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# In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the

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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the [#permalink]

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04 Sep 2010, 13:34
D. 15 seconds

A and B take out the of X
C. of which contributing X
E. Their X

Allen760 wrote:
In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of each planet in the solar system results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and of all the other planets, each contributing according to their mass and distance from the others.

A. of all the other planets, each contributing according to their
B. of all the other planets, with each of them contributing according to their
C. all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its
D. all the other planets, each contributing according to its
E. all the other planets, each of which contribute according to their

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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2011, 18:39
Each is singular. So down to D and C. "of which" is redundant. Hence D remains.
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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the [#permalink]

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04 Nov 2011, 05:35
A, B and E are wrong because antecedent of "their" is sigular....

between C and D... C is wrong because dangling modifier...

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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the [#permalink]

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04 Nov 2011, 07:26
IMO-D,
In D with "each" , "its" is the correct usage in place of their.
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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the [#permalink]

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13 Jan 2013, 13:49
its should refer to planets ,which is wrong .so correct ans should not be D .PLS I M CONFUSED BETWEEN E & D
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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the [#permalink]

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29 Oct 2014, 22:34
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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2014, 00:32
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raj0774 wrote:
its should refer to planets ,which is wrong .so correct ans should not be D .PLS I M CONFUSED BETWEEN E & D

Hi Raj

'its' is referring to 'each' and not 'planets'

Let's look at the sentence:

In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of each planet in the solar system results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and of all the other planets, each contributing according to their mass and distance from the others.

their (plural ) can't be paired with each (singular) and thus, A, B, and E can be eliminated.

A. of all the other planets, each contributing according to their- wrong pronoun
B. of all the other planets, with each of them contributing according to their- wrong pronoun
E. all the other planets, each of which contribute according to their- wrong pronoun

We are down to two now

C. all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its

Use of 'each of which' is imprecise here. 'each of which' like 'which' requires a verb after that. As there is no verb after 'each of which', the construction is imprecise.

Correct use of 'each of which' -
select any two answer choices, each of which can be used to complete the sentence.
I have bought several books, each of which is based on a different theme.

D. all the other planets, each contributing according to its

Hope it helps!
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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2014, 01:29
Yes, "their" is wrong because it doesn't agree with "each."

You can't say "each of which contributing." Adding "of which" makes "each" into a subject which would then need the verb "contributes."

In D, "each contributing" serves as a modifier--"each" doesn't serve as a subject.

Compare these:

The lobby was full of aspiring actors, each dreaming of landing a big role.
The lobby was full of aspiring actors, each of whom dreamed of landing a big role.

Those both work. What we wouldn't want to say is this:

The lobby was full of aspiring actors, each of whom dreaming of landing a big role.

Hopefully, that sounds awful to you! The sentence we're dealing with here works in the same way.
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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the [#permalink]

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08 Jan 2015, 11:46
DmitryFarber wrote:
Yes, "their" is wrong because it doesn't agree with "each."

You can't say "each of which contributing." Adding "of which" makes "each" into a subject which would then need the verb "contributes."

In D, "each contributing" serves as a modifier--"each" doesn't serve as a subject.

Compare these:

The lobby was full of aspiring actors, each dreaming of landing a big role.
The lobby was full of aspiring actors, each of whom dreamed of landing a big role.

Those both work. What we wouldn't want to say is this:

The lobby was full of aspiring actors, each of whom dreaming of landing a big role.

Hopefully, that sounds awful to you! The sentence we're dealing with here works in the same way.

Hi Dmitry,

Can you shed some more light on "each of which" and "each of whom" constructions from a grammatical standpoint.
I mean I couldn't grasp how each of whom/each of which can act as a subject , while a singular each can't.

Thanks,
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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the [#permalink]

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08 Jan 2015, 13:24
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It's not that a solitary "each" can't serve as a subject--it's that it doesn't have to. The word "each" can serve as either a pronoun or a modifier (adjective/adverb).

Pronoun: Each one of these paintings is worth a million dollars.
Modifier: There are three bedrooms, each with its own bathroom.

However, we can also use "each" as a pronoun in a modifying clause. In this case, we use "of which/of whom" to signal that we are building such a clause.

He ordered several different dishes, each of which could have served as a meal in its own right.

Here, "each" is the subject and "could" is the main verb. We typically do this to express something more complicated than we could in a normal modifier. Notice that because we have a complex set of verbs ("could have served"), it would be hard to express this without a full clause. If we said "each serving as a meal in its own right," that would change the intended meaning (each dish actually is a meal).

I hope that helps!
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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the [#permalink]

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08 Jan 2015, 21:55
DmitryFarber wrote:
It's not that a solitary "each" can't serve as a subject--it's that it doesn't have to. The word "each" can serve as either a pronoun or a modifier (adjective/adverb).

Pronoun: Each one of these paintings is worth a million dollars.
Modifier: There are three bedrooms, each with its own bathroom.

