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# In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure

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In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 30 Nov 2018, 01:14
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In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.

(A) due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing

(B) due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize

(C) because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize

(D) because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize

(E) because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2017

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 698
Page: 687

As per the OG explanation, 'them' in C and D seems to refer to 'tourists', but in E 'them' clearly refers to chambers.
Can someone please explain the concept of the pronoun reference in this case?

What I understood is that:
in the case of E tourists is the noun in the modifier 'exhaled by tourists'. So, 'tourists' loose the significance as it is out of scope for the remaining main sentence/clause. But is is the right creteria to reject the pronoun reference to noun 'tourists'.

PS: I know why the OA mentioned is correct, but need clarification on the above concept of pronoun reference.

Originally posted by sudeep on 02 Oct 2009, 06:53.
Last edited by Bunuel on 30 Nov 2018, 01:14, edited 3 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 17 Jun 2017, 08:55
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5
Quote:
RULE: If a noun is neither subject nor object of main clause/sentence then it doesn't introduce pronoun ambiguity in that sentence.

Can this rule be true?; if I change choice E a little bit as follows, what will be the effect and will it still stick to the above rule?

Revised E) because moisture exhaled by tourists during ‘their respiration’ had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

What will the pronoun ‘their’ refer to in the slightly revised version? Tourists or chambers? Logically of course to tourists, becos, the chambers can not respire after all. However, As per rule, ‘their’ should first refer to the subject of the main sentence, namely, ‘the chambers’.

Can the quoted rule be universal? How can we exclude pronoun ambiguity other than by
logic?
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Originally posted by daagh on 30 Mar 2011, 21:23.
Last edited by daagh on 17 Jun 2017, 08:55, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure  [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2012, 05:10
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(A) due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
1: Modifier Error - which refers to tourists
2: Pronoun Number - "its" should refer to "chambers" - thus number error.
3: Meaning - Use of "due to" implies that the closure of chambers was caused by moisture. This is not correct because closure was caused by the effect of the moisture as explained in choice E.

(B) due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
1: Verb tense - had exhaled is incorrect verb tense.
2: Parallelism - "salt would crystallize" is not parallel to "fungus was growing".
3: Meaning - Use of "due to" implies that the closure of chambers was caused by moisture. This is not correct because closure was caused by the effect of the moisture as explained in choice E.

(C) because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
1: Verb Tense - " were exhaling" is incorrect verb tense; "had raised" is incorrect verb tense.
2: Parallelism - "salt would crystallize" is not parallel to "fungus was growing".

(D) because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
1: Modifier Error - "raising humidity" appears to modify "tourists" - incorrect
2: Parallelism - "salt crystallize" is not parallel to "fungus was growing".

(E) because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing
Correct.
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 16 Mar 2014, 10:46
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Quote:
I understand why A,B and D are out. Can you use one of the 10 core frameworks to explain C vs E?

Look at X&Y consistency when you see the keyword "and" after the underlined portion.

You notice the second half says "...and fungus was growing on the walls"

So whatever is to the left of the word "and" needs to be consistent.

Between (C) and (E) - which would you choose?

(C): "..such that salt from the stone would crystallize"

(E): "..to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing"

Between the two, we need (E) so we get:

"[X] was crystallizing and [y] was growing"

So as you can see, this is simply an X&Y consistency question.

We've also posted a video solution to this question here: http://www.gmatpill.com/gmat-practice-t ... /(OG12-006)%20(OG13-008)%20-%20Pyramid%20Chambers/question/1844

Originally posted by GMATPill on 06 Apr 2012, 18:34.
Last edited by GMATPill on 16 Mar 2014, 10:46, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure  [#permalink]

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02 Oct 2009, 07:50
4
sudeep wrote:
Quote:
In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.
A. due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
B. due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
C. because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
D. because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
E. because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

OA:

My question:

As per the OG explanation, 'them' in C and D seems to refer to 'tourists', but in E 'them' clearly refers to chambers.
Can someone please explain the concept of the pronoun reference in this case?

What I understood is that:
in the case of E tourists is the noun in the modifier 'exhaled by tourists'. So, 'tourists' loose the significance as it is out of scope for the remaining main sentence/clause. But is is the right creteria to reject the pronoun reference to noun 'tourists'.

PS: I know why the OA mentioned is correct, but need clarification on the above concept of pronoun reference.

