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# In astronomy the term "red shift" denotes the extent to which light fr

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Manager
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Re: In astronomy the term "red shift" denotes the extent to which light fr [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2009, 22:34
jallenmorris wrote:
I disagree with the OA. Saying that "light has been shifted" implies that another force is acting upon it to cause the light to shift. If the only difference is between "has been shifted" and "has shifted" - i think we do not have enough information to adequately determine the meaning of th sentence to know which one is truly correct.

A - Implies that another force has acted upon it to cause the shift.

B - Simply says that the light has shifted, regardless of the cause. This sentence is simpler than A and to me seems better to keep it simple.

sasen wrote:
Confusion lies between A and B

A:LIGHT FROM A DISTANT GALAXY "HAS BEEN" SHIFTED BY XXXXX

TELLS US CLEARLY THAT LIGHT FROM THE GAL WAS MADE TO SHIFT BY THE XXXX

B: LIGHT FROM GAL HAS SHIFTED BY XXXXX

AMBIGUOUSLY DENOTES THAT LIGHT HAS SHIFTED ITSELF BY XXXXX.

A is correct since it conveys the intended meaning precisely

The OA is A

Light….. has been shifted….by the rapid motion of the galaxy.

It is clear that "rapid motion of the galaxy" has acted upon "light" to cause the shift.

Hence IMO the answer is A.
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Re: In astronomy the term "red shift" denotes the extent to which light fr [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2009, 09:17
Was a bit confused and going for B.

But now after reading the full sentence again and again ....sure shot A........

Correct - Light….. has been shifted….by the rapid motion of the galaxy.
Not - Light….. has shifted….by the rapid motion of the galaxy.
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Re: In astronomy the term "red shift" denotes the extent to which light fr [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2009, 07:26
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jallenmorris wrote:
Why do we need passive voice? On the GMAT, and in general writing, passive voice is bad.

zura wrote:
strait A
In astronomy the term "red shift" denotes the extent to which light from a distant galaxy has been shifted toward the red, or long-wave, end of the light spectrum by the rapid motion of the galaxy away from the Earth.

we need passive voice

you must avoid passive voice in gmat but still its not 100 % wrong !
as the case with "being"... gmat considers it redundant but still u can face some correct sentences with it...

in A BY in not underline portion of the sentence hints for passive !
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Re: In astronomy the term "red shift" denotes the extent to which light fr [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2009, 07:45
zura wrote:
in A by in not underline portion of the sentence hints for passive !

That's a great point. The sentence would not make sense unless it was passive. That doesn't mean that the sentence is good writing and one a composition professor would approve. I don't like passive sentences, but I think that stems from all the writing courses I've had to take and papers edited and corrected, etc.

What is the source of this question?
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Re: In astronomy the term "red shift" denotes the extent to which light fr [#permalink]

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21 Jul 2010, 22:45
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Cut the fluff, the statement reduces to :

(A) light has been shifted.... by the rapid motion of the galaxy

This means that "light" doesnt have a intent to shift on its own. The reason why it shifted is because of the change in wavelength caused by rapid motion of the galaxy [Doppler's effect] rapid motion of the galaxy causing the wavelength to shift to the red end of the spectrum

(B) to which light from a distant galaxy has shifted ---> change of meaning. It means that light shifted on its own irrespective of the "rapid motion" of galaxy.

Gotcha ! Ohh light shifted on its own and Doppler's theory is bull shit. Christian Doppler are you listening to this???? LOL

noboru wrote:
could anybody elaborate a bit more?
thanks.
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Re: In astronomy the term "red shift" denotes the extent to which light fr [#permalink]

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22 Jul 2010, 09:08
A it is

'extent of' and 'extent to' are correct idioms

options C, D and E are incorrect for wrong idioms or correct idiom with wrong sentence structure.....

that leaves A and B....if we take the extra stuff out.....the sentence will read as highlighted in blue......

