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# In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of

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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of [#permalink]

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23 Mar 2016, 21:51
PrakharGMAT wrote:
Hi Experts / chetan2u / daagh,

Can you please tell whats wrong with option C. Its very difficult to choose between C and D.

Hi,
lets see the two choices--

Quote:
In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of each planet in the solar system results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and of all the other planets, each contributing according to their mass and distance from the others.

C. all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its
D. all the other planets, each contributing according to its

what is the role of 'contributing and the phrase connected with it..
It basically speaks on the previous clause, thus modifying the clause..

But use of each of which makes 'each of which' as a SUBJECT and therefore requires a VERB..
It would be correct if we say--
each of which is contributing..
each of which contributes...
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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of [#permalink]

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24 Mar 2016, 01:39
Hi chetan2u,

I am not able to understand "each" vs "each of which"
as you said "each of which" behaves like a subject and hence we need a verb for it.
According to the only difference I see between "each" and "each o which" is the later is wordy.

Just for future reference can I say --> If I come across "each of which" then I should always look for a verb..??

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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of [#permalink]

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24 Mar 2016, 04:26
PrakharGMAT wrote:
Hi chetan2u,

I am not able to understand "each" vs "each of which"
as you said "each of which" behaves like a subject and hence we need a verb for it.
According to the only difference I see between "each" and "each o which" is the later is wordy.

Just for future reference can I say --> If I come across "each of which" then I should always look for a verb..??

Hi,

Each can be a pronoun or an adjective..
when used as an adjective / modifier, it is not necessary that it should have a verb, as in this Q in correct choice

Each of which is always a pronoun and will be a part of a clause with a VERB..
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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of [#permalink]

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06 May 2016, 08:42
chetan2u wrote:
Hi,

Each can be a pronoun or an adjective..
when used as an adjective / modifier, it is not necessary that it should have a verb, as in this Q in correct choice

Each of which is always a pronoun and will be a part of a clause with a VERB..

Hi chetan2u,

(1) If we want to substitute "Each of them" for "Each of which" in this case, then what the modified sentence will be? From grammatical standpoint, does "Each of them" act in the same way as "Each of which" or "Each"?

(2) As you mentioned, "Each" can be a pronoun or an adjective, so it is also grammatically correct to say "...results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and of all the other planets, each contributes according to its mass...", right? And if it is the case, then does this version incur any differences from the OA?

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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of [#permalink]

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08 May 2016, 08:39
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thuyduong91vnu wrote:
chetan2u wrote:
Hi,

Each can be a pronoun or an adjective..
when used as an adjective / modifier, it is not necessary that it should have a verb, as in this Q in correct choice

Each of which is always a pronoun and will be a part of a clause with a VERB..

Hi chetan2u,

(1) If we want to substitute "Each of them" for "Each of which" in this case, then what the modified sentence will be? From grammatical standpoint, does "Each of them" act in the same way as "Each of which" or "Each"?

(2) As you mentioned, "Each" can be a pronoun or an adjective, so it is also grammatically correct to say "...results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and of all the other planets, each contributes according to its mass...", right? And if it is the case, then does this version incur any differences from the OA?

Quote:
In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of each planet in the solar system results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and of all the other planets, each contributing according to their mass and distance from the others.

A. of all the other planets, each contributing according to their
B. of all the other planets, with each of them contributing according to their
C. all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its
D. all the other planets, each contributing according to its
E. all the other planets, each of which contribute according to their

Hi,

refer your PM.. you should tag a name with @ for a person to know.. like thuyduong91vnu ... it is @ + thuyduong91vnu
1) first query, each of them behaves more like each of which..
2) No, it will not be correct..
WHY?
because contributes is a VERB and makes the modifier starting with 'each' as a dependent clause but there is no conjunction joining 'it' to main clause..
In the original, contributing is a participle and can act as a modifier, so its OK
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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of [#permalink]

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08 May 2016, 10:09
Hi chetan2u,

Thanks for your response The second question is clear to me now But regarding to the first one, I feel it quite confusing because as it is mentioned in MGMAT SC book about Sub-group modifier:

When you want to describe a part of a larger group with a modifier, use one of the following three sub-group modifier constructions:
Right: This model explains all known subatomic particles, SOME OF WHICH WERE only recently discovered.
Right: This model explains all known subatomic particles, SOME OF THEM only recently discovered.
Right: This model explains all known subatomic particles, SOME only recently discovered.

Notice that only the which construction has a working verb (were) in it.

"Some of them" and "Some" are used in the same way in this example, so should not it be the case with "Each of them" and "Each"? Or are there any differences from them?

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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2017, 10:43
In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of each planet in the solar system results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and of all the other planets, each contributing according to their mass and distance from the others.

