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# In developed countries, such as the United States, the

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In developed countries, such as the United States, the [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2008, 20:56
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In developed countries, such as the United States, the percentage of the population diagnosed with clinical depression is much greater than that in developing countries. Researchers hypothesize that this difference is due to the increased leisure time afforded to residents of developed countries.

The hypothesis of the researchers depends on which of the following assumptions?

1.Clinical depression is a genetically transmitted malady.
2.Access to accurate diagnostic procedures for depression is equal for residents of developing and developed countries.
3.Most activities characterized as “leisure time” in developed countries are inherently boring.
4.Certain medications that effectively treat clinical depression are not readily available in developing countries.
5.Few residents of developing countries dedicate any of their time to leisure. ow

In this Q the OA is B. Understandable. However when you apply the theory alternate causation the answer should be E.
Increased Leisure Time -----------------> Increased Depression (to negate this E seems to do the job)

Can anyone explain.

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Director
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Re: CR: MGMAT (increased depression) [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2008, 21:43
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B

In order to make an accurate comparison, the conditions have to be equal.

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Re: CR: MGMAT (increased depression) [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2008, 23:19
x97agarwal wrote:
In developed countries, such as the United States, the percentage of the population diagnosed with clinical depression is much greater than that in developing countries. Researchers hypothesize that this difference is due to the increased leisure time afforded to residents of developed countries.

The hypothesis of the researchers depends on which of the following assumptions?

1.Clinical depression is a genetically transmitted malady.
2.Access to accurate diagnostic procedures for depression is equal for residents of developing and developed countries.
3.Most activities characterized as “leisure time” in developed countries are inherently boring.
4.Certain medications that effectively treat clinical depression are not readily available in developing countries.
5.Few residents of developing countries dedicate any of their time to leisure. ow

In this Q the OA is B. Understandable. However when you apply the theory alternate causation the answer should be E.
Increased Leisure Time -----------------> Increased Depression (to negate this E seems to do the job)

Can anyone explain.

IMO E weakens the conclusion. negating E gives
NO Increased Depression -----------> No leisure time

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Re: CR: MGMAT (increased depression) [#permalink]

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14 Sep 2008, 03:28
A survey of New York City residents in the wake of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks found high levels of both depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among respondents and documented an increase in substance abuse. The survey, conducted by NIDA-funded researchers Dr. David Vlahov and his colleagues at the New York Academy of Medicine 5 to 8 weeks after the terrorist attacks, quantifies the relationships among stress, depression, and substance abuse. The results provide insight into public health service delivery needs as well as clues to effective treatment strategies to help individuals cope with traumatic events.

Arjun

Clinical Depression

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Re: CR: MGMAT (increased depression) [#permalink]

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14 Sep 2008, 03:40
x97agarwal wrote:
In developed countries, such as the United States, the percentage of the population diagnosed with clinical depression is much greater than that in developing countries. Researchers hypothesize that this difference is due to the increased leisure time afforded to residents of developed countries.

The hypothesis of the researchers depends on which of the following assumptions?

1.Clinical depression is a genetically transmitted malady.
2.Access to accurate diagnostic procedures for depression is equal for residents of developing and developed countries.
3.Most activities characterized as “leisure time” in developed countries are inherently boring.
4.Certain medications that effectively treat clinical depression are not readily available in developing countries.
5.Few residents of developing countries dedicate any of their time to leisure. ow

In this Q the OA is B. Understandable. However when you apply the theory alternate causation the answer should be E.
Increased Leisure Time -----------------> Increased Depression (to negate this E seems to do the job)

Can anyone explain.

There are many assumptions for this argument. B is one of them.

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Re: CR: MGMAT (increased depression) [#permalink]

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14 Sep 2008, 05:19
x97agarwal wrote:
In developed countries, such as the United States, the percentage of the population diagnosed with clinical depression is much greater than that in developing countries. Researchers hypothesize that this difference is due to the increased leisure time afforded to residents of developed countries.

The hypothesis of the researchers depends on which of the following assumptions?

