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In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh

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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Nov 2014, 11:11
thuylinh wrote:
I saw the explanation in OG and they said that (D) is wrong because them refer to tourists.

While (E) is correct and them is understood as "chambers".

Can anyone show me the difference of these two options?

Many thanks.

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srini123 wrote:
In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for
cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.

(A) due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
(B) due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
(C) because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
(D) because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
(E) because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing


A, B and D are out for "due to" and "because of". Both are GMAT unfavorables.
C and E are close. The obvious problem with C is that it has passive construction. C is also not parallel to the last part of the sentence.

Why "them" refers to "chambers' not "tourists" is a matter of logical reasoning. If "them" does not refers to "chambers" but tourist, it makes the sentence so illogical that the meaning would be tourists exhaled moisture within themselves (tourist) not in the chambers and this act raises the humidity within the tourists. In that case, the meaning of the sentence becomes completely illogical.

So E is best...


I will suggest you to solve from OG and read the explanations of the SC questions from the forum.

In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.

due to -> acts as an adjective hence can modify only the noun.
For example cancellation of the match was due to heavy rain -> Correct -> Due to is modifying cancellation
The match was cancelled due to heavy rain -> Wrong as Due to is modifying the verb - Cancelled.

(A) due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
(B) due to moisture that tourists had exhaled,thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize

(C) because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
would -> gives an impression that the action is still doubtful which doesn't make sense as the event happened in the past.

(D) because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
raising -> cannot be a verb -> it is acting as a modifier modifying the closest noun (Tourist) -> Which is wrong
had raised -> Correctly used in Option C) and Option E)

(E) because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing -> Correct
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Nov 2014, 21:23
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thuylinh wrote:
I saw the explanation in OG and they said that (D) is wrong because them refer to tourists.

While (E) is correct and them is understood as "chambers".

Can anyone show me the difference of these two options?

Let us look at E. The clause we are talking about is:

Moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them

If them in any way had to refer to tourists, then the sentence would have used the reflexive pronoun themselves.

For example, which of the following would you say:

i) The phenomenal GMAT score made thuylinh proud of her.

Or

ii) The phenomenal GMAT score made thuylinh proud of herself.

Clearly if thuylinh is proud that she scored phenomenally on GMAT, then the usage has to be herself.

In D however, the clause is:

that was exhaled by tourists

So, them is outside this clause and hence, has multiple antecedents.

Having said this, pronoun ambiguity should not be your first reason to disregard an answer choice. As others have already mentioned, there are several other more apparent reasons why D is not correct.
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Mar 2015, 01:18
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apolo wrote:
sudeep wrote:
As per the OG explanation, 'them' in C and D seems to refer to 'tourists', but in E 'them' clearly refers to chambers.
Can someone please explain the concept of the pronoun reference in this case?

PS: I know why the OA mentioned is correct, but need clarification on the above concept of pronoun reference[/b].


Still no answer has been found for this question, in bold?!

This has to do with bit of a logical reasoning. In C, D and E, let's identify the clause that tourists is a part of:

C. because tourists were exhaling moisture (verb is were)
D. that was exhaled by tourists (verb is was)
E. moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them (verb is had)

Notice that them is a part of the same clause as tourists is, only in E. Now here is the thing. When an object pronoun (such as them in this case) is used, it can never refer to a noun in the same clause. This is just a logical reasoning thing. Let's take an example.

Suppose Peter scored exceptionally well and was proud of his marks. Would we say:

i) After scoring well, Peter was proud of him.

Or

ii) After scoring well, Peter was proud of himself.

Clearly ii). him (object pronoun) cannot be used to refer to Peter (noun in the same clause).

