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In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calist

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Re: In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calist  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Nov 2018, 23:35
AdityaHongunti wrote:
abyshek wrote:
Can anyone please explain this question using e-GMAT's pre-thinking concept?

I came up with the falsification question: "Under what circumstances, North American children can made physically fit not just by participating in school calisthenics on a daily basis"?

Possible answers: 1. NA children can perform exercise outside of school
2. Teachers can come up with a different, more efficient schedule for exercise.

Can anyone please help me understand this? Any help from

In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calisthenics. North American schools rarely offer a daily calisthenics program. Tests prove that North American children are weaker, slower, and shorter-winded than European children. We must conclude that North American children can be made physically fit only if they participate in school calisthenics on a daily basis.

Step 1) understand the argument:
- in E schoolchildren devote time to C during each school day
- NA children are weak, bla bla bla
- NA schools do not offer C( even though it's given "rarely"... We'll consider "no program"..doesn't really affect the argument)
-conlusion: ONLY C in school program in NA daily > NA children physically fit.

Which of the following is an assumption required by the argument above?
Question- ASSUMPTION

Prethinking-

conlusion: ONLY C in school program in NA daily > NA children physically fit.

Falsification:
1)under what circumstance will NA children not get physically fit even if we put up C in schools on daily basis.?
2) under what circumstances will NA children get physically fit even if no C is put up

GIVEN THAT : EC devote time to C daily
EC fit than NAC
NA does not have C

Thought process:
Understand author's logic ( we do this step after falsification condition if you remember the videos)
The author first states the conditions in E. He says EC devote time to C in schools on daily basis. Then he presents a result that EC are physically fit than NAC.
Now before concluding he must have Thot that the program is making the EC stronger .
See he is actually linking two pieces together. A: EC devote time . B: EC stronger than NA.
He thinks that A lead to B.
Now the two situations can actually coexist without causal relationship. There can just be a coincidence. Even B could've lead to A. That is if EC are physically fit then that is why they attend calisthenics.
What if calisthenics did not lead to EC fitness??? Then how can author conclude that C will lead to NA fitness??

Where you went adrift is you just focused on the falsification condition and tried to come up with your answers and did not look into author's reasoning..
If you look at the videos carefully you will see that when we put up the falsification condition we say
What if bla bla bla , GIVEN THAT.... (The given that is the main logic where you have to attack)..you have to disprove author's logic he presents with the question. )

Falsification scenario: the calisthenics did not lead to EC fitness , something else did.. so author cannot make a link to conclude.
Assumption 1): calisthenics lead to EC fitness and nothing else did

attack 2) what if there is some other way to increase NAC fitness?? Maybe gym? Any reason will do.
Assumption 2) : nothing else can can make /increase NAC fitness

( Now you try to solve each answer choice with the process in your head. Third process is ANS choice analysis. But you do it so that you'll understand how the ans is relevant..you won't even need to negate the AC)

(A) Physical fitness is a compelling national priority worthy of taxpayer resources.

(B) School calisthenics programs are an indispensable factor in European student fitness.

(C) All children can be made equally physically fit.

(D) European schoolchildren enjoy physical activities more than do American children.

(E) American physical education teachers are capable of designing a successful calisthenics program.


If you have any doubts, please ask ( but also present your analysis)

Posted from my mobile device




Thanks a lot. You indeed cleared my doubt. After reading your falsification question, I could immediately point B as an answer. I think, I went wrong at the falsification question step. I need to take more care on that aspect..
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Re: In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calist  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Nov 2018, 23:53
[quote="abyshek"][quote="AdityaHongunti"][quote="abyshek"]Can anyone please explain this question using e-GMAT's pre-thinking concept?

I came up with the falsification question: "Under what circumstances, North American children can made physically fit [b]not just by[/b] participating in school calisthenics on a daily basis"?

Possible answers: 1. NA children can perform exercise outside of school
2. Teachers can come up with a different, more efficient schedule for exercise.

Can anyone please help me understand this? Any help from

In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calisthenics. North American schools rarely offer a daily calisthenics program. Tests prove that North American children are weaker, slower, and shorter-winded than European children. We must conclude that North American children can be made physically fit only if they participate in school calisthenics on a daily basis.

Step 1) understand the argument:
- in E schoolchildren devote time to C during each school day
- NA children are weak, bla bla bla
- NA schools do not offer C( even though it's given "rarely"... We'll consider "no program"..doesn't really affect the argument)
-conlusion: ONLY C in school program in NA daily > NA children physically fit.

Which of the following is an assumption required by the argument above?
Question- ASSUMPTION

Prethinking-

conlusion: ONLY C in school program in NA daily > NA children physically fit.

