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# In January 1994 an oil barge ran aground off the coast of San Juan, Pu

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In January 1994 an oil barge ran aground off the coast of San Juan, Pu  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 14 Apr 2019, 00:38
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In January 1994 an oil barge ran aground off the coast of San Juan, Puerto Rico, leaking its cargo of 750000 gallons into the ocean, while causing the pollution of the city's beaches.

(A) leaking its cargo of 750000 gallons into the ocean, while causing the pollution of

(B) with its cargo of 750000 gallons leaking into the ocean, and it polluted

(C) and its cargo of 750000 gallons leaked into the ocean, polluting

(D) while it leaked its cargo of 750000 gallons into the ocean and caused the pollution of

(E) so that its cargo of 750000 gallons leaked into the ocean, and they were polluting.

In option C, is "leaked" a verb or an adjective? If it is a verb, which thing is performing the action of leaking? the oil barge or the 750000 gallons? In my opinion, the oil barge leaks the gallons, therefore option C should be "and its cargo of 750000 gallons WERE leaked into the ocean, polluting...". C is wrong.
Please your comments.

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Originally posted by metallicafan on 29 Jul 2010, 21:10.
Last edited by Bunuel on 14 Apr 2019, 00:38, edited 3 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: In January 1994 an oil barge ran aground off the coast of  [#permalink]

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23 Nov 2013, 11:58
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Just to add some clarification to the "while" discussion here.

"While" is typically used as a stand-in for either "although," "but," or "during." The takeaway for this problem is that you typically only set "while" off with a comma when using it to express contrasts. Consider the following sentences:

(1) While John doesn't usually like to exercise, he has been running more often since his sister gave him an MP3 player.
(2) John prefers classical music, while his sister prefers jazz.
(3) He listens to dubstep while running.

For the original problem, the phrase following while does not express a contrast, so it is incorrectly punctuated. Even if it were expressing duration, it would be incorrect.
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Re: In January 1994 an oil barge ran aground off the coast of San Juan, Pu  [#permalink]

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26 Apr 2014, 15:17
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In January 1994 an oil barge ran aground off the coast of San Juan, Puerto Rico, leaking its cargo of 750000 gallons into the ocean, while causing the pollution of the city's beaches.
A. leaking its cargo of 750000 gallons into the ocean, while causing the pollution of
Simplified form : an oil barge ran aground, leaking its cargo of 750000 gallons into the ocean, while causing the pollution of ...
Subject of the preceding clause can not intentionally leak its cargo, therefor use of -ing modifier leaking is incorrect.

B. with its cargo of 750000 gallons leaking into the ocean, and it polluted
Prepositional phrase modifying the verb of preceding clause:: an oil barge ran aground with its cargo of 750000 gallons leaking into the ocean, and it polluted
There is no clear antecedent of it, further contextually it is referring to entire incident happened in preceding clause thus we need much better construction.

C. and its cargo of 750000 gallons leaked into the ocean, polluting :: an oil barge clear antecedent for its (subject parallelism), -ing modifier is doing the right job here expressing the result of preceding clause.

D. while it leaked its cargo of 750000 gallons into the ocean and caused the pollution of :: a barge didn't leak its cargo intentionally. meaning error.

E. so that its cargo of 750000 gallons leaked into the ocean, and they were polluting. :: so that is wrong nothing is intentionally done.
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Re: In January 1994 an oil barge ran aground off the coast of San Juan, Pu  [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2016, 11:27
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Here is the notes that I got from Thrursday's with Ron session on March, 26 2015 The use of AND

See the video from 12:15 to 29:30 below

Analysis:
- 3 actions here ..
Action (1). oil barge ran aground
Action (2). leaking
Action (3). polluting
- Action (1) can happen without Action (2) i.e., leaking. But, Action(3) polluting is a instantaneous result of Action (2)

Option (A) is wrong for following reason ... Puerto Rico, leaking its cargo ...
- Use of ", leaking" is wrong in option (A) because Action(1) and Action (2) did not happen in same time frame.

Usage of ", _ING" Example's:
Correct: The pedestrian was struck by a runaway taxicab, dying instantly ... (Use of ,-ING is correct for immediate action)
Wrong: The pedestrian was struck by a runaway taxicab, dying twenty minutes later in the hospital ...(Use of ,-ING is wrong for delayed action)

- In option (C) use of ",polluting" is correct .. Action (2) and Action (3) happens instantly (in same time frame)

Answer: (C)
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Re: In January 1994 an oil barge ran aground off the coast of San Juan, Pu  [#permalink]

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08 Jun 2017, 01:00
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metallicafan wrote:
In January 1994 an oil barge ran aground off the coast of San Juan, Puerto Rico, leaking its cargo of 750000 gallons into the ocean, while causing the pollution of the city's beaches.
A. leaking its cargo of 750000 gallons into the ocean, while causing the pollution of
B. with its cargo of 750000 gallons leaking into the ocean, and it polluted
C. and its cargo of 750000 gallons leaked into the ocean, polluting
D. while it leaked its cargo of 750000 gallons into the ocean and caused the pollution of
E. so that its cargo of 750000 gallons leaked into the ocean, and they were polluting.

