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# In order to explain the socioeconomic achievement, in the face of disa

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In order to explain the socioeconomic achievement, in the face of disa  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 06 Oct 2019, 22:35
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 158, Date : 20-APR-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details

In order to explain the socioeconomic achievement, in the face of disadvantages due to racial discrimination, of Chinese and Japanese immigrants to the United States and their descendants, sociologists have typically applied either culturally based or structurally based theories—but never both together. To use an economic metaphor, culturally based explanations assert the importance of the supply side of the labor market, emphasizing the qualities immigrant groups bring with them for competition in the United States labor market. Such explanations reflect a human-capital perspective in which status attainment is seen as a result of individuals’ ability to generate resources. Structurally based explanations, on the other hand, examine the market condition of the immigrants’ host society, particularly its discriminatory practices and their impact on the status attainment process of immigrant groups. In the economic metaphor, structural explanations assert the importance of the demand side of the labor market.

In order to understand the socioeconomic mobility of Chinese and Japanese immigrants and their descendants, only an analysis of supply-side and demand-side factors together, in the context of historical events, will suffice. On the cultural or supply side, differences in immigration pattern and family formation resulted in different rates of socioeconomic achievement for Chinese and Japanese immigrants. For various reasons, Chinese immigrants remained sojourners and did not (except for urban merchants) establish families. They were also hampered by ethnic conflict in the labor market. Japanese immigrants, on the other hand, were less constrained, made the transition from sojourner to settler within the first two decades of immigration, and left low-wage labor to establish small businesses based on a household mode of production. Chinese sojourners without families were more vulnerable to demoralization, whereas Japanese immigrants faced societal hostility with the emotional resources provided by a stable family life. Once Chinese immigrants began to establish nuclear families and produce a second generation, instituting household production similar to that established by Japanese immigrants, their socioeconomic attainment soon paralleled that of Japanese immigrants and their descendants.

On the structural or demand side, changes in institutional constraints, immigration laws, labor markets, and societal hostility were rooted in the dynamics of capitalist economic development. Early capitalist development generated a demand for low-wage labor that could not be fulfilled. Early Chinese and Japanese immigration was a response to this demand. In an advanced capitalist economy, the demand for immigrant labor is more differentiated: skilled professional and technical labor fills empty positions in the primary labor market and, with the traditional unskilled low-wage labor, creates two immigrant streams. The high levels of education attained by the descendants of Chinese and Japanese immigrants and their concentration in strategic states such as California paved the way for the movement of the second generation into the expanding primary labor market in the advanced capitalist economy that existed after the Second World War.
1. Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?

(A) The socioeconomic achievement of Chinese and Japanese immigrants and their descendants is best explained by a historical examination of the economic structures prevalent in the United States when such immigrant groups arrived.
(B) The socioeconomic achievement of Chinese and Japanese immigrants and their descendants is best explained by an examination of their cultural backgrounds, in particular their level of educational attainment.
(C) The socioeconomic achievement of Chinese and Japanese immigrants and their descendants has taken place in the context of a culturally based emphasis on the economic welfare of the nuclear family.
(D) Only the market structure of the capitalist economy of the United States in which supply has historically been regulated by demand can account for the socioeconomic achievement of Chinese and Japanese immigrants and their descendants.
(E) Only an analysis that combines an examination of the culture of Chinese and Japanese immigrant groups and the socioeconomic structure of the host country can adequately explain the socioeconomic achievement of Chinese and Japanese immigrants and their descendants.

2. Which one of the following can best be described as a supply-side element in the labor market, as such elements are explained in the passage?

(A) concentration of small businesses in a given geographical area
(B) need for workers with varying degrees of skill
(C) high value placed by immigrants on work
(D) expansion of the primary labor market
(E) development of an advanced capitalist economy

3. Which one of the following best states the function of the author’s mention of “two immigrant streams” (Highlighted)?

(A) It demonstrates the effects of changes in human capital.
(B) It illustrates the operation of the primary labor market.
(C) It explains the nature of early Chinese and Japanese immigration.
(D) It characterizes the result of changing demand-side factors.
(E) It underscores an influence on the labor market.

4. It can be inferred that the author’s analysis of the socioeconomic achievement of Chinese and Japanese immigrants and their descendants differs from that of most sociologists primarily in that most sociologists

(A) address the effects of the interaction of causal factors
(B) exclude the factor of a developing capitalist economy
(C) do not apply an economic metaphor
(D) emphasize the disadvantageous effects of racial discrimination
(E) focus on a single type of theoretical explanation

5. It can be inferred that which one of the following was an element of the experience of both Chinese and Japanese immigrants in the United States?