I wonder what you mean by saying tourists loose the significance as it is out of scope

coming back to the pronoun reference issue -- I think the reason THEM refers to tourists in C and D and not in E
is that in C and D there is an intervening Clause which introduces TOURISTS in such a way that it can act as a more proximate antecedent (than chambers); recall that a pronoun refers to the nearest logical antecedent

In C -- it says -- Tourists WERE exhaling moisture ---- hence TOURISTS can act as a subject in its own right.

In D -- it says -- because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists -- again here even though the subject of the relative clause introduced by THAT is MOISTURE yet THEM cannot refer to moisture but instead refers to the predicate of the clause (Tourists) in this case.

In E if you notice because moisture exhaled by tourists cannot position tourist as a likely antecedent (because 'tourists' is part of a phrase and hence cannot stand on its own as a subject).

I am not sure if I was able to explain. Let me know if you need further explanation and I will try to explain again.

To be sure --- C and D have other problems which made eliminating them a lot easier -- to the extent that I had missed the pronoun reference entirely -- until you pointed it out.

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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure  [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2013, 02:50
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1
In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.

(A) due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
(B) due to moisture that tourists had exhaled,thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
(C) because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
(D) because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
(E) because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

whenever you see parallel marker "and" always check if in current context is there any list? if yes...then you have to maintain symmetry to the both side of and...and this is what we have to do here!!
1.right side of "and" is ---> fungus was growing
2. hence left side of "and" should be ----> was crystallizing

thus we left with only two choices A & E
in Option A,Modifier its is not a correct usage since "its"(singular) is trying to refer "tourists" (plural)

so E is the correct choice..
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure  [#permalink]

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17 Nov 2014, 20:23
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thuylinh wrote:
I saw the explanation in OG and they said that (D) is wrong because them refer to tourists.

While (E) is correct and them is understood as "chambers".

Can anyone show me the difference of these two options?

Let us look at E. The clause we are talking about is:

Moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them

If them in any way had to refer to tourists, then the sentence would have used the reflexive pronoun themselves.

For example, which of the following would you say:

i) The phenomenal GMAT score made thuylinh proud of her.

Or

ii) The phenomenal GMAT score made thuylinh proud of herself.

Clearly if thuylinh is proud that she scored phenomenally on GMAT, then the usage has to be herself.

In D however, the clause is:

that was exhaled by tourists

So, them is outside this clause and hence, has multiple antecedents.

Having said this, pronoun ambiguity should not be your first reason to disregard an answer choice. As others have already mentioned, there are several other more apparent reasons why D is not correct.
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In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 11 Mar 2019, 09:17
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Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one issue at a time, to narrow the options down to find the correct choice! First, let's take a close look at the options, and highlight any major differences in orange:

In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.

(A) due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
(B) due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
(C) because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
(D) because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
(E) because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

After a quick glance over the options, a few major differences appear:

1. due to / because
2. raised / raising / had raised
3. was crystallizing / crystallize

The easiest way to tackle this would be to focus on #3 on our list: was crystallizing vs. crystallize. This is an issue of parallelism, which is fairly easy to deal with! There are two actions we're dealing with here:

1. salt from the stones crystallizing
2. fungus growing on the walls

The correct choice will use parallel wording and structure for BOTH actions, so let's see how each option breaks down:

(A) ...salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.
(B) ...salt from the stone would crystallize and fungus was growing on the walls.
(C) ...salt from the stone would crystallize and fungus was growing on the walls.
(D) ...salt from the stone crystallize and fungus was growing on the walls.
(E) ...salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.

We can eliminate options B, C, and D because they don't use the parallel "was crystallizing/was growing" wording.

Now that we only have this narrowed down to 2 options, let's see if we can figure out which one is the better choice:

(A) due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing

This option is INCORRECT because it uses the wrong verb tense. It uses past tense for the phrase "raised its humidity," which actually happened BEFORE the chambers were closed. When we talk about two past tense events, the one that occurred first requires past perfect tense!

(E) because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

This is CORRECT! It uses proper parallel structure with "was crystallizing." It also uses the correct past perfect tense to show that the humidity had risen BEFORE the chambers were shut down.

There you go - option E is the best choice!

