - d
3 - a
4 - d
5- d
OA pleeease!
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Re: In archaeology, as in the physical sciences, new discoveries [#permalink]

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16 Dec 2012, 10:40
1. B
2. D
3. C
4. A
5. D
What is the answer ?
Wha
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Re: In archaeology, as in the physical sciences, new discoveries [#permalink]

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16 Dec 2012, 23:58
Was patient till Q4 only.

B
D
E
A

OA and OE plz
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Re: In archaeology, as in the physical sciences, new discoveries [#permalink]

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17 Dec 2012, 07:16
I marked CDCCE some reasoning :

1. there are so many Bs out here but i eliminated because there is no previous theory mentioned

(C) Illustrating a contention with a specific example , the contention is the first line and remaining is the example

2. " Her completeness, antiquity and age at death make this find of unprecedented importance in the history of paleo-anthropology" said Zeresenay Alemseged, a noted paleo-anthropologist. therefore D

3. (C) the location of the discovery , all others are mentioned

4. most diff of all

4. It can be inferred from the passage's description of the discovered fossil hyoid bone that

(A) Australopithecus afarensis were capable of speech

not much evidence to infer that
(B) the discovered hyoid bone is less primitive than the hyoid bone of apes

its mentioned that its similar to apes how can be more primitive
(C) the hyoid bone is necessary for speech
sure , otherwise why we discuss speech and hyoid bone together

(D) the discovery of the hyoid bone necessitated the reexamination of prior theories
re examination because of arms not because of hyoid bone

(E) The hyoid bone was the most important fossil found at the site
nothing to infer this

5. has had a tremendous impact on the theories about the origins of speech.

discovery in one field has good impacts on other field

(E) Research into the mapping of the human genome gives rise to nascent applications o individually tailored medicines provides a similar reasoning

waiting for OAs
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Re: In archaeology, as in the physical sciences, new discoveries [#permalink]

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18 Dec 2012, 11:46
Hi,

My answers:
1. B
2. E
3. E
4. D
5. C

Waiting for OA.

Regards,
Pritish
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Re: In archaeology, as in the physical sciences, new discoveries [#permalink]

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20 Dec 2012, 23:47
1. (C)
2. (D)
3. (C)
4. (C)
5. (B)

OA's please.
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Re: In archaeology, as in the physical sciences, new discoveries [#permalink]

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21 Dec 2012, 03:08
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OA --> C D C D D

I will put the OE up in a while..
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Re: In archaeology, as in the physical sciences, new discoveries [#permalink]

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03 Feb 2013, 20:12
EASY passage but harder question.

but I never see a short and easy passage on gmat. Normally, the first passage is short and hard and has long sentences. The second passage is long and has shorter sentences.
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Re: In archaeology, as in the physical sciences, new discoveries [#permalink]

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03 Feb 2013, 20:36
thangvietnam wrote:
EASY passage but harder question.

but I never see a short and easy passage on gmat. Normally, the first passage is short and hard and has long sentences. The second passage is long and has shorter sentences.

Good observation thangvietnam, yes it is really rare to see a short and easy RC passage on GMAT. So, if you see a short passage on GMAT, make sure to understand it thoroughly and answer carefully.

Vercules.
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Re: In archaeology, as in the physical sciences, new discoveries [#permalink]

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28 Mar 2013, 12:13
Vercules wrote:
thangvietnam wrote:
EASY passage but harder question.

but I never see a short and easy passage on gmat. Normally, the first passage is short and hard and has long sentences. The second passage is long and has shorter sentences.

Good observation thangvietnam, yes it is really rare to see a short and easy RC passage on GMAT. So, if you see a short passage on GMAT, make sure to understand it thoroughly and answer carefully.

Vercules.

Hi Vercules,

Please could you help me with question 3-- i picked E as i dint see intact nature being mentioned anywhere, i removed C as i could see the mention of Africa from where the species actually belonged.

Thanks
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Re: In archaeology, as in the physical sciences, new discoveries [#permalink]

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10 Apr 2013, 05:09
Nailed it.. Under 5 mins..

Samvit - Trying to answer your question

3. Each of the following is cited as a fact in the importance of the discovery of the fossils EXCEPT

(A) the fact that remains were those of a child
(B) the age of the fossils
(C) the location of the discovery
(D) the species of the fossils
(E) the intact nature of the fossils

All options are mentioned in the article as a fact related to the discovery. But what makes it important is that it tests the prevalent hypotheses that speech originated much earlier than thought before. Changing any of the options would make an impact on the importance except for the location. The same discovery made in Greenland would have been just as important. hope this helps
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Re: In archaeology, as in the physical sciences, new discoveries [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2013, 08:45
Can someone explain the Q4 and Q5 ?

For Q4, I feel (C) the hyoid bone is necessary for speech is correct.
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Re: In archaeology, as in the physical sciences, new discoveries [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2013, 09:44
grakesh wrote:
Can someone explain the Q4 and Q5 ?

For Q4, I feel (C) the hyoid bone is necessary for speech is correct.

We need to answer Q4 and Q5, only for last two sentences.

Also, the presence of a hyoid bone, a rarely preserved bone in the larynx that supports muscles of the throat, has had a tremendous impact on the theories about the origins of speech. The fossil bone is primitive and more similar to that of the apes than to that of humans, but it is the first hyoid bone found in such an early human-related species.

4. It can be inferred from the passage's description of the discovered fossil hyoid bone that

(A) Australopithecus afarensis were capable of speech - the passage only says hyoid bone in the fossil has had tremendous impact on the theories about the origins of speech. Not that, the species were capable of speech
(B) the discovered hyoid bone is less primitive than the hyoid bone of apes - Paragraph says primitive to the apes. means more primitive apes.
(C) the hyoid bone is necessary for speech - the paragraph never mentions that this bone is necessary for speech. The paragraph says this bone is in larynx and larynx sypports throat muscles. May be from this bone helps out to find shape of the latynx in earlier stage and, hence, throes some light on theories about origin of speech.
(D) the discovery of the hyoid bone necessitated the reexamination of prior theories - Correct. Mark the wording "has had a tremendous impact on the theories". Also the passage as a whole emphasizes on how new discoveries challenge existing theory.
(E) The hyoid bone was the most important fossil found at the site - the passage never says that this bone is important.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. According to the passage, the impact of the discovery of the hyoid bone in the field of archaeology could best be compared to which of the following examples in another field?

in short : new discovery -> questions existing theories

(A) The discovery and analysis of cosmic rays lend support to a widely accepted theory of the origin of the universe - new discovery -> supports existing theories
(B) The original manuscript of deceased 19th century author confirms ideas of the development of an important work of literature new discovery -> supports existing theories
(C) The continued prosperity of a state-run economy stirs debate in the discipline of macroeconomics This is no discovery.
(D) Newly revealed journal entries by a prominent Civil War-era politician lead to a questioning of certain accepted historical interpretations about the conflict - new discovery -> questions existing theories
(E) Research into the mapping of the human genome gives rise to nascent applications o individually tailored medicines new discovery -> helps further application
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Re: In archaeology, as in the physical sciences, new discoveries [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2013, 19:41
Omg..i tought I had all the different answers:
C
A
C
D
D

got the second one wrong, however now it is very clear why it is D.
Re: In archaeology, as in the physical sciences, new discoveries   [#permalink] 13 Jun 2013, 19:41

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# In archaeology, as in the physical sciences, new discoveries

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