(A) initial status as sojourners
(B) slow accumulation of capital
(C) quick transition from laborer to manager
(D) rapid establishment of nuclear families
(E) rapid acquisition of technical skills

6. The author is primarily concerned with

(A) advancing a synthesis of approaches to an issue
(B) challenging a tentative answer to a question
(C) evaluating the soundness of theories
(D) resolving the differences between schools of thought
(E) outlining the achievements of a group

• Source: LSAT Official PrepTest 12 (October 1994)
• Difficulty Level: 650

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Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 06 Oct 2019, 22:35, edited 1 time in total.
Updated - Complete topic (830).
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Re: In order to explain the socioeconomic achievement, in the face of disa  [#permalink]

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20 Apr 2019, 11:09
1
elifceylan wrote:
Hello, can someone explain why the answer of 6 is A? Thanks.

The author makes it very clear in the first 2 lines of the passage that all sociologists have till date classified the socioeconomic development of immigrants in either cultural or structural approach, but never both together. He further says in 2nd para line 1 :
"In order to understand the socioeconomic mobility of Chinese and Japanese immigrants and their descendants, only an analysis of supply-side and demand-side factors together, in the context of historical events, will suffice"

So, option A rightfully says that author is "advancing a synthesis of approaches to an issue".

Hope it helps.
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Re: In order to explain the socioeconomic achievement, in the face of disa  [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2019, 01:28
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neha283 wrote:
I got question 2 and 5 wrong.
Can someone tell why in Question 2 option C is correct and not A.
Also, in question 5, why is A correct? The passage says only Chinese remained sojourners in the beginning.

TIA

Hi neha283, look at this sentence in the 2nd paragraph of the passage:
Japanese immigrants, on the other hand, were less constrained, made the transition from sojourner to settler within the first two decades of immigration
This indicates that the Japanese also started off as sojourners.

Hope that helps.
As for Q2, even I am confused!
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Re: In order to explain the socioeconomic achievement, in the face of disa  [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2019, 18:08
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neha283

Here is Q2 and 5

Explanation

2. Which one of the following can best be described as a supply-side element in the labor market, as such elements are explained in the passage?

Explanation

If you correctly associate “supply side” with the immigrant point of view — with, as para 1 says, the “qualities immigrant groups bring with them [to the host] market” — then choice (C) must stand out. All the others refer to demand-side elements: economic realities in the host country.

• Questions like this are legion in passages that focus on a broad contrast. Be ready for them.

5. It can be inferred that which one of the following was an element of the experience of both Chinese and Japanese immigrants in the United States?

Explanation

Inferable from para 2. Chinese immigrants can only be said to have “remained sojourners” (line 25) if they had been such; likewise, if the Japanese “made the transition from sojourner” (lines 28), they must have been sojourners at some point.

(B) Apparently true of Chinese but not of Japanese immigrants.

(C) and (D) are both true of the Japanese, who quickly established small businesses, but less so of Chinese, who took longer to establish roots.

(E) Technical skills are never mentioned, but are inferably more true of Japanese, who initially advanced faster than the Chinese.

• The stem clearly refers to info in para 2, which compares the mobility of Chinese and Japanese immigrants. The gist is that the two groups assimilated at different rates, which eliminates all the wrong choices, leaving (A).

hope it helps
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Re: In order to explain the socioeconomic achievement, in the face of disa  [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2019, 00:24
1
Hi everyone,
Got all correct in 13:30 minutes.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

P1

Paragraph one tells us that sociologists want to study the discrimination used against Chinese and Japanese immigrants in the US. Sociologists use 2 approaches but never together. First one is the culturally based approach which works on the idea that the more the resources produced, the higher the status. Plus Culturally based approach=supply.
The second approach contrasts with the first one and it is called structurally based approach. It is associated with the demand and it evaluates the host country and the degree of discrimination used towards immigrants.

Brief summary: Sociologists use 2 approach to study immigrants: CB & SB

P2

Paragraph two starts with the author opinion according to which only the application of both approaches can lead to an accurate analysis of socioeconomic gains of immigrants.
We are also given 2 factors influencing socioeconomic gains: families and immigration patterns.
Through the example of Japanese and chinese sojourners we are given that families helped Japanese immigrants first and then chinese immigrants to have socioeconomic gains.

Brief summary: author's opinion and family influence on socioeconomic gains of immigrants

P3

Paragraph 3 explains the situation from the structural perspective. All the discrimination applied to immigrants had roots in the capitalist development dynamics.
There are two forms of capitalist development: early and advanced. The early capitalist development created a demand for low wages jobs that were fulfilled by Chinese and Japanese immigrants. On the other end the advanced capitalist development had space also for higher level jobs that were created after the 2nd world war.

Brief summary: The structural perspective is explained.

Main point

The main point is to analyze the socioeconomic gains for Japanese and Chinese immigrants from a Structural and cultural point of view

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?

