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# In parts of the Caribbean, the manatee, an endangered marine

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In parts of the Caribbean, the manatee, an endangered marine [#permalink]

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14 Sep 2012, 03:24
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In parts of the Caribbean, the manatee, an endangered marine mammal, has long been hunted for its meat. Having noted the manatee hunters’ expert knowledge of manatees’ habits, local conservationists are encouraging the hunters to stop hunting and instead to take tourists on boat rides to see manatees. Tourist interest is high, so the plan has promise of achieving the twin goals of giving the former hunters a good income and helping ensure the manatees’ survival.

Which of the following, if true, raises the most serious doubt about the plan’s chance of success?
A. Many tourists who visit these parts of the Caribbean are uninterested in manatees
and would not be willing to pay what the former manatee hunters would have to
charge for boat rides to see manatees.
B. Recovery of the species would enable some hunting to continue without putting
the manatees’ survival in jeopardy again.
C. In areas where manatees have traditionally been hunted for food, local people
could easily replace the manatee meat in their diets with other foods obtained
from the sea.
D. There would not be enough former manatee hunters to act as guides for all the
tourists who want to see manatees.
E. To maintain their current income, manatee hunters who switched to guiding
tourists would have to use far larger boats and make many more trips into the
manatees’ fragile habitat than they currently do.
If you have any questions
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Re: In parts of the Caribbean, the manatee, an endangered marine [#permalink]

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14 Sep 2012, 12:38
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The key to this question is noticing the words 'twin goals.' The correct answer must show how both goals are being undermined.

(A) is a very alluring answer choice. After all, if tourists do not want to see the manatees then the plan of providing manatee tours falls apart. But remember, the conclusion is based on twin goals: 1. Giving hunters a good income 2. Ensuring manatee's survival. If many tourists are uninterested in manatees, then that doesn't completely compromise both goals. After all, some manatee tours may still carry on, albeit with mixed results and manatees may actually end up being less endangered than before (assuming that those manatee tour guides who are working won't be hunting).

(E) shows that the hunters will not receive a good income. Indeed, they will struggle to make the same amount as they were before. And by struggle, they will have to get a bigger boat and make more frequent trips, which will destroy the manatees habitat. Remember, the whole point of the plan was to protect the manatees. Now not only do you have financially struggling tour guides but you've further jeopardized the manatee population.

Hope that helps .
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Re: In parts of the Caribbean, the manatee, an endangered marine [#permalink]

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14 Sep 2012, 22:04
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Premise - In parts of the Caribbean, the manatee, an endangered marine mammal, has long been hunted for its meat. Having noted the manatee hunters’ expert knowledge of manatees’ habits, local conservationists are encouraging the hunters to stop hunting and instead to take tourists on boat rides to see manatees.

Conclusion - Tourist interest is high, so the plan has promise of achieving the twin goals of giving the former hunters a good income and helping ensure the manatees’ survival.

Anything which weakens the conclusion is our answer

A)Many tourists who visit these parts of the Caribbean are uninterested in manatees and would not be willing to pay what the former manatee hunters would have to charge for boat rides to see manatees. (Wrong as it is already given in the passage that Tourist interest is high)
B) Recovery of the species would enable some hunting to continue without putting the manatees’ survival in jeopardy again. (Neutral statement)
C) In areas where manatees have traditionally been hunted for food, local people could easily replace the manatee meat in their diets with other foods obtained from the sea. (Rather than weakening it strengthens the conclusion, eliminate)
D) There would not be enough former manatee hunters to act as guides for all the tourists who want to see manatees. (Not relevant)
E) To maintain their current income, manatee hunters who switched to guiding tourists would have to use far larger boats and make many more trips into the manatees’ fragile habitat than they currently do (This is our answer, if the incentives the hunters receive as tourist guides is less or the trouble is more they might not switch the occupation)
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Re: In parts of the Caribbean, the manatee, an endangered marine [#permalink]

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16 Sep 2012, 05:22
A- Defeats one of the 2 goals that are part of the conclusion – A negative effect on the income of manatee hunters.
B- Does not cast serious doubt on the conclusion of the above argument. In fact “B” is completely removed from the scope of the argument.
C- Absolutely irrelevant
D- Strengthens the argument.
E- Correct as “E” goes a step further than “A” and defeats the other goal of safeguarding the manatees.
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Re: In parts of the Caribbean, the manatee, an endangered marine [#permalink]

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17 Sep 2012, 00:22
akrish1982 wrote:
In parts of the Caribbean, the manatee, an endangered marine mammal, has long been hunted for its meat. Having noted the manatee hunters’ expert knowledge of manatees’ habits, local conservationists are encouraging the hunters to stop hunting and instead to take tourists on boat rides to see manatees. Tourist interest is high, so the plan has promise of achieving the twin goals of giving the former hunters a good income and helping ensure the manatees’ survival.

