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# In cold-water habitats, certain invertebrates and fish

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Re: SC-cold-water habitats [#permalink]

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21 Jul 2010, 13:24
It would be great if any SC guru provide some clarification on this.
Thanks
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Re: SC-cold-water habitats [#permalink]

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22 Jul 2010, 09:20
one explanation that I found on another forum for why C and not D:

Quote:
so that is used to indicate purpose. Here the intention is not purpose. It is something an advantage which is arising out indirectly.

For Ex,

People live in cold areas and in effect become whitish in color.

Here it would be wrong to say that

People live in cold areas so that they become whitish in color.

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Re: SC-cold-water habitats [#permalink]

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06 Sep 2010, 11:43
I agree with seekmba.

Usage of so that - is to indicate intention.

For ex,
Survey was conducted so that management can understand the problems faced by workers.
"So that" indicates that management conducted the survey with an intent of finding the problems faced by workers.
Survey was conducted at company X and in effect the management came to understand the problems faced by workers.
2nd construction deletes the intent part of survey, understanding of the worker's problem was result of survey.

Another ex.
Global warming is increasing the pace of arctic meltdown , in effect decreasing the habitat of Polar Bears.
In effect indicates , an un-intentional result. Global warming is not increasing arctic meltdown to reduce the habitat of Polar Bears. In fact, the decrease in habitat of Polar Bear is the un-intentional result of Arctic meltdown.

Obviously , Invertebrates and fishes do not breakdown the complex starches into glycerol intentionally to manufacture antifreeze. Therefore in effect does more justice in maintaining the intended meaning.
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Re: SC-cold-water habitats [#permalink]

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07 Sep 2010, 01:08
malar wrote:
In cold-water habitats, certain invertebrates and fish convert starches into complex carbohydrates called glycerols, in effect manufacturing its own antifreeze.
(A) in effect manufacturing its own antifreeze
(B) effectively manufacturing antifreeze of its own
(C) in effect manufacturing their own antifreeze
(D) so that they manufacture their own antifreeze
(E) thus the manufacture of its own antifreeze

POE first:
A,B, and E are out for singular pronoun
D-cause /effect - X, so that Y- this changes the meaning of the sentence (they convert ....in order to manufacture...)
C-ing construction modifies the previous clause. the use of "in effect" signals the unintended result or side effect. C is good

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Re: In cold-water habitats, certain invertebrates and fish [#permalink]

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03 Sep 2012, 03:50
the part following "so that" is generally the answer of "why?".

In this sentence, we don't need such relationship because sentence is not trying to explain "why invertebrates and fisch convert starches into complex..". The entence just trying to explain process of manufacturing an antifreeze.

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In cold-water habitats, certain invertebrates and fish [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2012, 06:20
In cold-water habitats, certain invertebrates and fish convert starches into complex carbohydrates called glycerols, in effect manufacturing its own antifreeze.(A) in effect manufacturing its own antifreeze
(B) effectively manufacturing antifreeze of its own
(C) in effect manufacturing their own antifreeze.
(D) so that they manufacture their own antifreeze
(E) thus the manufacture of its own antifreeze

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Re: In cold-water habitats, certain invertebrates [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2012, 07:19
In cold-water habitats, certain invertebrates and fish convert starches into complex carbohydrates called glycerols, in effect manufacturing its own antifreeze.
(A) in effect manufacturing its own antifreeze WRONG PRONOUN (ITS)
(B) effectively manufacturing antifreeze of its own WRONG PRONOUN (ITS)
(C) in effect manufacturing their own antifreeze. CORRECT
(D) so that they manufacture their own antifreeze WORDY
(E) thus the manufacture of its own antifreeze AMBIGUOUS
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Re: In cold-water habitats, certain invertebrates [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2012, 13:48
First off, remove any answer choice that has "its" because "certain vertebrates and fish" is plural. Between C and D, D changes the meaning. D makes it sound like they convert starches into glycerols in order to make their own antifreeze. C retains the conversion resulting in a byproduct.

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Re: In cold-water habitats, certain invertebrates [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2012, 20:42
I choose D first, but after reading the explanation C seems to be correct

Thanks for the explanation Injuin !!!

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Re: In cold-water habitats, certain invertebrates [#permalink]

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07 Sep 2012, 19:19
in effect is the correct terminology. effectively changes the meaning. Therefore C is the answer.

