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# In hoping to restrain economic growth, interest rates were

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22 Mar 2011, 07:37
I think it can refer to "borrowing" as it's a gerund, a noun.

PKit, please correct me if I'm wrong.
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22 Mar 2011, 08:19
subhashghosh wrote:
I think it can refer to "borrowing" as it's a gerund, a noun.

PKit, please correct me if I'm wrong.

yes, you are right.

it refers to "to borrow" or to process of borrowing as i stated above.
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22 Mar 2011, 12:19
How can a pronoun refer to a verb?
Thanks!

Pkit wrote:
subhashghosh wrote:
I think it can refer to "borrowing" as it's a gerund, a noun.

PKit, please correct me if I'm wrong.

yes, you are right.

it refers to "to borrow" or to process of borrowing as i stated above.

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22 Mar 2011, 12:43
Noboru

Do you find the sentences "It is interesting to talk to Steve Jobs" or "it is useful to swim" correct?

I can't otherwise explain you this rule but "it" may refer to "to +verb".
I am a non-native speaker, I dont know what is the rule , but in this particular case it may refer to "to+verb"

hope it helps.

noboru wrote:
How can a pronoun refer to a verb?
Thanks!

Pkit wrote:
subhashghosh wrote:
I think it can refer to "borrowing" as it's a gerund, a noun.

PKit, please correct me if I'm wrong.

yes, you are right.

it refers to "to borrow" or to process of borrowing as i stated above.

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22 Mar 2011, 13:25
Hi, Pkit.

Yes, I do find those sentences correct.

However, those "It"s are not pronouns (as the one in the original sentence), but they are Placeholders. It's different.

Each pronoun in a sentence must refer to a specific noun, so I cannot understand how "it" can be substituted by "to borrow", which is a verb, not a noun.

Any more thoughts?

Pkit wrote:
Noboru

Do you find the sentences "It is interesting to talk to Steve Jobs" or "it is useful to swim" correct?

I can't otherwise explain you this rule but "it" may refer to "to +verb".
I am a non-native speaker, I dont know what is the rule , but in this particular case it may refer to "to+verb"

hope it helps.

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22 Mar 2011, 18:46
I got E.... The making closely modifies the 'interest rate' and seems best fits.
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22 Mar 2011, 23:28
brandy96 wrote:
I got E.... The making closely modifies the 'interest rate' and seems best fits.

-ing modifier acts as and adverbial modifier.I think it modifies raised not interest rate. Can someone Please clarify?
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23 Mar 2011, 03:08
Onell wrote:
brandy96 wrote:
I got E.... The making closely modifies the 'interest rate' and seems best fits.

-ing modifier acts as and adverbial modifier.I think it modifies raised not interest rate. Can someone Please clarify?

I agree with you, making...modifies raised...
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23 Mar 2011, 08:51
"the electronic locks are making it increasingly difficult for robbers to steal from lockers"
here "it" doesn't refer to "to steal"(which is a verb)
but to the noun form of stealing ie "theft"
probably same logic applies here
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23 Mar 2011, 09:09
d3thknell wrote:
"the electronic locks are making it increasingly difficult for robbers to steal from lockers"
here "it" doesn't refer to "to steal"(which is a verb)
but to the noun form of stealing ie "theft"
probably same logic applies here

But that noun is not explicitily stated in the sentence, and that is what sounds strange for me.
Thanks.
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23 Mar 2011, 09:21
d3thknell wrote:
"the electronic locks are making it increasingly difficult for robbers to steal from lockers"
here "it" doesn't refer to "to steal"(which is a verb)
but to the noun form of stealing ie "theft"
probably same logic applies here

Exactly the same as I said before :

Quote:
it refers to the process "to borrow".

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25 Mar 2011, 14:11
@Noboru: i agree it has not been stated "Explicitly",u have a good point here,i dont know the exact rules on usage of pronouns when nouns are not explicitly stated, so I wont be able to comment further
@Pkit: my understanding is , " process to borrow" is still a verb, maybe i misunderstood..
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26 Mar 2011, 01:34
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d3thknell wrote:
@Noboru: i agree it has not been stated "Explicitly",u have a good point here,i dont know the exact rules on usage of pronouns when nouns are not explicitly stated, so I wont be able to comment further
@Pkit: my understanding is , " process to borrow" is still a verb, maybe i misunderstood..

"process" is a noun. It may confuse you becuase "process" is an action noun.
if you still dont belive me , try to look into any dictionary.
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Re: In hoping to restrain economic growth, interest rates were [#permalink]

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05 Apr 2014, 07:03
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: In hoping to restrain economic growth, interest rates were [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2015, 19:24
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email.
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Re: In hoping to restrain economic growth, interest rates were [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2016, 04:48
PTK wrote:
In hoping to restrain economic growth, interest rates were raised by British policymakers, making it more expensive to borrow for businesses and consumers.

A. In hoping to restrain economic growth, interest rates were raised by British policymakers, making it more expensive to borrow for businesses and consumers.
B. Making it more expensive for businesses and consumers to borrow, interest rates were raised by British policymakers, in hopes of their restraining economic growth.
C. In making borrowing for businesses and consumers more expensive, British policymakers, in hopes they will restrain economic growth, had raised interest rates.
D. Hopefully restraining economic growth, British policymakers raised interest rates, making more expensive borrowing by businesses and consumers.
E. Hoping to restrain economic growth, British policymakers raised interest rates, making it more expensive for businesses and consumers to borrow.

'In hoping to restrain economic growth' must modify a 'person' - British Policymakers. A and B are out.

C. In making borrowing for businesses and consumers more expensive, British policymakers, in hopes they will restrain economic growth, had raised interest rates. 'had raised' is not required. Apart from this the structure is awkward.

D. Hopefully restraining economic growth, British policymakers raised interest rates, making more expensive borrowing by businesses and consumers. 'Hopefully and 'hoping to' have different meanings.

E. Hoping to restrain economic growth (correctly modifies BP), British policymakers raised interest rates (following sentence shows the result of increased interest rates), making it more expensive for businesses and consumers to borrow. correct choice
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Re: In hoping to restrain economic growth, interest rates were [#permalink]

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04 Dec 2016, 08:41
Another question...

Consider the following modifaction of answer choice B:

Making it more expensive for businesses and consumers to borrow, interest rates were raised by British policymakers, hoping to restrain economic growth.

In my opinion this sentence is correct, isnt it?

Now consider you had both, the modification of B and E in the answer choices. In this case, does the GMAT prefer active voice, thus you would pick answer choice E?

Thanks
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Re: In hoping to restrain economic growth, interest rates were [#permalink]

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04 Dec 2016, 09:13
martinjudge91 wrote:
Another question...

Consider the following modifaction of answer choice B:

Making it more expensive for businesses and consumers to borrow, interest rates were raised by British policymakers, hoping to restrain economic growth.

In my opinion this sentence is correct, isnt it?

Now consider you had both, the modification of B and E in the answer choices. In this case, does the GMAT prefer active voice, thus you would pick answer choice E?

Thanks

"Making it more expensive for businesses and consumers to borrow, interest rates were raised by British policymakers, hoping to restrain economic growth." ...... in this sentence the modifier "hoping to restrain economic growth" is a present participle modifier wrongly referring to "interest rates", the subject of the previous clause. In active construction this problem will be eliminated.
Re: In hoping to restrain economic growth, interest rates were   [#permalink] 04 Dec 2016, 09:13

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