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Originally posted by EMPOWERgmatVerbal on 16 Oct 2018, 16:17.
Last edited by EMPOWERgmatVerbal on 11 Mar 2019, 09:17, edited 3 times in total.
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In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure  [#permalink]

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11 Jul 2019, 11:09
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RashedVai wrote:
sudeep wrote:
In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.

(A) due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing

(B) due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize

(C) because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize

(D) because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize

(E) because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

Is the use of "which" is correct here in (A). It seems like "which" is modifying "moisture". somewhere I have seen "which" can jump over a modifier. Here "exhaled by tourist' is a modifier of "moisture". Please help generis

Posted from my mobile device

RashedVai , yes, "which" can "jump over" the phrase exhaled by tourists in order to reach its noun moisture.
(In other words, although (A) contains other errors, which is not one of them.)

Your concern arises from the "modifier touch rule," which says that a noun modifier should be right next to the noun that it modifies.

As you note, the relative pronoun which modifies moisture.

Exceptions to the Touch Rule exist.**

An essential modifier trumps a nonessential modifier
-- nouns often have essential modifiers

• prepositional phrases
-- A prepositional phrase that follows the noun is the most common essential noun modifier that "trumps" nonessential modifiers such as [comma + which].

Correct: Russian theatre practitioner Konstantin Stanislavski developed a systematic approach to acting, which became the foundation for what is now known as The Method in actors' training.

(Sidebar: Robert de Niro, Daniel Day-Lewis, Angelina Jolie, and James Franco are a few of many actors who use some form of The Method.)
-- Acting did not become the foundation for The Method. The approach did.

-- The prepositional phrase to acting is essential and thus allowed to come in between approach and the nonessential which-clause modifier.

• essential modifiers in this sentence

Between which and moisture we have
-- participle (exhaled) + prepositional phrase (by tourists) trumps which
-- the phrase exhaled by tourists is also an essential modifier of moisture.

(1) The words are essential; (2) they can't really be placed elsewhere, and regardless, (3) they are more important than "which" and thus can come between which and its noun.
Correct: The decorator recommended only counter tops made of granite, which he thought were much sturdier than counter tops made of other materials.

Option A: . . . due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels
In option A, which permissibly "reaches back" over the essential modifier exhaled by tourists to reach its noun, moisture.

I hope that analysis helps.

** Other exceptions to the Modifier Touch Rule
• A short phrase that is set off by commas can come between a noun and its modifier.
The most common example is an example phrase

Correct: She especially liked colorful paintings, such as The Open Window, which reminded her of beautiful places she had visited.

• A short verb phrase (intransitive!) can come between a noun and its modifier, even if the modifier is essential, such as THAT in the that-clause below.

Correct: A new species has been discovered that is revolutionizing the way that scientists think about so-called "gaps" in Darwin's theory of evolution.
-- This short verb phrase is allowed because the modifier is long. If we place the short verb phrase has been discovered at the end of the sentence, it becomes hard to follow and jarring.
-- Rewritten: A new species that is revolutionizing the way that scientists think about so-called "gaps" in Darwin's theory of evolution has been discovered.
-- The second sentence is grammatical, just not as clear or accessible as the first sentence is.

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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure  [#permalink]

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06 Mar 2012, 20:00
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The answer choice I picked was E:

A. There are a few problems I noticed in this answer choice. Firstly, the pronoun "its" refers back to chambers, but chambers is plural. Therefore, there is a problem with the number of the pronoun. I also did not like the use of "which" as a modifier here because it seems to modify tourists and not the phrase "moisture exhaled by tourists." Finally, the word "so" is unnecessary.

B. The first problem I noticed was "had exhaled." The use of past perfect tense is not needed when simple past would be perfectly sufficient. Also, "would crystallize" is not parallel to the last phrase.

C. "Would crystallize" is not parallel to the last phrase.

D. Again the last phrases are not parallel.

Therefore, I am left with the answer choice E.

In choice C and D, the word "them" is separated from tourists and chambers by a clause. Therefore, I thought this pronoun was ambiguous. If you notice in choice E, it makes logical sense that "them" can only refer to chambers.
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure  [#permalink]

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19 Dec 2012, 06:12
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A series of doubts have been raised and answered on this episode. If have that much of time to think about, well you can and should go through this kind of algorithm. However, for those who may not be unfortunate to afford that luxury, here is a short- cut via grammar. As per the tenets of Parallelism, what form follows after -and -, should be there before- and - also, especially when the second arm is un-underlined. In this context, the text says in the second part -- and fungus was growing on the walls. – To go in tandem with this past progressive tense after - and- , we should have yet another past progressive tense before the –and-. You might see only A and E have such //ism.
In A, such levels so that is bad idiom; such levels that is the right idiom. So, E is the choice.
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure  [#permalink]

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16 Aug 2013, 11:56
2
Immediately notice two forms to begin the phrase: "due to moisture..." and "because..."

