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# In countries in which new-life sustaining drugs cannot be

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In countries in which new-life sustaining drugs cannot be [#permalink]

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18 Mar 2007, 20:11
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In countries in which new-life sustaining drugs cannot be patented, such drugs are sold at widely affordable prices; those same drugs, where patented, command premium prices because the patents shieldpatent-holding company from competitors. These facts show that future access to new life sustaining drugs can be improved if the practice of granting patents on newly developed life-sustaining drugs were to be abolished everywhere.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the arguement?
A) In countries in which life-sustaining drugs cannot be patented, their manufacturer is neverthless a profitable enterprise.
b) Countries that do not currently grant patents on life-sustaining drugs are, for the most part, countries with large populations
C) In some countries specific processes for the manufacture of pharmaceutical drugs can be patented even in cases in which the drugs themselves cannot be patented.
D) Pharmaceutical companies can afford the research that go into the development of new drugs only if patents allow them to earn high profits.
E) Countries that grant patents on life-sustaining drugs almost always ban their importation from countries that do not grant such patents.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: In countries in which new-life sustaining drugs cannot be [#permalink]

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18 Mar 2007, 23:42
D !
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Re: In countries in which new-life sustaining drugs cannot be [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2007, 07:34
One more D
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19 Mar 2007, 08:05
Yeah, D makes a lot of sense...
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Re: In countries in which new-life sustaining drugs cannot be [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2007, 08:12
nitinneha wrote:
In countries in which new-life sustaining drugs cannot be patented, such drugs are sold at widely affordable prices; those same drugs, where patented, command premium prices because the patents shieldpatent-holding company from competitors. These facts show that future access to new life sustaining drugs can be improved if the practice of granting patents on newly developed life-sustaining drugs were to be abolished everywhere.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the arguement?
A) In countries in which life-sustaining drugs cannot be patented, their manufacturer is neverthless a profitable enterprise.
b) Countries that do not currently grant patents on life-sustaining drugs are, for the most part, countries with large populations
C) In some countries specific processes for the manufacture of pharmaceutical drugs can be patented even in cases in which the drugs themselves cannot be patented.
D) Pharmaceutical companies can afford the research that go into the development of new drugs only if patents allow them to earn high profits.
E) Countries that grant patents on life-sustaining drugs almost always ban their importation from countries that do not grant such patents.

D
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Re: In countries in which new-life sustaining drugs cannot be [#permalink]

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20 Mar 2007, 17:15
OA is D.

Could someone please elaborate on why C is wrong?

Also, in first sentence, it clearly says that in some countries where drug is not patented, it sells for less.

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20 Mar 2007, 17:28
In countries in which new-life sustaining drugs cannot be patented, such drugs are sold at widely affordable prices; those same drugs, where patented, command premium prices because the patents shieldpatent-holding company from competitors. These facts show that future access to new life sustaining drugs can be improved if the practice of granting patents on newly developed life-sustaining drugs were to be abolished everywhere.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the arguement?
A) In countries in which life-sustaining drugs cannot be patented, their manufacturer is neverthless a profitable enterprise.
b) Countries that do not currently grant patents on life-sustaining drugs are, for the most part, countries with large populations
C) In some countries specific processes for the manufacture of pharmaceutical drugs can be patented even in cases in which the drugs themselves cannot be patented.
D) Pharmaceutical companies can afford the research that go into the development of new drugs only if patents allow them to earn high profits.
E) Countries that grant patents on life-sustaining drugs almost always ban their importation from countries that do not grant such patents.

D for me as argument is weakened if it cosiders the cost of research and high cost, in countries where patent is legal, contribute to the research
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20 Mar 2007, 17:30
C is wrong as it doesn't counter the point that abolishing patent might lead to stagnation in research and hence no new life saving drugs, which the author is very concerned about.
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20 Mar 2007, 21:49
One and only D.
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23 Mar 2007, 04:17
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D as C only supports the arguement for unpatended drugs.
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Re: In countries in which new-life sustaining drugs cannot be [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2011, 02:53
+1 D
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Re: In countries in which new-life sustaining drugs cannot be [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2012, 23:03
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D it is.If patents are banned then future research for more life saving drugs will also be hampered hence patents should not be banned.
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23 Apr 2012, 05:44
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In countries in which new-life sustaining drugs cannot be patented, such drugs are sold at widely affordable prices; those same drugs, where patented, command premium prices because the patents shield patent-holding company from competitors. These facts show that future access to new life sustaining drugs can be improved if the practice of granting patents on newly developed life-sustaining drugs were to be abolished everywhere. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?
A. In countries in which life-sustaining drugs cannot be patented, their manufacturer is nevertheless a profitable enterprise.
B. Countries that do not currently grant patents on life-sustaining drugs are, for the most part, countries with large populations.
C. In some countries specific processes for the manufacture of pharmaceutical drugs can be patented even in cases in which the drugs themselves cannot be patented.
D. Pharmaceutical companies can afford the research that go into the development of new drugs only if patents allow them to earn high profits.
E. Countries that grant patents on life-sustaining drugs almost always ban their importation from countries that do not grant such patents.

