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In John D’Emilio’s essay “Capitalism and Gay Identity,” D’Emilio argue

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In John D’Emilio’s essay “Capitalism and Gay Identity,” D’Emilio argue  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2019, 09:24
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 445, Date: 11-Nov-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


In John D’Emilio’s essay “Capitalism and Gay Identity,” D’Emilio argues that the emergence of industrial capitalism led to new opportunities for “free laborers” in the United States, leading to various beneficial changes in social conditions. The overarching themes emerge from D’Emilio’s argument about the effects of the onset of industrial capitalism: the new abundance of independence, and choice for “free laborers.” He implies throughout that these— independence and choice—are the distinct new markers of the social conditions resultant from this economic shift.

D’Emilio argues that capitalism empowers laborers as “free” in the sense that they are free to look for jobs and to negotiate contracts and terms of labor. D’Emilio’s critics suggest that he largely sidesteps the problems that confound free labor ideology and limit the ability of workers to openly negotiate contracts with employers and to accept or reject the conditions offered. The “contract negotiations” cited as a sign of freedom by D’Emilio are often hardly negotiations at all, but rather highly exploitative arrangements that workers have little ability to affect. From the first Lowell Girls all the way to the modern third world garment workers described by Enloe’s “Blue Jeans and Bankers,” it is clear that for many— particularly women, minorities, and immigrants—free labor has hardly been free at all.

Such critics also suggest that D’Emilio misrepresents the historical and continued significance of the home. The shift from a home-based to an industrial economy—though indeed very drastic—was hardly as absolute as D’Emilio suggests. Indeed, from nannying, to housekeeping, to even the “home-based jobs” described in “Blue Jeans and Bankers,” labor is still a very active part of the home even today.

In the essay “The Approaching Obsolescence of Housework: A Working-Class Perspective,” Davis spends a great deal of time discussing the continuation of labor in the home in stark contrast to the assertions of D’Emilio. Where D’Emilio argues that industrial capitalism equated to freedom from the home, Davis argues that it actually equated to thickening the bars that caged housewives to the home as productive and reproductive labor split further and more distinctly apart. Davis argues that women “were the losers in a double-sense: as their traditional jobs were usurped by the burgeoning factories, the entire economy moved away from the home, leaving many women largely bereft of significant economic roles.”

Spoiler: :: OA
C

1. Which of the following statements is the best description of the structure of the passage?

(A) A theory is described and supported by additional studies.
(B) A theory and a screed against it are provided.
(C) A theory is presented, followed by opinions that impugn it.
(D) A theory is discussed and its author’s credentials questioned.
(E) A theory is presented and ridiculed.


Spoiler: :: OA
E

2. In the second paragraph, the author mentions the Lowell Girls in order to

(A) illustrate how industrial capitalism eroded women’s economic position
(B) challenge an assertion about the importance of home-based economies
(C) rebut the arguments of D’Emilio’s critics
(D) favorably contrast their position to that of Third World garment workers
(E) support an assertion that workers’ autonomy is more myth than reality


Spoiler: :: OA
C

3. The passage suggests that Davis would be most likely to agree with which of the following?

(A) Industrial capitalism leads to independence and choice.
(B) Minorities in particular had little freedom of choice.
(C) People without economic roles are disadvantaged.
(D) Home-based jobs still account for a significant percentage of the overall economy.
(E) Domestic work should be paid.


Spoiler: :: OA
C

4. Which of the following would provide the best title for the passage?

(A) Industrial Capitalism and the Oppression of Labor
(B) D’Emilio, Enloe, and Davis: A Reconciliation
(C) A Rejection of D’Emilio’s Account of “Free Labor”
(D) Women’s Sacrifices for Industrial Capitalism
(E) Industrial Capitalism and Freedom for All



324/1904

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Re: In John D’Emilio’s essay “Capitalism and Gay Identity,” D’Emilio argue  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2019, 20:46
Answers:

1. Which of the following statements is the best description of the structure of the passage?

The author introduces D'Emilio's ideas. Then, he presents evidence that disproves his theory by providing evidence. The closest to this is C

(A) A theory is described and supported by additional studies. - not supported
(B) A theory and a screed against it are provided. - screed = criticism, it is not blatant criticism
(C) A theory is presented, followed by opinions that impugn it. - yes
(D) A theory is discussed and its author’s credentials questioned. - credentials not questioned
(E) A theory is presented and ridiculed. - disproven not ridiculed

2. In the second paragraph, the author mentions the Lowell Girls in order to

Lowell Girls is mentioned as someone with knowledge in the matter. He is primarily used to support the previous line rather than introduce a new element. This support is for E

(A) illustrate how industrial capitalism eroded women’s economic position
(B) challenge an assertion about the importance of home-based economies
(C) rebut the arguments of D’Emilio’s critics
(D) favorably contrast their position to that of Third World garment workers
(E) support an assertion that workers’ autonomy is more myth than reality

3. The passage suggests that Davis would be most likely to agree with which of the following?

"Davis argues that women “were the losers in a double-sense: as their traditional jobs were usurped by the burgeoning factories, the entire economy moved away from the home, leaving many women largely bereft of significant economic roles.”