Falsification:
1)under what circumstance will NA children not get physically fit even if we put up C in schools on daily basis.?
2) under what circumstances will NA children get physically fit even if no C is put up

GIVEN THAT : EC devote time to C daily
EC fit than NAC
NA does not have C

Thought process:
Understand author's logic ( we do this step after falsification condition if you remember the videos)
The author first states the conditions in E. He says EC devote time to C in schools on daily basis. Then he presents a result that EC are physically fit than NAC.
Now before concluding he must have Thot that the program is making the EC stronger .
See he is actually linking two pieces together. A: EC devote time . B: EC stronger than NA.
He thinks that A lead to B.
Now the two situations can actually coexist without causal relationship. There can just be a coincidence. Even B could've lead to A. That is if EC are physically fit then that is why they attend calisthenics.
What if calisthenics did not lead to EC fitness??? Then how can author conclude that C will lead to NA fitness??

Where you went adrift is you just focused on the falsification condition and tried to come up with your answers and did not look into author's reasoning..
If you look at the videos carefully you will see that when we put up the falsification condition we say
What if bla bla bla , GIVEN THAT.... (The given that is the main logic where you have to attack)..you have to disprove author's logic he presents with the question. )

Falsification scenario: the calisthenics did not lead to EC fitness , something else did.. so author cannot make a link to conclude.
Assumption 1): calisthenics lead to EC fitness and nothing else did

attack 2) what if there is some other way to increase NAC fitness?? Maybe gym? Any reason will do.
Assumption 2) : nothing else can can make /increase NAC fitness

( Now you try to solve each answer choice with the process in your head. Third process is ANS choice analysis. But you do it so that you'll understand how the ans is relevant..you won't even need to negate the AC)

(A) Physical fitness is a compelling national priority worthy of taxpayer resources.

(B) School calisthenics programs are an indispensable factor in European student fitness.

(C) All children can be made equally physically fit.

(D) European schoolchildren enjoy physical activities more than do American children.

(E) American physical education teachers are capable of designing a successful calisthenics program.


If you have any doubts, please ask ( but also present your analysis)

[size=80][b][i]Posted from my mobile device[/i][/b][/size][/quote][/quote]



Thanks a lot. You indeed cleared my doubt. After reading your falsification question, I could immediately point B as an answer. I think, I went wrong at the falsification question step. I need to take more care on that aspect..[/quote]

Your falsification questions were right to the point , but they were not detailed enough...Also you stopped after falsification condition and directly jumped to thought process in which you did not consider the GIVEN ( author's REASONING) and tried to come up with your own REASONING... Try to make a falsification condition as DETAILED as possible...

For eg : this year disease X has downsized the amount of meat available from chicken as disease X affects chicken. Therefore this year the meat available from chicken will be less in amount than last year.

If we don't consider details
Probable falsification condition: what if other meat from cows or sheep increases??

Here you'll be considering the total amount of meat available.but the conclusion is only about meat available from CHICKEN and not total.

Detailed falsification condition:
What if somehow we can increase the amount of avaible chicken for meat?? What if we eradicate disease ?

Here you'll only be concerned with meat from chicken.

Note: this is just an example. I in no way imply that you would come up with the former falsification condition.
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Re: In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calist  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Nov 2018, 05:39
I chose E as my answer. Please correct my understanding.

I chose E because for these reasons:

The school kids in Europe participate in calisthenics program and hence the reason why they are physical fit. The last statement states that North American kids can be fit only if they participate in such programs.

So, I felt the assumption should be - If North America implements a similar program, to achieve the similar goal of making kids physically fit , we need to consider how the effectively the program will be run in North America.

So, we are assuming that these programs would be executed effectively.
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Re: In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calist  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Nov 2018, 08:17
In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calisthenics. North American schools rarely offer a daily calisthenics program. Tests prove that North American children are weaker, slower, and shorter-winded than European children. We must conclude that North American children can be made physically fit only if they participate in school calisthenics on a daily basis.

Which of the following is an assumption required by the argument above?

(A) Physical fitness is a compelling national priority worthy of taxpayer resources. -- Irrelevant

(B) School calisthenics programs are an indispensable factor in European student fitness. -- Best among the lot.

(C) All children can be made equally physically fit. -- "Equally" makes the statement too hypothetical to believe. Can't serve as a proper assumption.

(D) European schoolchildren enjoy physical activities more than do American children. -- Irrelevant

(E) American physical education teachers are capable of designing a successful calisthenics program. -- We can't say this from the information given. It just says that North American schools rarely conduct calisthenics programs but that doesn't mean the teachers there are unsuccessful
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Re: In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calist  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Nov 2018, 10:33
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Leonaann wrote:
I chose E as my answer. Please correct my understanding.