A) sounds generally right. But upon reading the comma ", which" - we see that the "which" phrase should describe the word immediately next to the comma. The way the sentence is structured, the phrase after "which" is describing "tourists" when it really should be describing "moisture". How do we know that? Clearly the phrase is talking about raising humidity levels - it's the moisture that is doing this not the tourists.

So A) is out.

C) has the comma next to "which" but somehow putting the blame on tourists directly sounded weird to me. So I went on to D and E.

D) "because of moisture" - sounded weird off the bat. Sentence would have been fine as "because of moisture" and ended it there. But adding a bunch of phrases after that doesn't make the sentence sensible.

E) "Because moisture.." blah blah blah
You can cut the fluff to see if the sentence makes sense
"because moisture [ ] had raised the humidity within them [presumably the chambers inside the pyramid] to such levels that...."

Looks okay.
Quick check on (B) shows that this sentence is getting too long. It's supposed to end a sentence, but extends it with ", thereby..." Sentence is too long and (E) works out better.
"Its" is actually ok here and not what you should be focusing on for this question
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure  [#permalink]

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01 Jul 2016, 13:01
2
1
EBITDA wrote:
soaringAlone wrote:
I don't think anyone has given a satisfactory reply to the question posed below ?

Can anyone answer the question, please?:why "them" is correctly referring to the chambers in E and not to tourists as in C,D (as per explanation in OG 12)

Hi sayantanc2k,

Thank you so much for your response.

However, one of the objections that the official guide makes about answers C and D is that "the pronoun them seems to refer to tourists".

Therefore, I do not rely very much on your advice since what you are saying contradicts the answer explanation in the official guide.

Can anyone else give their view on the apparent contradiction outlined above?

What I unterstand from your post is that the reason why you do not rely on my reasoning is not that you were able to identify a flaw in it, but that it seemed to you that a statement given in the official explanation does not match with my aforesaid explanation. Therefore let me try to explain further:

From my previous post you could probably have understood why "them" in option E is not ambiguous. (I assumed that explaining why E is correct would also make it clear why use of "them" in C and D is not correct): The structures in C and D are not same as the structure in E - in E the clause that contains the pronoun "them" also contains the noun "tourists" as a part of the subject .... " moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them "..... In this structure "them" cannot refer to "tourists" for the reason mentioned in my previous post (reflexive pronoun would otherwise be used - not using a reflexive pronoun makes it clear that "them" does not refer to "tourists"). However in C and D, the noun "tourists" is outside the clause (option C) or the present participle modifier (option D) containing the pronoun "them", and hence "them" may refer to the noun "tourists" in these cases (here use of reflexive pronoun is not required). Therefore in C and D the pronoun "them" is ambiguous, but not in option E.

Is the explanation understandable now?
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure  [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2017, 18:43
2
cuhmoon

Here is sentence structure with correct option:

In late 1997, the chambers (Independent clause - 1 starts)
inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza (modifier)
were closed
to visitors for cleaning and repair because (Independent clause - 1 ends and new IC 2 starts with because)
moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing (IC2 ends)
Exhaled is a verb-ed modifier here and that is a noun modifier referring to levels

As you can now see we clearly have later action - were closed - in simple past and had raised in past perfect to describe former of two events.

Hope this helps!
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure  [#permalink]

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11 Jan 2019, 04:42
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sudeep wrote:
In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.

(A) due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing

(B) due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize

(C) because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize

(D) because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize

(E) because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2017

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 698
Page: 687

As per the OG explanation, 'them' in C and D seems to refer to 'tourists', but in E 'them' clearly refers to chambers.
Can someone please explain the concept of the pronoun reference in this case?

What I understood is that:
in the case of E tourists is the noun in the modifier 'exhaled by tourists'. So, 'tourists' loose the significance as it is out of scope for the remaining main sentence/clause. But is is the right creteria to reject the pronoun reference to noun 'tourists'.

