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# In January 1994 an oil barge ran aground off the coast of San Juan, Pu

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Retired Moderator
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Re: In January 1994 an oil barge ran aground off the coast of San Juan, Pu [#permalink]

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09 Jun 2017, 09:31
Top Contributor
In January 1994, an oil barge ran aground off the coast of San Juan, Puerto Rico, leaking its cargo of 750000 gallons into the ocean, while causing the pollution of the city's beaches.

A. leaking its cargo of 750000 gallons into the ocean, while causing the pollution of --- running aground and leaking are separate independent actions. Leaking may not always be the result of running around. Therefore, the usage of the present participle 'leaking' is not a misplaced modifier but a misused modifier.

B. with its cargo of 750000 gallons leaking into the ocean, and it polluted --- it has no referent

C. and its cargo of 750000 gallons leaked into the ocean, polluting -- the correct choice

D. while it leaked its cargo of 750000 gallons into the ocean and caused the pollution of -- the subject is oil barge and it is wrong to say that the barge caused the pollution but the leakage did it.

E. so that its cargo of 750000 gallons leaked into the ocean, and they were polluting. -- 'so that' indicates intention, which is not the case here.
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Re: In January 1994 an oil barge ran aground off the coast of San Juan, Pu [#permalink]

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19 Jul 2017, 04:15
It's a GMAT prep question

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Re: In January 1994 an oil barge ran aground off the coast of San Juan, Pu [#permalink]

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15 Aug 2017, 01:47
I was so confused.. B sounds very right to me.
I was even 90% sure I am right..

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Retired Moderator
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Re: In January 1994 an oil barge ran aground off the coast of San Juan, Pu [#permalink]

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15 Aug 2017, 02:39
Top Contributor
pclawong
In B, what does the pronoun 'it' refer to? Is it the barge, cargo or ocean? It is the event of 'leaking' that polluted the beaches. But there is no leaking in the form of a noun or gerund. The leaking that there is only an adverbial prsent participle.
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Re: In January 1994 an oil barge ran aground off the coast of San Juan, Pu [#permalink]

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08 Nov 2017, 22:56
metallicafan wrote:
In January 1994 an oil barge ran aground off the coast of San Juan, Puerto Rico, leaking its cargo of 750000 gallons into the ocean, while causing the pollution of the city's beaches.

(A) leaking its cargo of 750000 gallons into the ocean, while causing the pollution of

(B) with its cargo of 750000 gallons leaking into the ocean, and it polluted

(C) and its cargo of 750000 gallons leaked into the ocean, polluting

(D) while it leaked its cargo of 750000 gallons into the ocean and caused the pollution of

(E) so that its cargo of 750000 gallons leaked into the ocean, and they were polluting.

Option A uses the verb+ing construction (leaking). In order to correctly use this type of construction, we need to keep in mind the following:
1. The subject of the preceding (main) clause must be the subject of the verb+ing modifier. According to this answer choice, the oil barge intentionally leaked its cargo of 750000 gallons. This is not the intended meaning of the sentence.

2. The action taking place in the verb+ing modifier and the action in the main clause must happen in the same time frame. Option A says that action 1 (oil barge ran aground off the coast of San Juan) happened in the same time frame as action 2 (leaking its cargo of 750000 gallons into the ocean). This is not the intended meaning of the sentence. Imagine the oil barge start to leak and run aground off the coast at the same time. Non-sense.

3. While is used to show two separate actions happening at the same time but two actions are separate. The action of “leaking” and “causing pollution” are not separate.

Option B
'and' is used to show two separate actions which are independent regarding time. The action of “leaking” and “causing pollution” are not separate.
With + noun construction repeats the error 2 in Option A. “oil barge ran aground off the coast” and “its cargo of 750000 gallons leaking into the ocean” did not happen at the same time.
The pronoun “it” cannot be used to denote action.

Option C
The acting taking place in the verb+ing modifier and the action in the main clause must happen in the same time frame. “750000 gallons leaked into the ocean” and “polluting” happened in the same time frame. Correct usage.
'and' is used to show two separate actions which are independently regarding time. “ oil barge ran aground off the coast” and “its cargo of 750000 gallons leaked into the ocean” are two separate actions. Correct usage.

Option D
While is used to show two separate actions happening at the same time but two actions are separate. Incorrect usage.
'and' is used to show two separate actions which are independently regarding time. Incorrect usage.

Option E
so that: is used to show an purpose of a preceding action. Incorrect usage. The oil barge did not run aground in order to leak its cargo
and is used to show two separate actions which are independently regarding time. Incorrect usage
“They “ is ambiguous.

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Re: In January 1994 an oil barge ran aground off the coast of San Juan, Pu   [#permalink] 08 Nov 2017, 22:56

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# In January 1994 an oil barge ran aground off the coast of San Juan, Pu

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