Since he believes that women had a lack of economic roles, we can infer that the roles were important

(A) Industrial capitalism leads to independence and choice.
(B) Minorities in particular had little freedom of choice.
(C) People without economic roles are disadvantaged.
(D) Home-based jobs still account for a significant percentage of the overall economy.
(E) Domestic work should be paid.

4. Which of the following would provide the best title for the passage?

The title should include the main idea that D'Emilio theories were attacked. Something in these lines...Hence, C

(A) Industrial Capitalism and the Oppression of Labor
(B) D’Emilio, Enloe, and Davis: A Reconciliation
(C) A Rejection of D’Emilio’s Account of “Free Labor”
(D) Women’s Sacrifices for Industrial Capitalism
(E) Industrial Capitalism and Freedom for All
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Re: In John D’Emilio’s essay “Capitalism and Gay Identity,” D’Emilio argue  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Mar 2020, 05:04
SajjadAhmad wrote:
+1 Kudos to posts containing answer explanation of all questions



Hi SajjadAhmad,

Please provide an official explanation of all the questions.
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Re: In John D’Emilio’s essay “Capitalism and Gay Identity,” D’Emilio argue  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Mar 2020, 21:00
gaurav2m wrote:
SajjadAhmad wrote:
+1 Kudos to posts containing answer explanation of all questions



Hi SajjadAhmad,

Please provide an official explanation of all the questions.


Official Explanation


1. Which of the following statements is the best description of the structure of the passage?

Difficulty Level: Medium

Explanation

After the theory is described, the remainder of the passage cites studies and opinions that disagree in part or in whole, making (C) the correct choice.

Choice (A) is incorrect because no additional support is provided.

Choice (B) is incorrect, because the criticisms are not a “screed,” which is a long diatribe.

Choice (D) is incorrect because it is not the author’s credentials that are questioned.

Choice (E) is wrong—there is no ridicule. Note that (B), (D), and (E) all express inappropriate attitudes for an author. While authors can certainly argue for or against something, or express some enthusiasm or support.

Answer: C


2. In the second paragraph, the author mentions the Lowell Girls in order to

Difficulty Level: Medium

Explanation

The Lowell Girls are mentioned to show that historically “free labor has hardly been free at all.” This supports choice (E).

Choice (A) is incorrect—that is the subject of the fourth paragraph, but does not concern the Lowell Girls.

Choice (B) is incorrect—that is the subject of the third paragraph, but does not concern the Lowell Girls. The answer must come from the part of the passage referenced.

Choice (C) is backwards—this argument is put forth by D’Emilio’s critics.

Choice (D) is a distortion; the reference is to show how historically normal this situation was, not to contrast two supposedly parallel groups of unempowered workers.

Answer: E


3. The passage suggests that Davis would be most likely to agree with which of the following?

Difficulty Level: Medium to hard

Explanation

The answer has to be something that must follow from the discussion of Davis in the last paragraph, not something that Davis could or likely would agree with. Choice (C) is correct because Davis argues that women “were the losers in a double-sense … leaving many women largely bereft of significant economic roles.” If being “bereft” of an economic role makes one a “loser,” it is not going too far (in fact, it is less extreme) to say that “people without economic roles are disadvantaged.”

Choice (A) is wrong as it is an opinion of D’Emilio’s mentioned in the first paragraph.

Choice (B) is wrong as it is an opinion of Enloe’s mentioned in the second paragraph.

Choice (D) is incorrect because, in the last sentence of the passage, Davis states that the “entire economy” has left the household.

Finally, choice (E) is out of scope as nothing is said about pay for domestic work.

Answer: C


4. Which of the following would provide the best title for the passage?

Difficulty Level: Medium

Explanation

A “best title” question asks for the main point. The point of this passage is to highlight trenchant criticisms of D’Emilio’s work—the lack of any rebuttal of these points indicates that the author sympathizes with them. This supports choice (C).

Choices (A), (D), and (E) are incorrect because they ignore that the passage concerns scholarly opinions rather than the history itself.

Choice (B) is incorrect, as no reconciliation is attempted. Additionally, (E) is closer to D’Emilio’s view than the author’s.

Answer: C


Hope it helps
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Re: In John D’Emilio’s essay “Capitalism and Gay Identity,” D’Emilio argue   [#permalink] 31 Mar 2020, 21:00

In John D’Emilio’s essay “Capitalism and Gay Identity,” D’Emilio argue

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