PS: I know why the OA mentioned is correct, but need clarification on the above concept of pronoun reference.

here we go.

First Glance
The relatively long underline begins with a split between due to and because of. Watch out forMeaning, Modifier, and Idiom issues.

Issues

(1) Meaning / Modifier

Idiom: because of moisture raising

The answers contain a split between due to and because of.

Due to X modifies a noun. Consider this example:
His success was due to hard work. In this sentence, “due to hard work” modifies “success,” meaning that his hard work resulted in success.
In the original sentence, the moisture resulted in cleaning and repair. This is true indirectly, but really the moisture caused a
series of events: The humidity increased, causing the salt to crystallize, and as a result of that, the chambers were closed for
cleaning and repair. The moisture didn't result directly in cleaning and repair. Look for a choice that offers a more clear
causal sequence. Eliminate answers (A) and (B) for faulty meaning.

Answers (C), (D), and (E) all use because—one step in the right direction. Answer (C) still maintains a muddled meaning,
though: The chambers were closed because tourists were exhaling moisture. Again, this is true only indirectly. Eliminate
In answer (D), because of moisture raising is not a preferred idiomatic construction. A better idiomatic structure would be
because moisture raised.

(2) Pronoun: its

Two answers use the singular its; three answers use the plural them.

The sentence indicates that the chambers inside the pyramid were closed because of problems; this doesn't necessarily mean
that the entire pyramid was closed or affected by the humidity issues
. The pronoun, then, should refer to the plural chambers,
not the singular pyramid. Eliminate answers (A) and (B).

(3) Idiom: such X so that Y

The original sentence contains the construction raised its humidity to such levels so that salt was crystallizing.
Such X so that Y is not a correct idiom. One correct idiom is such X that Y. Eliminate answer (A).

(4) Parallelism: X and Y

The word and appears immediately after the underline ends, signaling an X and Y parallel structure. The Y portion is fungus
was growing
. Which X structures are parallel?
(A) the stone was crystallizing
(B) the stone would crystallize
(C) the stone would crystallize
(D) to make the salt crystallize
(E) the stone was crystallizing
Answers (A) and (E) are both parallel. In answers (B) and (C), the would structure doesn't make sense; the salt must already
have crystallized, just as the fungus already grew, because the chambers were closed as a result. Answer (D) uses a
completely different structure for the X portion; it is not parallel to the Y portion. Eliminate answers (B), (C), and (D).

Correct answer (E) conveys a clear causal sequence: The chambers were closed because moisture had raised the humidity to
such levels that two bad effects occurred.
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure  [#permalink]

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18 Apr 2019, 21:47
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Due to vs. because of:

'Due to' can only modify nouns such as 'closure' or 'chambers'. Please note that 'closure' is also a noun. However 'due to' cannot modify a verb such as 'was closed' or 'were closed'.

Correct; the school's closure was due to elections.
Incorrect: The school was closed due to elections

Correct: The school re-opening was due to the end of the elections.
Incorrect: The school re-opened due to the end of elections

Reversely, 'because of' cannot modify nouns such as 'closure' or 'chambers'. It can only modify verbs such as 'closed, 'was closed' or 'were closed'.

Correct: The school was closed because of the elections.
Incorrect: The school was closed due to the elections.

Quote:
In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.

(A) due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing

(B) due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize

(D) because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize

Since 'due to' is modifying the verb 'were closed', both A and B are wrong.
D is ok on that count but falters on other areas such as idiom and parallelism

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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure  [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2019, 23:52
2
sjuniv32 Since the past perfect has been addressed (for instance, in the post by RashedVai directly above yours), it may help if you tell us what troubles you about the past perfect in E. Generally, the past perfect serves as "the past of the past," and therefore is used to describe an event that takes place before some other past event that is specified in the sentence. In this case, the moisture had raised the humidity in the chambers when they were closed for cleaning and repair.
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure  [#permalink]

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02 Oct 2009, 08:40
1
dwivedys wrote:
I wonder what you mean by saying tourists loose the significance as it is out of scope
I was thinking in the similar lines of your explanation of E.
dwivedys wrote:
coming back to the pronoun reference issue -- I think the reason THEM refers to tourists in C and D and not in E
is that in C and D there is an intervening Clause which introduces TOURISTS in such a way that it can act as a more proximate antecedent (than chambers); recall that a pronoun refers to the nearest logical antecedent
Agree..!
dwivedys wrote:
In C -- it says -- Tourists WERE exhaling moisture ---- hence TOURISTS can act as a subject in its own right.
This is fine.
dwivedys wrote:
In D -- it says -- because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists -- again here even though the subject of the relative clause introduced by THAT is MOISTURE yet THEM cannot refer to moisture but instead refers to the predicate of the clause (Tourists) in this case.
In this case,

In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize and fungus was growing on the walls.