However, we can also use "each" as a pronoun in a modifying clause. In this case, we use "of which/of whom" to signal that we are building such a clause.

He ordered several different dishes, each of which could have served as a meal in its own right.

Here, "each" is the subject and "could" is the main verb. We typically do this to express something more complicated than we could in a normal modifier. Notice that because we have a complex set of verbs ("could have served"), it would be hard to express this without a full clause. If we said "each serving as a meal in its own right," that would change the intended meaning (each dish actually is a meal).

I hope that helps!

Great explanation Dmitry !

Thanks ! now I got it.
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In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the [#permalink]

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16 Sep 2015, 07:27
Hi DmitryFarber, as I studied earlier, each can have both plural and singular noun depending whether we have plural noun before or after "each".

e.g.
The three networks each: Plural
Each of the three networks: Singular

Is this concept wrong? Over here each came after plural noun so why we don't have plural pronoun? Is it because of comma between plural noun and each?
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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the [#permalink]

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17 Sep 2015, 23:07
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No, "each"' is always singular. It is correct to say "The three networks each provide similar programming," but only because in this case "each" is not the subject, but a modifier. The subject is "the three networks," which is of course plural.

So if you see "Each of . . .," "each" is serving as a singular noun. However, if you see "The [plural noun] each," then "each" is serving as a modifier on the verb, which should in turn agree with the plural subject.
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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the [#permalink]

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17 Sep 2015, 23:13
Got it. Thanks Dmitry

DmitryFarber wrote:
No, "each"' is always singular. It is correct to say "The three networks each provide similar programming," but only because in this case "each" is not the subject, but a modifier. The subject is "the three networks," which is of course plural.

So if you see "Each of . . .," "each" is serving as a singular noun. However, if you see "The [plural noun] each," then "each" is serving as a modifier on the verb, which should in turn agree with the plural subject.

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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the [#permalink]

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20 Sep 2015, 21:02
All of the options mention 'each'. Each needs a singular pronoun. Hence, all options with 'their' are incorrect.

A. of all the other planets, each contributing according to their It is needed instead of their

B. of all the other planets, with each of them contributing according to their It is needed instead of their

C. all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its contributing should be contributes. Else use an auxiliary verb with the present participle form (in this case 'is')

D. all the other planets, each contributing according to its Correct

E. all the other planets, each of which contribute according to their It is needed instead of their
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In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the [#permalink]

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23 Mar 2016, 15:05
Hi Experts / chetan2u / daagh,

Can you please tell whats wrong with option C. Its very difficult to choose between C and D.

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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the [#permalink]

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23 Mar 2016, 22:51
PrakharGMAT wrote:
Hi Experts / chetan2u / daagh,

Can you please tell whats wrong with option C. Its very difficult to choose between C and D.

Hi,
lets see the two choices--

Quote:
In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of each planet in the solar system results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and of all the other planets, each contributing according to their mass and distance from the others.

C. all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its
D. all the other planets, each contributing according to its

what is the role of 'contributing and the phrase connected with it..
It basically speaks on the previous clause, thus modifying the clause..

But use of each of which makes 'each of which' as a SUBJECT and therefore requires a VERB..
It would be correct if we say--
each of which is contributing..
each of which contributes...
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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the [#permalink]

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24 Mar 2016, 02:39
Hi chetan2u,

I am not able to understand "each" vs "each of which"
as you said "each of which" behaves like a subject and hence we need a verb for it.
According to the only difference I see between "each" and "each o which" is the later is wordy.

Just for future reference can I say --> If I come across "each of which" then I should always look for a verb..??

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Re: In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the [#permalink]

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24 Mar 2016, 05:26
PrakharGMAT wrote:
Hi chetan2u,

I am not able to understand "each" vs "each of which"
as you said "each of which" behaves like a subject and hence we need a verb for it.
According to the only difference I see between "each" and "each o which" is the later is wordy.

Just for future reference can I say --> If I come across "each of which" then I should always look for a verb..??

Hi,

Each can be a pronoun or an adjective..
when used as an adjective / modifier, it is not necessary that it should have a verb, as in this Q in correct choice

Each of which is always a pronoun and will be a part of a clause with a VERB..
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In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the [#permalink]

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06 May 2016, 09:42
chetan2u wrote:
Hi,

Each can be a pronoun or an adjective..
when used as an adjective / modifier, it is not necessary that it should have a verb, as in this Q in correct choice

Each of which is always a pronoun and will be a part of a clause with a VERB..

Hi chetan2u,

(1) If we want to substitute "Each of them" for "Each of which" in this case, then what the modified sentence will be? From grammatical standpoint, does "Each of them" act in the same way as "Each of which" or "Each"?

(2) As you mentioned, "Each" can be a pronoun or an adjective, so it is also grammatically correct to say "...results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and of all the other planets, each contributes according to its mass...", right? And if it is the case, then does this version incur any differences from the OA?

In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the   [#permalink] 06 May 2016, 09:42

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