Pre-thinking

Main point question

Refer to main point above

(A) The socioeconomic achievement of Chinese and Japanese immigrants and their descendants is best explained by a historical examination of the economic structures prevalent in the United States when such immigrant groups arrived.
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(B) The socioeconomic achievement of Chinese and Japanese immigrants and their descendants is best explained by an examination of their cultural backgrounds, in particular their level of educational attainment.
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(C) The socioeconomic achievement of Chinese and Japanese immigrants and their descendants has taken place in the context of a culturally based emphasis on the economic welfare of the nuclear family.
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(D) Only the market structure of the capitalist economy of the United States in which supply has historically been regulated by demand can account for the socioeconomic achievement of Chinese and Japanese immigrants and their descendants.
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(E) Only an analysis that combines an examination of the culture of Chinese and Japanese immigrant groups and the socioeconomic structure of the host country can adequately explain the socioeconomic achievement of Chinese and Japanese immigrants and their descendants.
in line with pre-thinking.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. Which one of the following can best be described as a supply-side element in the labor market, as such elements are explained in the passage?

Pre-thinking

Inference question

The supply side element is associated with the culturally based approach and such approach is related to the resources produced by the immigrants

(A) concentration of small businesses in a given geographical area
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(B) need for workers with varying degrees of skill
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(C) high value placed by immigrants on work
in line with pre-thinking.

(D) expansion of the primary labor market
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(E) development of an advanced capitalist economy
Not in line with pre-thinking.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. Which one of the following best states the function of the author’s mention of “two immigrant streams” (Highlighted)?

Pre-thinking

Function question

The purpose is to show that after the 2nd world war immigrants had the possibility to get high level jobs

(A) It demonstrates the effects of changes in human capital.
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(B) It illustrates the operation of the primary labor market.
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(C) It explains the nature of early Chinese and Japanese immigration.
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(D) It characterizes the result of changing demand-side factors.
Paragraph 3 concentrates on the demand side and describes the changes from the early capitalist development to the advanced capitalist development

(E) It underscores an influence on the labor market.
Not in line with pre-thinking.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. It can be inferred that the author’s analysis of the socioeconomic achievement of Chinese and Japanese immigrants and their descendants differs from that of most sociologists primarily in that most sociologists

Pre-thinking

Inference question

Refer to the following portion of the passages coming from P1 and P2.

" sociologists have typically applied either culturally based or structurally based theories—but never both together."

"In order to understand the socioeconomic mobility of Chinese and Japanese immigrants and their descendants, only an analysis of supply-side and demand-side factors together, in the context of historical events, will suffice."

(A) address the effects of the interaction of causal factors
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(B) exclude the factor of a developing capitalist economy
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(C) do not apply an economic metaphor
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(D) emphasize the disadvantageous effects of racial discrimination
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(E) focus on a single type of theoretical explanation
in line with pre-thinking.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. It can be inferred that which one of the following was an element of the experience of both Chinese and Japanese immigrants in the United States?

Pre-thinking

Inference question

They both started as sojourners

(A) initial status as sojourners
in line with pre-thinking.

(B) slow accumulation of capital
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(C) quick transition from laborer to manager
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(D) rapid establishment of nuclear families
Not in line with pre-thinking.

(E) rapid acquisition of technical skills
Not in line with pre-thinking.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. The author is primarily concerned with

Pre-thinking

Main point question/Purpose question

Refer to main point and paragraphs summaries

(A) advancing a synthesis of approaches to an issue
The author indeed proposes that both theories are used at the same time and not separately.

(B) challenging a tentative answer to a question

(C) evaluating the soundness of theories
The soundness of the approaches is not evaluated

(D) resolving the differences between schools of thought
no difference is resolved

(E) outlining the achievements of a group
Not in line with pre-thinking.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Re: In order to explain the socioeconomic achievement, in the face of disa  [#permalink]

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20 Apr 2019, 10:46
Hello, can someone explain why the answer of 6 is A? Thanks.
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Re: In order to explain the socioeconomic achievement, in the face of disa  [#permalink]

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20 Apr 2019, 11:12
I got question 2 and 5 wrong.
Can someone tell why in Question 2 option C is correct and not A.
Also, in question 5, why is A correct? The passage says only Chinese remained sojourners in the beginning.

TIA
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Re: In order to explain the socioeconomic achievement, in the face of disa  [#permalink]

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24 May 2019, 04:13
I got Q2 and Q3 wrong. My take on Q3:

3. Which one of the following best states the function of the author’s mention of “two immigrant streams” (Highlighted)?
(A) It demonstrates the effects of changes in human capital. almost, but human capital (supply) isn't said to have changed; rather it is said that one generation helped the following generation
(B) It illustrates the operation of the primary labor market. if anything “two immigrant streams” refers to both "primary" - skilled - and low-skilled, and not something within only "primary"
(C) It explains the nature of early Chinese and Japanese immigration. we are told that the ones who established in the primary market helped others join the force
(D) It characterizes the result of changing demand-side factors. correct: demand for skilled labour force prompted two labour markets
(E) It underscores an influence on the labor market.
Re: In order to explain the socioeconomic achievement, in the face of disa   [#permalink] 24 May 2019, 04:13