1.Clinical depression is a genetically transmitted malady.
2.Access to accurate diagnostic procedures for depression is equal for residents of developing and developed countries.
3.Most activities characterized as “leisure time” in developed countries are inherently boring.
4.Certain medications that effectively treat clinical depression are not readily available in developing countries.
5.Few residents of developing countries dedicate any of their time to leisure. ow

In this Q the OA is B. Understandable. However when you apply the theory alternate causation the answer should be E.
Increased Leisure Time -----------------> Increased Depression (to negate this E seems to do the job)

Can anyone explain.

Straight B)

E) is only reinforcing what hypothesis is./

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Re: CR: MGMAT (increased depression) [#permalink]

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14 Sep 2008, 19:41
x97agarwal wrote:
In developed countries, such as the United States, the percentage of the population diagnosed with clinical depression is much greater than that in developing countries. Researchers hypothesize that this difference is due to the increased leisure time afforded to residents of developed countries.

The hypothesis of the researchers depends on which of the following assumptions?

1.Clinical depression is a genetically transmitted malady. -> OOS
2.Access to accurate diagnostic procedures for depression is equal for residents of developing and developed countries. ->this is negated then argument falls apart no acess means concl not reliable unequal data collected
3.Most activities characterized as “leisure time” in developed countries are inherently boring. -> OOS
4.Certain medications that effectively treat clinical depression are not readily available in developing countries. - Irrelevant

5.Few residents of developing countries dedicate any of their time to leisure. -> negate this it doe not affect no where in the argument anything is said about leisure time of developing countries only about developed countries !!!

In this Q the OA is B. Understandable. However when you apply the theory alternate causation the answer should be E.
Increased Leisure Time -----------------> Increased Depression (to negate this E seems to do the job)

Can anyone explain.

_________________

cheers
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In developed countries, such as the United States, the [#permalink]

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12 Mar 2017, 18:05
x97agarwal wrote:
In developed countries, such as the United States, the percentage of the population diagnosed with clinical depression is much greater than that in developing countries. Researchers hypothesize that this difference is due to the increased leisure time afforded to residents of developed countries.

The hypothesis of the researchers depends on which of the following assumptions?

(A) Clinical depression is a genetically transmitted malady.
(B) Access to accurate diagnostic procedures for depression is equal for residents of developing and developed countries.
(C) Most activities characterized as “leisure time” in developed countries are inherently boring.
(D) Certain medications that effectively treat clinical depression are not readily available in developing countries.
(E) Few residents of developing countries dedicate any of their time to leisure.

OFFICIAL SOLUTION

Assumption– Eliminate alternate models of causality

The passage concludes that increased leisure time in the developed world causes an increase in the percentage of people diagnosed with clinical depression. For this causal conclusion to be valid we must eliminate alternate causes for this disparity.
Note: some questions of this type focus on eliminating reverse causality. That is, if the conclusion is that X causes Y (because X and Y are observed together), then one assumption is that Y does not cause X. Other questions focus on eliminating an outside cause. That is, if the conclusion is X causes Y (because X and Y are observed together), then another assumption is that Z (some outside force) does not cause Y. As it turns out, this question is of the latter type: eliminating an outside cause.

(A) This statement weakens the hypothesis. If clinical depression were genetically transmitted, then the amount of leisure time would have no effect on the percentage of the population diagnosed with clinical depression.

(B) CORRECT. If individuals in the developing and developed worlds do not have equal access to accurate diagnostic procedures, it is possible that either frequent misdiagnoses or a lack of correct diagnoses causes the seeming disparity between the populations. Thus, for the argument to be valid, this assumption must hold true. Put another way, this assumption eliminates the possible outside cause (the difference in diagnostic techniques between the developing and the developed worlds).

(C) Nothing indicates that most leisure activities must be inherently boring. As long as more individuals in the developed world than in the developing world are experiencing boredom, the logic of the passage remains valid.

(D) This choice weakens the researchers’ hypothesis. If fewer effective medications were available in the developing world, the incidence of clinical depression there should be higher than in developed countries.

(E) It is unimportant to determine whether few residents of developing countries dedicate any of their time to leisure. The argument already states that residents of developed countries have "increased' leisure time relative to residents of developing countries, so this assumption is unnecessary.
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