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Re: In cold-water habitats, certain invertebrates [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2012, 01:52
jitgoel wrote:
In cold-water habitats, certain invertebrates and fish convert starches into complex carbohydrates called glycerols, in effect manufacturing its own antifreeze.
(A) in effect manufacturing its own antifreeze
(B) effectively manufacturing antifreeze of its own
(C) in effect manufacturing their own antifreeze.
(D) so that they manufacture their own antifreeze
(E) thus the manufacture of its own antifreeze

certain invertebrates and fish
is plural, this makes options A, B and E out as they use "its" to refer to plural subject.
Now it comes between C and D.
"so that" signifies that it is the conversion of starches into blah blah that is making them manufacture blah blah..
but this is not the case here.
For this reason C is a better choice IMO.
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In cold-water habitats, certain invertebrates and fish.... [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2013, 21:19
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In cold-water habitats, certain invertebrates and fish convert starches into complex carbohydrates called glycerols, in effect manufacturing its own antifreeze.

(A) in effect manufacturing its own antifreeze
(B) effectively manufacturing antifreeze of its own
(C) in effect manufacturing their own antifreeze.
(D) so that they manufacture their own antifreeze
(E) thus the manufacture of its own antifreeze

I can't understand the meaning of this sentence. My question is: Is "manufacturing ... antifreeze" the result of action "convert" done by invertebrates and fish? If so, then why don't we have structure: "Main clause, Verb-ing" to express the result of the main clause?
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Re: In cold-water habitats, certain invertebrates and fish.... [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2013, 23:56
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LucyDang wrote:
I can't understand the meaning of this sentence. My question is: Is "manufacturing ... antifreeze" the result of action "convert" done by invertebrates and fish? If so, then why don't we have structure: "Main clause, Verb-ing" to express the result of the main clause?

Yes you are right that conversion of starches leads to manufacturing of antifreeze.
But in GMAT we have to find the best option out of the 5 options presented to us. This does not mean that the correct option is the best available option in the whole world

Options A, B and E can be eliminated because of the usage of singular pronoun its with plural noun invertebrates and fish.

The only contenders are C and D.

The problem with D is that, they is ambiguous here. THEY might refer to invertebrates and fish or carbohydrates. Moreover (D) somehow changes the intended meaning of the sentence.

D says: Invertebrates do X so that they can cause Y.
Here focus is more on Y. Invertebrates are doing X just to achieve Y.

C says: Invertebrates do X, causing Y.
So here Y implicitly gets done when Invertebrates do X.

This is the intended meaning.

Note: This question has already been discussed in the following thread:
in-cold-water-habitats-certain-invertebrates-and-fish-76847.html

Please search properly before posting a new question.

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Re: In cold-water habitats, certain invertebrates and fish.... [#permalink]

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23 Oct 2013, 01:49
TirthankarP wrote:
LucyDang wrote:
I can't understand the meaning of this sentence. My question is: Is "manufacturing ... antifreeze" the result of action "convert" done by invertebrates and fish? If so, then why don't we have structure: "Main clause, Verb-ing" to express the result of the main clause?

Yes you are right that conversion of starches leads to manufacturing of antifreeze.
But in GMAT we have to find the best option out of the 5 options presented to us. This does not mean that the correct option is the best available option in the whole world

Options A, B and E can be eliminated because of the usage of singular pronoun its with plural noun invertebrates and fish.

The only contenders are C and D.

The problem with D is that, they is ambiguous here. THEY might refer to invertebrates and fish or carbohydrates. Moreover (D) somehow changes the intended meaning of the sentence.

D says: Invertebrates do X so that they can cause Y.
Here focus is more on Y. Invertebrates are doing X just to achieve Y.

C says: Invertebrates do X, causing Y.
So here Y implicitly gets done when Invertebrates do X.

This is the intended meaning.

Note: This question has already been discussed in the following thread:
in-cold-water-habitats-certain-invertebrates-and-fish-76847.html

Please search properly before posting a new question.

Tirthankar, thanks for your crystal explanation. It's true I haven't searched before posting this topic. I'm gonna delete this post after 10 mins.
Many thanks again!

Best,
Lucy
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Re: In cold-water habitats, certain invertebrates and fish [#permalink]

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30 Dec 2013, 11:34
malar wrote:
In cold-water habitats, certain invertebrates and fish convert starches into complex carbohydrates called glycerols, in effect manufacturing its own antifreeze.
(A) in effect manufacturing its own antifreeze
(B) effectively manufacturing antifreeze of its own
(C) in effect manufacturing their own antifreeze
(D) so that they manufacture their own antifreeze
(E) thus the manufacture of its own antifreeze

its/their split
So that they is too wordy

C is the best choice

Hope it helps
Cheers!
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Re: In cold-water habitats, certain invertebrates and fish [#permalink]

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06 Aug 2016, 01:34
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Re: In cold-water habitats, certain invertebrates and fish   [#permalink] 06 Aug 2016, 01:34

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# In cold-water habitats, certain invertebrates and fish

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