In option C, is "leaked" a verb or an adjective? If it is a verb, which thing is performing the action of leaking? the oil barge or the 750000 gallons? In my opinion, the oil barge leaks the gallons, therefore option C should be "and its cargo of 750000 gallons WERE leaked into the ocean, polluting...". C is wrong.
Please your comments.

I think this question is hard though basic. so, it is beautiful. I dont know whether I can analyse this way in the test room

normally , a complex sentence present two actions. the meaning relation between the actions is made clear by subordinate conjucntion. we need to properly understand the meaning relation conveyed by these conjuctions.

while: is used to show two separate actions happening at the same time but two actions are separate
so that: is used to show an purpose of a preceding action
and : is used to show two separate actions which are independently regarding time
comma+ doing: this is a hard relation. this doing is used to show another aspect of the action in main clause. doing dose not show another action. in other words, two actions here are not separate but integrated.

"with+noun+noun modifier" when attached to the main clause, show many meaning relation with the action in the main clause , such as: effect of main clause, reason of main clause, and context of main clause. These relation can be shown by using " so that", because", "given that" respectively.

5 choices give us 5 meaning relations. which meaning relation is logic.
polluting is not separate from "run aground" and "leaked". polluting can be considered an aspect of two actions, "running aground" and "leaking". so, choice C is correct.

in E, Leak can not be purpose of running aground
in D, the ship can not run aground while it leak. not logic
in B, with+noun, here, leaking can not be an effect, cause, or context of running aground
in A, pullution and running aground can not be separate actions.

my god. I hope I am right.
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Re: In January 1994 an oil barge ran aground off the coast of San Juan, Pu  [#permalink]

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09 Jun 2017, 10:31
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In January 1994, an oil barge ran aground off the coast of San Juan, Puerto Rico, leaking its cargo of 750000 gallons into the ocean, while causing the pollution of the city's beaches.

A. leaking its cargo of 750000 gallons into the ocean, while causing the pollution of --- running aground and leaking are separate independent actions. Leaking may not always be the result of running around. Therefore, the usage of the present participle 'leaking' is not a misplaced modifier but a misused modifier.

B. with its cargo of 750000 gallons leaking into the ocean, and it polluted --- it has no referent

C. and its cargo of 750000 gallons leaked into the ocean, polluting -- the correct choice

D. while it leaked its cargo of 750000 gallons into the ocean and caused the pollution of -- the subject is oil barge and it is wrong to say that the barge caused the pollution but the leakage did it.

E. so that its cargo of 750000 gallons leaked into the ocean, and they were polluting. -- 'so that' indicates intention, which is not the case here.
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Re: In January 1994 an oil barge ran aground off the coast of San Juan, Pu  [#permalink]

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07 Nov 2012, 12:24
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I think causing and polluting appearing in the same sentence is redundancy.
Hence A and D are out.

B is wrong since it mentions" the ship ....ran aground with its cargo leaking" awkward Ship will always run aground with something either fuel or cargo, the original sentence is very lengthy.

E is wrong as the use of " so that " in the sentence call for an uncessary cause and effect..it means ship ran agroung so that...........it sounds weird.

Hence the best answers is D the qord POLLUTION is correctly used in participial form to describe the preceding event.
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Re: In January 1994 an oil barge ran aground off the coast of  [#permalink]

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12 May 2013, 07:01
Why is the option A wrong here?

"leaking oil...... while polluting the coasts" flip the cause effect relationship right? Or is it that the verb tense itself is at fault?
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Re: In January 1994 an oil barge ran aground off the coast of  [#permalink]

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12 May 2013, 07:15
anilisanil wrote:
Why is the option A wrong here?

"leaking oil...... while polluting the coasts" flip the cause effect relationship right? Or is it that the verb tense itself is at fault?

In January 1994 an oil barge ran aground off the coast of San Juan, Puerto Rico, leaking its cargo of 750000 gallons into the ocean, while causing the pollution of the city's beaches.

While expreses contrast, cannot be used in this case. "causing the pollution of the beaches" doesn't sound too good.
But if we focus on A vs C, it easier to see which is the best one:

oil barge ran
A)leaking its cargo of 750000 gallons into the ocean, while causing the pollution of
C) and its cargo of its cargo of 750000 gallons leaked into the ocean, polluting

C mantais the past tense to express the actions that happened in January 1994, and uses "polluting = COMMA + ING" to express the consequences of the action.
This is clear and coinsice, C is a better option.