In astronomy....."red shift" denotes the extent to which light......has been shifted......by the rapid motion
In the above sentence if we put just "has shifted" instead of "has been shifted" the sentence will sound awkward.

so the correct structure is "has been shifted....by the rapid motion"

In astronomy the term “red shift” denotes the extent to which light from a distant galaxy has been shifted toward the red, or long-wave, end of the light spectrum by the rapid motion of the galaxy away from the Earth.

(A) to which light from a distant galaxy has been shifted
(B) to which light from a distant galaxy has shifted
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Re: In astronomy the term "red shift" denotes the extent to which light fr [#permalink]

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25 Aug 2010, 00:19
Ans A.

"has been" is required to show that the action is performed "by the rapid motion of the galaxy away from the Earth"
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Re: In astronomy the term "red shift" denotes the extent to which light fr [#permalink]

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25 Aug 2010, 03:35
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IMO A.
(A) to which light from a distant galaxy has been shifted
Correct: Uses Passive Voice (Notice the usage of "by the rapid motion of".
Correct Idiom : Extent to
(B) to which light from a distant galaxy has shifted
Incorrect: We need "has been shifted". We cannot use Has shifted. This would mean that light itself has shifted. This phenomenon of using (Has been and Has) has been explained in Manhattan in detail.
(C) that light from a distant galaxy has been shifted
Incorrect: I may say, its unidiomatic, but I could not find any other reason than Idiom.
(D) of light from a distant galaxy shifting
Incorrect: Do we mean...its shifting NOW !!!+Incorrect Idiom
(E) of the shift of light from a distant galaxy
Incorrect:Incorrect Idiom+Awkward+Wordy
I hope it helps
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Re: In astronomy the term "red shift" denotes the extent to which light fr [#permalink]

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25 Aug 2010, 16:09
first of all the question is in passive voice. so the usage of "has been " is correct
we are left with options A and C.
option c is unidiomatic
"extent to which" is coorect idiom. so option A is correct.
please correct me if i am wrong
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Re: In astronomy the term "red shift" denotes the extent to which light fr [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2010, 06:19
First i picked B, thinking its simpler. But after reading the posts above, A makes more sense.
GMAT doesn't say passive is WRONG. In this case, passive form keeps the meaning clearer.

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Re: In astronomy the term "red shift" denotes the extent to which light fr [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2010, 06:24
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It is amazing how time away from a question allows a person to view it differently.

The answer is A. In my first post I say something about how "has been shifted" implies that something is causing it to shift "which doesn't make sense". If I had read the question closely, I would have seen that the question includes "by the rapid..." That clearly tells us what is causing the action. A is correct because the sentence includes the necessary information to show what is causing the action.
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Re: In astronomy the term "red shift" denotes the extent to which light fr [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2010, 11:54
zura wrote:
strait A
In astronomy the term "red shift" denotes the extent to which light from a distant galaxy has been shifted toward the red, or long-wave, end of the light spectrum by the rapid motion of the galaxy away from the Earth.

we need passive voice

true.

for this reason A overcome B

galaxy movement shift the light like a mover
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Re: In astronomy the term "red shift" denotes the extent to which light fr [#permalink]

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10 Nov 2010, 07:50
In astronomy the term "red shift" denotes the extent to which light from a distant galaxy has been shifted toward the red, or long-wave, end of the light spectrum by the rapid motion of the galaxy away from the
Earth.
(A) to which light from a distant galaxy has been shifted
(B) to which light from a distant galaxy has shifted
(C) that light from a distant galaxy has been shifted
(D) of light from a distant galaxy shifting
(E) of the shift of light from a distant galaxy

In astronomy the term "red shift" denotes the extent [idiom]to which light from a distant galaxy has been shifted toward the red, or long-wave, end of the light spectrum [highlight]by[/highlight] the rapid motion of the galaxy away from the Earth.
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Re: In astronomy the term "red shift" denotes the extent to which light fr [#permalink]

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12 Nov 2010, 23:47
Official explanations:

Choice A is best because it is idiomatic and because its passive verb construction, has been shifted, clearly indicates that the light has been acted upon by the rapid motion. In B, the active verb has shifted suggests that the light, not the motion, is the agency of action, but such a construction leaves the phrase by the rapid motion of the galaxy away from the Earth without any logical or grammatical function. In C, the construction the extent that light is ungrammatical; denotes the extent must be completed by to which. D incorrectly employs an active verb, shifting, and extent of light is imprecise and awkward. E is faulty because it contains no verb to express the action performed by the rapid motion.
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Re: In astronomy the term "red shift" denotes the extent to which light fr [#permalink]

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11 Nov 2011, 07:56
Good question. Narrowed it to A and B and went with B. Got it wrong,
Nice explanation that light has been shifted ( by someone ) rather than light has shifted (on its own ).
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http://gmatclub.com/forum/massive-collection-of-verbal-questions-sc-rc-and-cr-106195.html#p832142
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Re: In astronomy the term "red shift" denotes the extent to which light fr [#permalink]

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12 Nov 2011, 12:30
This is good question, one that exemplifies the importance of understanding the MEANING of the COMPLETE sentence instead of just focusing on the underlined portion of the sentence.

In astronomy the term "red shift" denotes the extent to which light from a distant galaxy has been shifted toward the red, or long-wave, end of the light spectrum by the rapid motion of the galaxy away from the Earth.

The sentence very clearly explains the term “red shift”. Focus on the highlighted areas of the sentence to get the gist of it.
…the extent to which light from a distant galaxy has been shifted toward the red, or long-wave, end of the light spectrum by the rapid motion of the galaxy away from the Earth.
It denotes the extent to which light from a faraway galaxy has been shifted toward the red end of spectrum by rapid motion of this galaxy.

Now look at choice B – the one that has been selected by quite a few of you as the correct answer - Lets put this choice in the simplified sentence above. The only difference between A and B is the verb - has been shifted in choice A and has shifted in choice B

Red shift denotes the extent to which light from a faraway galaxy has shifted toward the red end of spectrum by rapid motion of this galaxy.

Now what is the role of “by rapid motion”. This expression made complete sense in choice A when we wanted to show the doer in the passive construction. But now in choice B, this is ungrammatical.

So it is of utmost importance that you consider the complete sentence (whether underlined or not underlined). The reason why you marked B as correct choice is its active construction and your belief that passive is not preferred on GMAT. This is an incomplete approach and one that must be corrected in order to perform well in SC.

Take-away - first Understand the meaning of the original sentence - the complete sentence and then apply your knowledge of English language to convey that meaning appropriately.

Payal
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Re: In astronomy the term "red shift" denotes the extent to which light fr [#permalink]

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14 Nov 2011, 08:16
A. Must you 'has been' because light was shifted by.
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Re: In astronomy the term "red shift" denotes the extent to which light fr [#permalink]

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31 Dec 2011, 04:00
Usually 'has been' is used instead of 'has' when we need to emphasize some fact.

For e.g.,
I have gone to India --> no emphasis on the fact that I went to India.
I have been to India --> the fact that I went to India was of something important!

Here the whole point is - something is shifting and this is emphasized by 'extent TO'. Hence we need to use 'has been'.

Also another clue, but this may or may not be correct (some one can correct me, if this is wrong).
When an action happened over a period of time, its better to use 'has/had been' instead of simple 'has/had'. In our present case, that shifting did not happen in a moment but definitely over a period of time.
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Re: In astronomy the term "red shift" denotes the extent to which light fr [#permalink]

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26 Mar 2012, 04:27
a is perfect, because, passive voice is rare in gmat, but passive voice í used in science , medical, technical writing style

Posted from GMAT ToolKit
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Re: In astronomy the term "red shift" denotes the extent to which light fr [#permalink]

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26 Mar 2012, 12:27
Its a pretty clear A.

B. Should be "has been shifted" as in A because the light has been shifted by the rapid motion of the galaxy away form the earth. Therefore incorrect.
Re: In astronomy the term "red shift" denotes the extent to which light fr   [#permalink] 26 Mar 2012, 12:27

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