Let's first consider the simpler part to evaluate from the underlined sentence in red:

of all the other planets, each contributing according to their

with "each", usage of "their" is incorrect, it should be singular "its".
With this (A),(B) & (E) are out.
Between (C) & (D) , (C) is wordy and awkward.

Ans : D

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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of [#permalink]

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01 May 2017, 13:07
Request an expert to reply !
In option D , the clause starting with " Each contributing according to its " does not have a verb. As per my understanding the in a clause there must be a subject and a verb. So the subject is each but where is the verb ?

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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of [#permalink]

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02 May 2017, 08:10
Expert's post
Top Contributor
Dixitraghav, the phrase beginning with "each contributing" is just a modifier here, so you don't need a subject and a verb. Both DmitryFarber and chetan2u touch on this issue in their explanations on page 2 of this thread, but there's no need for a main verb in the last half of the sentence.
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In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of [#permalink]

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04 May 2017, 06:06
Allen760 wrote:
In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of each planet in the solar system results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and of all the other planets, each contributing according to their mass and distance from the others.

(A) of all the other planets, each contributing according to their
(B) of all the other planets, with each of them contributing according to their
(C) all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its
(D) all the other planets, each contributing according to its
(E) all the other planets, each of which contribute according to their

Quote:
The modifier in choice (D) is in a different class of modifiers altogether; you may want to search the forum for “absolute phrase” if you want more information on how this type of modifier works. These kinds of modifiers DON'T involve verbs; they generally have the form COMMA + (PRO)NOUN + ADJ, where ADJ could be either an actual adjective or a modifier that plays the role of an adjective (such as an -ING modifier).

Choice (D) uses the absolute phrase modifier correctly: the pronoun is followed by “contributing”, which is an adjective-type modifier.

Note that these absolute phrases cannot contain verbs; If you put a verb into an absolute phrase, it becomes a run-on.

A few GMAT sentences use a sophisticated modifier called an absolute phrase. Absolute phrases are composed of a noun plus a noun modifier. These phrases do not have to modify what they touch; rather, they modify the main clause in some way.

In some cases, you can use an -ing form (with a comma) in place of an absolute phrase. At the end of a sentence, either an -ing form or an absolute phrase can indicate a result of the preceding clause.

An absolute phrase is typically separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma.
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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of [#permalink]

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09 Jun 2017, 02:37
egmat wrote:
uledssul wrote:
I wasn't sure of 'of all'/ 'all the other' split because they both seemed okay to me.

As far as I know, you can't get rid of the choices strictly according to the ambiguity of antecedent usage.
I was thinking about the followings,
its = each of planets and the sun
their = the sun and all the other planets

Thanks.

Hi There,

In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of each planet in the solar system results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and of all the other planets, each contributing according to their mass and distance from the others.

A. of all the other planets, each contributing according to their
B. of all the other planets, with each of them contributing according to their
C. all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its
D. all the other planets, each contributing according to its
E. all the other planets, each of which contribute according to their

Notice that each answer choice has “each” that makes the subject singular. Even if “each” is referring to “Sun and all the other planets”, it turns all the entities into singular. Hence, when we use “each” to talk about “Sun and all the other planets”, the pronoun that we use to refer to those entities that actually stands for “each” should be singular.

So in this problem, we have a case of pronoun antecedent number disagreement and not the ambiguity. We can eliminate Choices A, B, and E because of the use of plural “their” with singular “each”.

Choice C is incorrect because “which” should introduce a clause. There is no verb after “which” that makes the choice incorrect.

Choice D is precise and free of errors.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

Just to make understand better your comment:what you are basically saying is that if, in C, we had a "Contributes" instead of "Contributing" would make the choice valid?

Thanks,

Gabriel.

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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of [#permalink]

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09 Jun 2017, 06:30
DmitryFarber wrote:
Yes, "their" is wrong because it doesn't agree with "each."

You can't say "each of which contributing." Adding "of which" makes "each" into a subject which would then need the verb "contributes."

In D, "each contributing" serves as a modifier--"each" doesn't serve as a subject.

Compare these:

The lobby was full of aspiring actors, each dreaming of landing a big role.
The lobby was full of aspiring actors, each of whom dreamed of landing a big role.

Those both work. What we wouldn't want to say is this:

The lobby was full of aspiring actors, each of whom dreaming of landing a big role.

Hopefully, that sounds awful to you! The sentence we're dealing with here works in the same way.

By this way of abstraction they are made capable of representing more individuals than one; each of which having in it a conformity to that abstract idea, is (as we call it) of that sort.

http://enlightenment.supersaturated.com ... erIII.html
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In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of [#permalink]

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09 Jun 2017, 13:21
Gabrielantonioreis wrote:
Thanks.

