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# In experiments in which certain kinds of bacteria were

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SVP
Joined: 30 Oct 2003
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In experiments in which certain kinds of bacteria were [#permalink]

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08 Jan 2004, 13:00
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8. In experiments in which certain kinds of bacteria were placed in a generous supply of nutrients, the populations of bacteria grew rapidly, and genetic mutations occurred at random in the populations. These experiments show that all genetic mutation is random.

Which one of the following, if true, enables the conclusion to be properly drawn?

(A) Either all genetic mutations are random or none are random.

(B) The bacteria tested in the experiments were of extremely common forms.

(C) If all genetic mutations in bacteria are random, then all genetic mutations in every other life form arc random also.

(D) The kind of environment in which genetic mutation takes place has no effect on the way genetic mutation occurs.

(E) The nutrients used were the same as those that nourish the bacteria in nature.
Senior Manager
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08 Jan 2004, 13:11
Is there anything wrong with D ?
VP
Joined: 21 Sep 2003
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08 Jan 2004, 13:36
I will go with (D). since it makes it clear that the environment is not responsible for the randomness in the mutation.
Director
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08 Jan 2004, 14:39
I'm with asandeep. A enables the syllogism.
SVP
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08 Jan 2004, 17:17
Correct answer is A. I chose E. I was looking for the assumption to connect the premise and the conclusion. The conclusion does not talk about mutation in bacteria, but mutation in every species.
Can you guys throw more light on A ?
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08 Jan 2004, 17:30
we need to get from here:

(In this experiment) genetic mutations occurred at random in the populations.

To here:

These experiments show that all genetic mutation is random.

This is not a "soft" logic question where we're asked what might mitigate a trend, or what kind of reason is this analogous to. This is a cut and dried logic question:

The answer, "Either all genetic mutations are random or none are random." allows us to ignore all other conditions about the experiment, how the test was done, etc. If you look at the italicized parts together, they all should fit...
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08 Jan 2004, 17:34
Thank you.
VP
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08 Jan 2004, 18:27
Thanks for the nice explanation stoolfi!
I see now why it is (A).
Manager
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08 Jan 2004, 19:11
Geethu wrote:
asandeep wrote:
A ?

How did you arrive at A ??

Sorry I was late to give the explanation. But, stoolfi did a great job..
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09 Jan 2004, 06:42
"These experiments show that all genetic mutation is random. "

A: Either all genetic mutations are random or none are random.

how can u defy the original argument?
I doubt A.
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Last edited by mbamantra on 09 Jan 2004, 06:44, edited 1 time in total.
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09 Jan 2004, 07:10
Hi
mbamantra. Which answer did you chose ? I am curious.
Anand.
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09 Jan 2004, 21:09
I go for D.

In experiments in which certain kinds of bacteria were placed in a generous supply of nutrients, the populations of bacteria grew rapidly, and genetic mutations occurred at random in the populations. These experiments show that all genetic mutation is random.

Which one of the following, if true, enables the conclusion to be properly drawn?

(D) The kind of environment in which genetic mutation takes place has no effect on the way genetic mutation occurs.

if environment does not affect the mutation then it does not matter whether it is "generous supply of nutrients" or anyother kind of environment. mutaion will still be randomly occur.

any support??
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09 Jan 2004, 21:14
I cannot refute your choice. This also says the experiment has nothing to do with the way mutations occur.
Manager
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10 Jan 2004, 06:50
mbamantra wrote:
I go for D.

In experiments in which certain kinds of bacteria were placed in a generous supply of nutrients, the populations of bacteria grew rapidly, and genetic mutations occurred at random in the populations. These experiments show that all genetic mutation is random.

Which one of the following, if true, enables the conclusion to be properly drawn?

(D) The kind of environment in which genetic mutation takes place has no effect on the way genetic mutation occurs.

if environment does not affect the mutation then it does not matter whether it is "generous supply of nutrients" or anyother kind of environment. mutaion will still be randomly occur.

any support??

You are missing the point here.
The conclusion of the argument says "all mutations are random".
Now, let me ask you this, How can you say that all mutations are random based on one experiment ?
There can be only one explanation - All possible mutations can be random or cannot be random.

As far as the environment is concerned, taking choice D to be true, the experiment can only be concluded as , "Some mutations are random".

See ?[/b]
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Re: In experiments in which certain kinds of bacteria were [#permalink]

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11 May 2016, 00:19
anandnk wrote:
8. In experiments in which certain kinds of bacteria were placed in a generous supply of nutrients, the populations of bacteria grew rapidly, and genetic mutations occurred at random in the populations. These experiments show that all genetic mutation is random.

Which one of the following, if true, enables the conclusion to be properly drawn?

(A) Either all genetic mutations are random or none are random.

(B) The bacteria tested in the experiments were of extremely common forms.

(C) If all genetic mutations in bacteria are random, then all genetic mutations in every other life form arc random also.

(D) The kind of environment in which genetic mutation takes place has no effect on the way genetic mutation occurs.

(E) The nutrients used were the same as those that nourish the bacteria in nature.

Can someone explain why option 'A' is better option than 'C'
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Re: In experiments in which certain kinds of bacteria were   [#permalink] 11 May 2016, 00:19
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