Explanation:

The argument states that due to patents the profits of pharmaceutical manufacturing companies won't be earn as much profits as in case of no patents ,so if there is no patents there is more profits and with patents less profit and the conclusion is by abolition of patents the future access to life saving drugs can improve and companies would earn more profit , so we should attack the conclusion by saying that with patents the companies can earn more profit or without patents the access to life saving drugs would decrease and companies would earn less profit . By looking closely we can see that option d states that if govt promises to grant patents only companies develops new life saving drugs as a result companies would earn more profit. i rejected option c because option c states that only drug manufacturing process can be patented and not drugs so the argument anywhere does not states that drug manufacturing process can be patented and not drugs so we can reject option c on this basis.

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Re: In countries in which new-life sustaining drugs cannot be [#permalink]

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24 Feb 2013, 08:56
why is B not corect can somebody throw a light on this??
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25 Feb 2013, 22:42
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jkaustubh wrote:
why is B not corect can somebody throw a light on this??

Hi,

b) Countries that do not currently grant patents on life-sustaining drugs are, for the most part, countries with large populations

This option only tells that most of the countries which currently do not grant patents have large populations. So what? The option doesn't tell whether people have easy access to the life-saving drugs in this country - which is the essence of the conclusion.

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10 Apr 2013, 05:39
can anyone explain all the option choices..

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16 Apr 2013, 23:58
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nitinneha wrote:
In countries in which new-life sustaining drugs cannot be patented, such drugs are sold at widely affordable prices; those same drugs, where patented, command premium prices because the patents shieldpatent-holding company from competitors. These facts show that future access to new life sustaining drugs can be improved if the practice of granting patents on newly developed life-sustaining drugs were to be abolished everywhere.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the arguement?
A) In countries in which life-sustaining drugs cannot be patented, their manufacturer is neverthless a profitable enterprise.
b) Countries that do not currently grant patents on life-sustaining drugs are, for the most part, countries with large populations
C) In some countries specific processes for the manufacture of pharmaceutical drugs can be patented even in cases in which the drugs themselves cannot be patented.
D) Pharmaceutical companies can afford the research that go into the development of new drugs only if patents allow them to earn high profits.
E) Countries that grant patents on life-sustaining drugs almost always ban their importation from countries that do not grant such patents.

The key to solving CR questions is to fully understand the conclusion. Always find the conclusion.

The conclusion here is the final sentence: These facts show that future access to new life sustaining drugs can be improved if the practice of granting patents on newly developed life-sustaining drugs were to be abolished everywhere.

In all weaken/strengthen arguments the conclusion contains the main point that can be attacked or supported. So since we want to weaken the argument, we're looking for the answer that most successfully attacks this conclusion.

A.) In countries in which life-sustaining drugs cannot be patented, their manufacturer is neverthless a profitable enterprise. This statement somewhat strengthens the conclusion, if companies without patents are profitable, the patents could not be necessary.

B.) Countries that do not currently grant patents on life-sustaining drugs are, for the most part, countries with large populations This statement neither weakens or strengthens the conclusion, it merely points out that the non-patent granting countries are ones with large populations.

C.) In some countries specific processes for the manufacture of pharmaceutical drugs can be patented even in cases in which the drugs themselves cannot be patented. This is the trap answer. There is logic behind this answer that could potentially weaken the argument. You probably said to yourself, "if we don't necessarily patent the drug itself, but the manufacturing process instead, it could (key word here) lead to the monopoly-type environment that the author wants to avoid!" But, the reverse is also true. Try not to get sucked in. There are many ways to manufacture drugs and even if one way is patented it can still be possible to reach the non-patent Utopia (through multiple manufacturing processes) that author is hoping for. This answer is close, but not quite up to snuff.

D.) Pharmaceutical companies can afford the research that go into the development of new drugs only if patents allow them to earn high profits. BINGO! This answer hits the conclusion right in the sweet spot! The Companies need the profits that the patents provide to enable the research to create the "future access to new life sustaining drugs" that the author talks about directly the conclusion argument. No HIGH (key word) profits = no new drugs. This kills the author's argument.

E.) Countries that grant patents on life-sustaining drugs almost always ban their importation from countries that do not grant such patents. This statement actually strengthens the argument of the author. If patent granting countries banned their supposedly cheaper imports, it would further increase the profits on the companies that are granted patents that the author says need to be eliminated. This is the opposite of what we're looking for.
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20 Aug 2013, 00:25
Took me a while to understand this.

Weaken: Pharma companies can only afford to develop these drugs b/c patents make them $$. (D) weakens because if pharma didn't have patents, they wouldn't have the$$ to develop new drugs.
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Re: In countries in which new-life sustaining drugs cannot be [#permalink]

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03 May 2014, 18:11
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Honestly, all of the answers seem bad to me, because none of them seem to affect the conclusion of "access" to new drugs. However, D is the best answer.
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19 May 2014, 04:50
Looks like D is the best choice :- more profit and more money for R & D.
Re: In countries in which new-life sustaining drugs cannot be   [#permalink] 19 May 2014, 04:50

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