Hi There,

In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of each planet in the solar system results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and of all the other planets, each contributing according to their mass and distance from the others.

A. of all the other planets, each contributing according to their
B. of all the other planets, with each of them contributing according to their
C. all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its
D. all the other planets, each contributing according to its
E. all the other planets, each of which contribute according to their

Notice that each answer choice has “each” that makes the subject singular. Even if “each” is referring to “Sun and all the other planets”, it turns all the entities into singular. Hence, when we use “each” to talk about “Sun and all the other planets”, the pronoun that we use to refer to those entities that actually stands for “each” should be singular.

So in this problem, we have a case of pronoun antecedent number disagreement and not the ambiguity. We can eliminate Choices A, B, and E because of the use of plural “their” with singular “each”.

Choice C is incorrect because “which” should introduce a clause. There is no verb after “which” that makes the choice incorrect.

Choice D is precise and free of errors.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

Just to make understand better your comment:what you are basically saying is that if, in C, we had a "Contributes" instead of "Contributing" would make the choice valid?

Thanks,

Gabriel.

Hello @Gabrielantonioreis/ Gabriel,

Thank you for the query.

Yes, you got it correct. if we turn contributing to contributes in Choice C, then each will become subject with the verb contributes. After the comma we will have a dependent clause. This structure will be valid.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of [#permalink]

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09 Jun 2017, 13:30
tireks wrote:

By this way of abstraction they are made capable of representing more individuals than one; each of which having in it a conformity to that abstract idea, is (as we call it) of that sort.

http://enlightenment.supersaturated.com ... erIII.html

Hello tireks,

See, the GMAT SC rules are used only in creating SC problems. The outside world does not use GMAT SC to write articles, features, stories, reports, etc. Hence, the usage we consider incorrect on GMAT SC may be commonly used outside the GMAT world. Hence, we experts always back our explanation with official questions and go by the correct official answers.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of [#permalink]

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10 Jun 2017, 23:59
Allen760 wrote:
In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of each planet in the solar system results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and of all the other planets, each contributing according to their mass and distance from the others.

(A) of all the other planets, each contributing according to their
(B) of all the other planets, with each of them contributing according to their
(C) all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its
(D) all the other planets, each contributing according to its
(E) all the other planets, each of which contribute according to their

Hi

I have read somewhere that only "to" can be used as common preposition for list of the items.
E.G. "to eat, walk and sleep is correct" -- Correct
But we we can't use "for eating, walking and sleeping" -- Wrong
We nee to use "for eating, for walking and for sleeping" -- Correct

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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of [#permalink]

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12 Aug 2017, 06:40
First of all, the pronoun "each" is always singular, so the answers that pair "each" (singular) with "their" (plural) are incorrect. That immediately eliminates (A), (B), and (E).

The problem with (C) is ---- the relative pronoun "which" is supposed to introduce a relative clause, with it's own noun + verb. Instead, in (C), "which" is followed by a participial phrase, "contributing . . ." That's grammatically incorrect. It's also unnecessarily wordy.

That leaves (D) ---- compact, direct, and free of errors ---- the correct answer.

C. all the other planets, "each of which" contributing according to its [each of which is wrong. each already refers to the planets so, the use of 'which' is not required]
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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of [#permalink]

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16 Aug 2017, 22:25
Allen760 wrote:
In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of each planet in the solar system results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and of all the other planets, each contributing according to their mass and distance from the others.

(A) of all the other planets, each contributing according to their
(B) of all the other planets, with each of them contributing according to their
(C) all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its
(D) all the other planets, each contributing according to its
(E) all the other planets, each of which contribute according to their

Each is singular so the following pronoun should be singular- its

D

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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of [#permalink]

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16 Nov 2017, 10:39
In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of each planet in the solar system results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and of all the other planets, each contributing according to their mass and distance from the others.

(A) of all the other planets, each contributing according to their - "each" means the pronoun needs to be singular... "their" should be "its"
(B) of all the other planets, with each of them contributing according to their - same as (A)
(C) all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its - "of which" means that we're talking about the gravitational pull, not the planets. It doesn't make sense to say the gravitational pulls are contributing according to its mass and distance from teh others. It's the planets that should be contributing.
(D) all the other planets, each contributing according to its
(E) all the other planets, each of which contribute according to their - same as (A)

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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of [#permalink]

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18 Nov 2017, 01:53
In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of each planet in the solar system results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and of all the other planets, each contributing according to their mass and distance from the others.

(A) of all the other planets, each contributing according to their - use of plural “their” with singular “each”
(B) of all the other planets, with each of them contributing according to their - same as A
(C) all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its - “which” should introduce a clause -- there is no verb here
(D) all the other planets, each contributing according to its - Correct
(E) all the other planets, each of which contribute according to their - use of plural “their” with singular “each”

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