Which of the following, if true, raises the most serious doubt about the plan’s chance of success?
A. Many tourists who visit these parts of the Caribbean are uninterested in manatees
and would not be willing to pay what the former manatee hunters would have to
charge for boat rides to see manatees.
B. Recovery of the species would enable some hunting to continue without putting
the manatees’ survival in jeopardy again.
C. In areas where manatees have traditionally been hunted for food, local people
could easily replace the manatee meat in their diets with other foods obtained
from the sea.
D. There would not be enough former manatee hunters to act as guides for all the
tourists who want to see manatees.
E. To maintain their current income, manatee hunters who switched to guiding
tourists would have to use far larger boats and make many more trips into the
manatees’ fragile habitat than they currently do.

A- is a very attractive choice but if you ready carefully, it actually goes against the premise stated in the argument .

E - is the best answer as they would not be able to maintain their former levels of income.
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In parts of the Caribbean, the manatee, an endangered marine mammal [#permalink]

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09 May 2015, 23:33
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In parts of the Caribbean, the manatee, an endangered marine mammal, has long been hunted for its meat. Having noted the manatee hunters’ expert knowledge of manatees’ habits, local conservationists are encouraging the hunters to stop hunting and instead to take tourists on boat rides to see manatees. Tourist interest is high, so the plan has promise of achieving the twin goals of giving the former hunters a good income and helping ensure the manatees’ survival.

Which of the following, if true, raises the most serious doubt about the plan’s chance of success?

A. Many tourists who visit these parts of the Caribbean are uninterested in manatees and would not be willing to pay what the former manatee hunters would have to charge for boat rides to see manatees.

B. Recovery of the species would enable some hunting to continue without putting the manatees’ survival in jeopardy again.

C. In areas where manatees have traditionally been hunted for food, local people could easily replace the manatee meat in their diets with other foods obtained from the sea.

D. There would not be enough former manatee hunters to act as guides for all the tourists who want to see manatees.

E. To maintain their current income, manatee hunters who switched to guiding tourists would have to use far larger boats and make many more trips into the manatees’ fragile habitat than they currently do.

Edit: Merging topics. Please, refer to the discussion above: https://gmatclub.com/forum/in-parts-of- ... 38914.html
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Re: In parts of the Caribbean, the manatee, an endangered marine mammal [#permalink]

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10 May 2015, 06:20
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A is irrelevant; the stem tells us 'tourist interest is high', so it doesn't matter if some tourists are uninterested. B and C are both obviously good things; if these are true, it's even more likely the plan will succeed. D is also a good thing for the proposal, since it means there will be so much demand for tours that the hunters alone won't be able to fill the demand. So they should get lots of work as tour guides.

Only E weakens the argument. It suggests that it is possible that neither of the 'twin goals' of the proposal will be achieved - the tours might not provide the hunters with sufficient income, and might harm the manatee habitat, further endangering the species.
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Re: In parts of the Caribbean, the manatee, an endangered marine mammal [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2015, 09:36
Which of the following, if true, raises the most serious doubt about the plan’s chance of success?

A. Many tourists who visit these parts of the Caribbean are uninterested in manatees and would
not be willing to pay what the former manatee hunters would have to charge for boat rides
to see manatees.
< Many/some mean is similar in GMAT CR context. So while some may be unintrested, others may be intrested.>

B. Recovery of the species would enable some hunting to continue without putting the
manatees’ survival in jeopardy again.
<Not related to the question>

C. In areas where manatees have traditionally been hunted for food, local people could easily
replace the manatee meat in their diets with other foods obtained from the sea.
< this will help in repopulating manatees, but the income of hunters will not improve>

D. There would not be enough former manatee hunters to act as guides for all the tourists who
want to see manatees.
< this is reverse. In such a scenario it would help hunters get more income>

E. To maintain their current income, manatee hunters who switched to guiding tourists would
have to use far larger boats and make many more trips into the manatees’ fragile habitat
than they currently do.
< CORRECT ANSWER . The hunters will have to use larger boats to keep their income same, which is a negative. Also the use of larger boats will cause problems to the habitat. So if this is true, the plan will not succeed.>
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Re: In parts of the Caribbean, the manatee, an endangered marine mammal [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2015, 13:41
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manishkhare wrote:
The plan is based on the premise that tourist will be interested in watching manatees .
What if many of the tourists are not interested ?