I chose E because for these reasons:

The school kids in Europe participate in calisthenics program and hence the reason why they are physical fit. The last statement states that North American kids can be fit only if they participate in such programs.

So, I felt the assumption should be - If North America implements a similar program, to achieve the similar goal of making kids physically fit , we need to consider how the effectively the program will be run in North America.

So, we are assuming that these programs would be executed effectively.


Really good question. I've always loved this problem for showcasing the critical importance of knowing *exactly* what the conclusion is saying. Here that "only" looms super large: the conclusion is not saying that North America should implement this program...it's saying that the only way to make N.A. children physically fit (whether or not anyone chooses to take this recommendation) is via a daily school calisthenics program. That's the only chance they have - not through recreational soccer leagues or healthy lunch initiatives or a 1000% percent tax on pizza and candy bars. This specific conclusion isn't saying we should make these kids fit...it's saying that *if* we want to, the ONLY way to do it is through this particular program.

This makes a couple things wrong with E:

1) Note that E is overly specific with who is capable of designing the program. Do we need it to be designed specifically by American physical education teachers? Why couldn't it be the teachers from London or Zurich who designed the Euro programs? Or scientists from Johns Hopkins?

2) It misses the point of the conclusion ever so slightly. If we had a conclusion that "the only way for humankind to survive global warming is to move to or colonize another planet" that conclusion can exist even if there's no known way to colonize another planet. The conclusion isn't saying that this plan will work...just that the others cannot work, so if there's a way to get it done it has to be done via this method (whether this method is possible or not).

In a larger context here, the huge lesson is to make sure you pay attention to specific language within the conclusion. The word "only" here does a ton of work to limit the conclusion to a really narrow meaning: daily school calisthenics are the ONLY hope for student fitness in North America.
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Re: In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calist  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Nov 2018, 07:02
Nevernevergiveup wrote:
In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calisthenics. North American schools rarely offer a daily calisthenics program. Tests prove that North American children are weaker, slower, and shorter-winded than European children. We must conclude that North American children can be made physically fit only if they participate in school calisthenics on a daily basis.

Which of the following is an assumption required by the argument above?

(A) Physical fitness is a compelling national priority worthy of taxpayer resources.

(B) School calisthenics programs are an indispensable factor in European student fitness.

(C) All children can be made equally physically fit.

(D) European schoolchildren enjoy physical activities more than do American children.

(E) American physical education teachers are capable of designing a successful calisthenics program.



If you negate B, it will decline the belief in conlusion, so B is correct

E -was close but incorrect, as it goes too far and talks about desigining the program, if we negate it, it wont break conclusion
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Re: In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calist  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Feb 2019, 09:56
VeritasPrepBrian wrote:
Leonaann wrote:
I chose E as my answer. Please correct my understanding.

I chose E because for these reasons:

The school kids in Europe participate in calisthenics program and hence the reason why they are physical fit. The last statement states that North American kids can be fit only if they participate in such programs.

So, I felt the assumption should be - If North America implements a similar program, to achieve the similar goal of making kids physically fit , we need to consider how the effectively the program will be run in North America.

So, we are assuming that these programs would be executed effectively.


Really good question. I've always loved this problem for showcasing the critical importance of knowing *exactly* what the conclusion is saying. Here that "only" looms super large: the conclusion is not saying that North America should implement this program...it's saying that the only way to make N.A. children physically fit (whether or not anyone chooses to take this recommendation) is via a daily school calisthenics program. That's the only chance they have - not through recreational soccer leagues or healthy lunch initiatives or a 1000% percent tax on pizza and candy bars. This specific conclusion isn't saying we should make these kids fit...it's saying that *if* we want to, the ONLY way to do it is through this particular program.

This makes a couple things wrong with E:

1) Note that E is overly specific with who is capable of designing the program. Do we need it to be designed specifically by American physical education teachers? Why couldn't it be the teachers from London or Zurich who designed the Euro programs? Or scientists from Johns Hopkins?

2) It misses the point of the conclusion ever so slightly. If we had a conclusion that "the only way for humankind to survive global warming is to move to or colonize another planet" that conclusion can exist even if there's no known way to colonize another planet. The conclusion isn't saying that this plan will work...just that the others cannot work, so if there's a way to get it done it has to be done via this method (whether this method is possible or not).

In a larger context here, the huge lesson is to make sure you pay attention to specific language within the conclusion. The word "only" here does a ton of work to limit the conclusion to a really narrow meaning: daily school calisthenics are the ONLY hope for student fitness in North America.


Hi Brian,

Can you please tell why B is the right answer? Thanks!
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Re: In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calist   [#permalink] 19 Feb 2019, 09:56

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