Lets cut it short.

the chambers [strike]inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza[/strike] were closed to visitors [strike]for cleaning and repair[/strike] because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them [strike]to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize and fungus was growing on the walls.[/strike]

the chambers were closed to visitors because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them.

this sentence can be broken down in 2 ways:

i) the chambers were closed to visitors because of moisture (that was exhaled by tourists) raising the humidity within them.

ii) the chambers were closed to visitors because of moisture (that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them).
Is it correct? In this case 'raising the humidiy...' is modifying the tourists not the noun phrase "moisture...tourists".
in (ii) 'them' seems to refer to tourists.

can this be the reason.
dwivedys wrote:
In E if you notice because moisture exhaled by tourists cannot position tourist as a likely antecedent (because 'tourists' is part of a phrase and hence cannot stand on its own as a subject).

So does that mean if we have noun in the phrase modifier in the main clause, pronoun shouldn't refer back to it?

So is the below sentence incorrect?
"Book X written by John is not his best work."
dwivedys wrote:
I am not sure if I was able to explain. Let me know if you need further explanation and I will try to explain again.

To be sure --- C and D have other problems which made eliminating them a lot easier -- to the extent that I had missed the pronoun reference entirely -- until you pointed it out.

I too look into the pronoun issue only after looking the explanation.
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure  [#permalink]

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11 Aug 2011, 03:09
1
Let us take the idiom route to solve this. ‘Such levels that’ is the right idiom and you have that in B and E only. Between B and E, B is too awkward for using wrong reasons such as the chambers being closed due to moisture rather than due to the raised levels of humidity and for using the future modal ‘would crystallize’. E is the choice by POE. I took the pronoun ‘them’ in its stride to mean the chambers.
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure  [#permalink]

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18 Dec 2012, 21:39
1
1
dc1509 wrote:
In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.

a. due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which rised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
b. due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
c. because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
d. because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
e. because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity with them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

Doubt 1:
In OE for options C and D, it is mentioned that "them" in C and D seems to refer to tourists. But OE for E says that "them" in E clearly talks about chambers.
My understanding for this is as below reasons can you please confirm if my analysis is correct ?

In E : "exhaled by tourists" is a modifier that is modifying moisture and so the sentence "moisture had raised the humidity within them" is the sentence and so it is more clear that "them" refers to chambers.

In D: "tourists raising the humidity within them" "raising the humidity with in them" modifies "tourists". Hence, it looks like "them" refers to "tourists".

Not sure of the case with C.

Doubt 2:
In option A, idiom "such levels so that" is used. Is this correctly used ?

Doubt 3:
It is mentioned that "due to" is used imprecisely to express causal relation. Can you please eloborate on how "due to" can be used effectively to express these relations?

Your understanding for D and E seems to be correct. But I would like to add one point here. Its not the proximity which defines the pronoun referrent but the subject of the sentence. In E, there is only one clause and that itself has "chambers" as the subject. Whereas in D, the relative clause starting with "that" contains "tourists" as the subject.
This is the reason for ambiguity and hence incorrect.

Option C is a total disaster in that :
i) because + verb-ing form is incorrect on GMAT
ii) "them" may refer to "tourists".
iii) usage of "such that" implies intention, nowhere mentioned in the intended meaning. Hence incorrect.

Doubt 2: "such levels so that"- incorrect because of two issues:
i) such levels implies that we have already talked about some levels and here mean to refer to those levels only, but nowhere we have talked about some levels.
ii) so that implies intention, which is incorrect here.

Doubt 3: Yes "due to" is used to show a causal relation. Whenever you see "due to" just replace it with "caused by" and then analyze whether there is any causal relation or not. If there is then "due to" is fine.

Hope that helps.
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Re: In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure   [#permalink] 18 Dec 2012, 21:39

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