I would not say that A "flips the cause effect relationship ", the verbs of A [PAST & ING (for the facts of Jan), ING(for the consequences)] are at fault compared to those of C [ PAST & PAST (for the facts of Jan), ING (for the consequences) ]

Hope this helps
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Re: In January 1994 an oil barge ran aground off the coast of San Juan, Pu  [#permalink]

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26 Apr 2014, 20:42
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In January 1994 an oil barge ran aground off the coast of San Juan, Puerto Rico, leaking its cargo of 750000 gallons into the ocean, while causing the pollution of the city's beaches.

A. leaking its cargo of 750000 gallons into the ocean, while causing the pollution of - cargo is not leaked by the barge itself -INCORRECT

B. with its cargo of 750000 gallons leaking into the ocean, and it polluted - improper placement of 'and' shifts focus from the leakage of gallons causing the pollution - Incorrect

C. and its cargo of 750000 gallons leaked into the ocean, polluting
D. while it leaked its cargo of 750000 gallons into the ocean and caused the pollution of - use of while incorrect
E. so that its cargo of 750000 gallons leaked into the ocean, and they were polluting. - use of 'so that' incorrect
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Re: In January 1994 an oil barge ran aground off the coast of San Juan, Pu  [#permalink]

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15 Aug 2017, 02:47
I was so confused.. B sounds very right to me.
I was even 90% sure I am right..
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Re: In January 1994 an oil barge ran aground off the coast of San Juan, Pu  [#permalink]

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15 Aug 2017, 03:39
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pclawong
In B, what does the pronoun 'it' refer to? Is it the barge, cargo or ocean? It is the event of 'leaking' that polluted the beaches. But there is no leaking in the form of a noun or gerund. The leaking that there is only an adverbial prsent participle.
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Re: In January 1994 an oil barge ran aground off the coast of San Juan, Pu  [#permalink]

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08 Nov 2017, 23:56
metallicafan wrote:
In January 1994 an oil barge ran aground off the coast of San Juan, Puerto Rico, leaking its cargo of 750000 gallons into the ocean, while causing the pollution of the city's beaches.

(A) leaking its cargo of 750000 gallons into the ocean, while causing the pollution of

(B) with its cargo of 750000 gallons leaking into the ocean, and it polluted

(C) and its cargo of 750000 gallons leaked into the ocean, polluting

(D) while it leaked its cargo of 750000 gallons into the ocean and caused the pollution of

(E) so that its cargo of 750000 gallons leaked into the ocean, and they were polluting.

Option A uses the verb+ing construction (leaking). In order to correctly use this type of construction, we need to keep in mind the following:
1. The subject of the preceding (main) clause must be the subject of the verb+ing modifier. According to this answer choice, the oil barge intentionally leaked its cargo of 750000 gallons. This is not the intended meaning of the sentence.

2. The action taking place in the verb+ing modifier and the action in the main clause must happen in the same time frame. Option A says that action 1 (oil barge ran aground off the coast of San Juan) happened in the same time frame as action 2 (leaking its cargo of 750000 gallons into the ocean). This is not the intended meaning of the sentence. Imagine the oil barge start to leak and run aground off the coast at the same time. Non-sense.

3. While is used to show two separate actions happening at the same time but two actions are separate. The action of “leaking” and “causing pollution” are not separate.

Option B
'and' is used to show two separate actions which are independent regarding time. The action of “leaking” and “causing pollution” are not separate.
With + noun construction repeats the error 2 in Option A. “oil barge ran aground off the coast” and “its cargo of 750000 gallons leaking into the ocean” did not happen at the same time.
The pronoun “it” cannot be used to denote action.

Option C
The acting taking place in the verb+ing modifier and the action in the main clause must happen in the same time frame. “750000 gallons leaked into the ocean” and “polluting” happened in the same time frame. Correct usage.
'and' is used to show two separate actions which are independently regarding time. “ oil barge ran aground off the coast” and “its cargo of 750000 gallons leaked into the ocean” are two separate actions. Correct usage.

Option D
While is used to show two separate actions happening at the same time but two actions are separate. Incorrect usage.
'and' is used to show two separate actions which are independently regarding time. Incorrect usage.

Option E
so that: is used to show an purpose of a preceding action. Incorrect usage. The oil barge did not run aground in order to leak its cargo
and is used to show two separate actions which are independently regarding time. Incorrect usage
“They “ is ambiguous.
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Re: In January 1994 an oil barge ran aground off the coast of  [#permalink]

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Re: In January 1994 an oil barge ran aground off the coast of   [#permalink] 04 Sep 2019, 03:45
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# In January 1994 an oil barge ran aground off the coast of San Juan, Pu

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