Similarly, in the sentence under consideration, in option E, him (object pronoun) cannot be used to refer to tourists (noun in the same clause).
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jun 2015, 23:01
According to a e-GMAT teacher, "due to" should be replaced with "be caused by". Here, "due to" on A and B cannot be replaced with "be caused by". Hence they should be eliminated. As for C, because clause is a passive tense. Looking at E, E is an active tense. It seems that E does not have any issues. So hold E. D uses "because of" and it is obviously lengthy. So eliminate D. Hence, the answer is E.
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jul 2015, 04:31
A and B are wrong because ‘Due to’ modifies the action in the preceding clause and hence is not used correctly and also meaning wise it implies that chambers were closed due to moisture. Both ways it is wrong.
Option C is wrong for multiple reasons. because tourists were exhaling moisture is wrong since the action is completed and, "which had raised the humidity within then to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize" is also wrong since there is no past tense action which took place after moisture had raised the humidity. The order of actions is wrong.
I picked option E for parallelism was crystallizing and also because past perfect tense is used properly to show the order of actions took place.
But i could not understand why exactly in option D, because of usage is wrong here since it refers to the clause correctly.
Can someone explain why option D is wrong for all reasons?
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New post 24 Sep 2015, 20:48
ShristiK wrote:
I chose answer E.
Can we have a "due to" vs. "because of" split here or is it a false split?


It would be a false split imo

a better split and an easier way to solve the problem would be to split just the last word "crystallizing" vs. "crystallize". The correct side of the split would be "crystallizing" because it is followed by "growing", which falls outside the scope of our stem.

That leaves you with option A and E

A is wrong for other, clear reasons, leaving E to be the only correct answer.

I first split it differently, and after spending 2 minutes was left with C and E. That's when I realized this.
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Apr 2016, 23:34
In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.

"for cleaning and repair.." Is this phrase parallel? gerund and verb?


because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

Isn't the use of 'them' is somewhat ambiguous? As if it's referrin to tourists? Seemin to suggest that the tourists had raised the humidity within themselves?

If anybody can help me with these please!! Thanks. :)
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Apr 2016, 00:15
enasni wrote:
In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.

"for cleaning and repair.." Is this phrase parallel? gerund and verb?


because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

Isn't the use of 'them' is somewhat ambiguous? As if it's referrin to tourists? Seemin to suggest that the tourists had raised the humidity within themselves?

If anybody can help me with these please!! Thanks. :)


Hi enasni
1) "for cleaning and repair.." Is this phrase parallel? gerund and verb?

repair here is used as a NOUN and gerund also acts as a NOUN..
so phrase is parallel..


2)Isn't the use of 'them' is somewhat ambiguous? As if it's referrin to tourists? Seemin to suggest that the tourists had raised the humidity within themselves?
since we have ONLY one subject, the Object pronoun should refer to that..
here SUBJECT is 'chamber', so 'them' should refer to 'chambers'..

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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Apr 2016, 07:14
enasni wrote:
In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.

"for cleaning and repair.." Is this phrase parallel? gerund and verb?


because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

Isn't the use of 'them' is somewhat ambiguous? As if it's referrin to tourists? Seemin to suggest that the tourists had raised the humidity within themselves?

If anybody can help me with these please!! Thanks. :)


In this case - repair is "noun". The preposition "for" can be taken common. So, it becomes "for cleaning" and "for repair". The verbing (cleaning) is gerund and is parallel to (for) repair.

As far as pronoun reference w.r.t "them" is concerned. "them" refers to "chambers" - logical (meaning) referrent.

For pronoun reference, always check the meaning to find the antecendant noun. In this case, "them" refers to "chambers". It is in these "chambers" that the moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity levels.

Hope this helps.
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Apr 2016, 09:26
iliavko wrote:
Imagine the sentence

"The lady holding the little girl, who works in the supermarket, looks sad."

Is this correct? Or do we have ambiguity in the use of rel. pronoun "who" ? "holding" modifies "lady", "the little girl" refers to "holding" So here can the object of "who" be the lady? or it will be the girl?


I would keep it simple. The modifier "who works in the ....." touches "girl", hence it modifies "girl" without any ambiguity.
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jun 2016, 05:54
soaringAlone wrote:
I don't think anyone has given a satisfactory reply to the question posed below ?

Can anyone answer the question, please?: Why "them" is correctly referring to the chambers in E and not to tourists as in C, D (as per explanation in OG 12)


Can anyone please answer this question?

If "experts" are not able to answer it, I am very sorry to say that they are not experts at all.

This said, however, I must thank everyone in this forum for their sometimes useful contributions.
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2016, 00:58
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soaringAlone wrote:
I don't think anyone has given a satisfactory reply to the question posed below ?

Can anyone answer the question, please?: Why "them" is correctly referring to the chambers in E and not to tourists as in C, D (as per explanation in OG 12)


Can anyone please answer this question?

If "experts" are not able to answer it, I am very sorry to say that they are not experts at all.

This said, however, I must thank everyone in this forum for their sometimes useful contributions.


In case you have any query that is unanswered (or you are not satisfied with the answer), please feel free to send a PM with the link to that post to any of the forum moderators /experts, who, I can assure you, will try his / her best to help.

Now to the query......

There is no ambiguity with the pronoun "them". If this pronoun were to refer to "tourists", then the pronoun would be "themselves".

Following is an excerpt from Manhattan SC guide:

After the agreement surfaced, the commission dissolved IT.

It must refer to the agreement, because it cannot refer to the commission. If you wish to refer to the commission, you must use itself.

Does the above explanation explain your query?
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2016, 03:57
soaringAlone wrote:
I don't think anyone has given a satisfactory reply to the question posed below ?

Can anyone answer the question, please?:why "them" is correctly referring to the chambers in E and not to tourists as in C,D (as per explanation in OG 12)


Hi sayantanc2k,

Thank you so much for your response.

However, one of the objections that the official guide makes about answers C and D is that "the pronoun them seems to refer to tourists".

Therefore, I do not rely very much on your advice since what you are saying contradicts the answer explanation in the official guide.

Can anyone else give their view on the apparent contradiction outlined above?
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jul 2016, 14:01
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soaringAlone wrote:
I don't think anyone has given a satisfactory reply to the question posed below ?

Can anyone answer the question, please?:why "them" is correctly referring to the chambers in E and not to tourists as in C,D (as per explanation in OG 12)


Hi sayantanc2k,

Thank you so much for your response.

However, one of the objections that the official guide makes about answers C and D is that "the pronoun them seems to refer to tourists".

Therefore, I do not rely very much on your advice since what you are saying contradicts the answer explanation in the official guide.

Can anyone else give their view on the apparent contradiction outlined above?


What I unterstand from your post is that the reason why you do not rely on my reasoning is not that you were able to identify a flaw in it, but that it seemed to you that a statement given in the official explanation does not match with my aforesaid explanation. Therefore let me try to explain further:

From my previous post you could probably have understood why "them" in option E is not ambiguous. (I assumed that explaining why E is correct would also make it clear why use of "them" in C and D is not correct): The structures in C and D are not same as the structure in E - in E the clause that contains the pronoun "them" also contains the noun "tourists" as a part of the subject .... " moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them "..... In this structure "them" cannot refer to "tourists" for the reason mentioned in my previous post (reflexive pronoun would otherwise be used - not using a reflexive pronoun makes it clear that "them" does not refer to "tourists"). However in C and D, the noun "tourists" is outside the clause (option C) or the present participle modifier (option D) containing the pronoun "them", and hence "them" may refer to the noun "tourists" in these cases (here use of reflexive pronoun is not required). Therefore in C and D the pronoun "them" is ambiguous, but not in option E.

Is the explanation understandable now?
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New post 05 Oct 2016, 18:05
SPLIT1: "DUE TO" AND "BECAUSE OF" ARE GMAT UNFAVORABLES. A, B, AND D ARE OUT. WHY? BECAUSE THEY CREATES AMBIGUITY.

SPLIT2) PARALLELISM. THE ISSUE IS THAT "WOULD CRYSTALLIZE" IS A PASSIVE CONSTRUCTION THAT DOES NOT GO WELL WITH THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE "WAS GROWING". B AND C ARE OUT.

SPLIT3) THE USE OF THE WORD "AND". WHENEVER YOU SEE "AND" CHECK IF THERE IS A LIST OF THINGS. IF YES, THEN CHECK THAT THE LIST IS IN PARALLEL, IN THIS CASE YOU HAVE THE END OF "AND... WAS GROWING" SO YOUR JOB IS TO CHECK THAT THE PREVIOUS ITEM IS PARALLEL. SEE THAT "AND...WAS GROWING" IS SIMPLE PAST TENSE TO MATCH IT WITH OTHER SIMPLE PAST TENSE SUCH AS: "WAS CRYSTALLIZING", THIS WAY YOU ELIMINATE B,C, AND D.

SPLIT4) "ITS" IS A SINGULAR PRONOUN THAT INCORRECTLY REFERS TO PLURAL NOUN "CHAMBERS". A IS OUT.
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New post 08 Feb 2017, 14:36
In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.

(A) due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
(B) due to moisture that tourists had exhaled,thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
(C) because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
(D) because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
(E) because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

For option E - can anyone explain -- how can HAD RAISED be correct here when there are no two past events occurring? My understand was past perfect can be used when two events are in the past and the earlier event takes the past perfect form.

On the other hand C makes the reason to use past perfect correct..because of had raised ...... would crystallize...
assume the last part of the sentence isn't present (was growing).. then C would be the correct answer?
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Apr 2017, 03:02
In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.

(A) due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
--> due to is used to modify only NOUNS. such...so..that is wrong idiom.

(B) due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
--> due to is used to modify only NOUNS.
There is not any proper reason to use past perfect tense here.
its is wrong because chambers is plural.
would crystallize is not parallel to was growing.

(C) because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
--> would crystallize is not parallel to was growing.
There is not any proper reason to use past perfect tense here.

(D) because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
--> because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising is wordy and awkward; according to Mike,
[preposition] + [noun] + [participle] is 100% wrong when it contains an “action word” participle (here “action word” participle is raising).
so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize is not parallel to was growing.

(E) because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing
--> correct.
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New post 30 Apr 2017, 03:26
Nevernevergiveup wrote:
A and B are wrong because ‘Due to’ modifies the action in the preceding clause and hence is not used correctly and also meaning wise it implies that chambers were closed due to moisture. Both ways it is wrong.
Option C is wrong for multiple reasons. because tourists were exhaling moisture is wrong since the action is completed and, "which had raised the humidity within then to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize" is also wrong since there is no past tense action which took place after moisture had raised the humidity. The order of actions is wrong.
I picked option E for parallelism was crystallizing and also because past perfect tense is used properly to show the order of actions took place.
But i could not understand why exactly in option D, because of usage is wrong here since it refers to the clause correctly.
Can someone explain why option D is wrong for all reasons?


(D) because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
--> because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising is wordy and awkward; according to Mike,
[preposition] + [noun] + [participle] is 100% wrong when it contains an “action word” participle (here “action word” participle is raising). (https://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-idio ... ecause-of/)
so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize is not parallel to was growing.

Hope it makes clear!
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jun 2017, 23:35
sudeep wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2017

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 698
Page: 687

In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.

A. due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
B. due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
C. because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
D. because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
E. because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

As per the OG explanation, 'them' in C and D seems to refer to 'tourists', but in E 'them' clearly refers to chambers.
Can someone please explain the concept of the pronoun reference in this case?

What I understood is that:
in the case of E tourists is the noun in the modifier 'exhaled by tourists'. So, 'tourists' loose the significance as it is out of scope for the remaining main sentence/clause. But is is the right creteria to reject the pronoun reference to noun 'tourists'.

PS: I know why the OA mentioned is correct, but need clarification on the above concept of pronoun reference.




In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.

A. due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
B. due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
C. because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
D. because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
E. because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing....Correct

With the parallelism of growing and crystallizing we can remove B, C, D as option
Between A & E , in A . The meaning is distorted, the moisture is raising (whose) humidity

Hence E
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Luckisnoexcuse

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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh &nbs [#permalink] 08 Jun 2017, 23:35

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