I think you've explained why it is irrelevant if 'many tourists are not interested' - as you point out, it is a premise of the argument that 'Tourist interest is high'. A premise is a fact; it must be true. So even if many people are not interested, we know as an absolute fact that tourist interest is high, so it must be true that many people are interested. And as long as many tourists are interested, the plan can succeed.

This is a very important point in GMAT CR. When you are trying to weaken an argument, you are never trying to disprove the premises of the argument. Any answer that appears to contradict a premise cannot be the right answer (and if you think an answer contradicts a premise, you've misinterpreted what the answer choice means). Many trap answers in questions like these are answers which superficially appear to contradict a premise, and you can rule those answers out immediately.
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Re: In parts of the Caribbean, the manatee, an endangered marine mammal [#permalink]

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01 Jul 2015, 04:54
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In parts of the Caribbean, the manatee, an endangered marine mammal, has long been hunted for
its meat. Having noted the manatee hunters’ expert knowledge of manatees’ habits, local
conservationists are encouraging the hunters to stop hunting and instead to take tourists on boat
rides to see manatees. Tourist interest is high, so the plan has promise of achieving the twin goals of
giving the former hunters a good income and helping ensure the manatees’ survival.

Which of the following, if true, raises the most serious doubt about the plan’s chance of success?

By taking the tourists on excursions into manatee habitats instead of hunting the manatees, hunters can continue to make good income but not harm the manatees.

A. Many tourists who visit these parts of the Caribbean are uninterested in manatees and would
not be willing to pay what the former manatee hunters would have to charge for boat rides
to see manatees. We're told that tourist interest is high.

B. Recovery of the species would enable some hunting to continue without putting the
manatees’ survival in jeopardy again.
This doesn't address whether tours do more or less harm compared to hunting.

C. In areas where manatees have traditionally been hunted for food, local people could easily
replace the manatee meat in their diets with other foods obtained from the sea.
This doesn't address the relative damage of tours to hunting.

D. There would not be enough former manatee hunters to act as guides for all the tourists who
want to see manatees.
This doesn't affect the argument that tours do less damage than hunting.

E. To maintain their current income, manatee hunters who switched to guiding tourists would
have to use far larger boats and make many more trips into the manatees’ fragile habitat
than they currently do.
If the tours damage the habitat the hunters are doing equal or greater damage to manatees.
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Re: In parts of the Caribbean, the manatee, an endangered marine mammal [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2015, 05:01
choice a is typical of a case in which a choice looks weakening but in fact not weakening.
choice e truely is weakening but choice A has not weakening. choice A is hard to eliminate. gmat create this case many times and it is hard for us to realize a choice look weakening but in fact not weakening.
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Re: In parts of the Caribbean, the manatee, an endangered marine [#permalink]

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03 Nov 2015, 02:11
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: In parts of the Caribbean, the manatee, an endangered marine [#permalink]

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03 Nov 2015, 03:21
Great example of a question where one can too quickly get convinced of answer A and therefore doesn't read precise enough until the end. Great lecture for me. Clearly E is much better than A.

Thank you guys
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Re: In parts of the Caribbean, the manatee, an endangered marine mammal [#permalink]

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21 Jul 2016, 07:50
IanStewart wrote:

I think you've explained why it is irrelevant if 'many tourists are not interested' - as you point out, it is a premise of the argument that 'Tourist interest is high'. A premise is a fact; it must be true. So even if many people are not interested, we know as an absolute fact that tourist interest is high, so it must be true that many people are interested. And as long as many tourists are interested, the plan can succeed.

This is a very important point in GMAT CR. When you are trying to weaken an argument, you are never trying to disprove the premises of the argument. Any answer that appears to contradict a premise cannot be the right answer (and if you think an answer contradicts a premise, you've misinterpreted what the answer choice means). Many trap answers in questions like these are answers which superficially appear to contradict a premise, and you can rule those answers out immediately.

You are saying exactly the opposite of what is required to weaken an argument. The best way to weaken an argument is to weaken the premises.
Even this question says so itself -"Which of the following IF TRUE ...."
Heck !! GMAT itself is telling the test taker to take the answer choices in given options as "True".
Perhaps you have forgotten that NEW INFORMATION can be liberally used in weaken,strengthen,assumption,justify, paradox, and evaluate the argument family of question.
A is incorrect because of contraposition in logic :- MANY IS NOT THE LOGICAL OPPOSITE OF ALL
The logical opposite of ALL is NOT ALL
In syllogistic and propositional logic ==>Many = some
So Option A is saying some tourist might not want to see the animal. This does not weaken the argument.
The correct answer is E but not because of the reasons you are telling. I humbly suggest you take a quick look into tautology and truth-tables to rectify your misconception.
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Last edited by LogicGuru1 on 22 Jul 2016, 14:52, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: In parts of the Caribbean, the manatee, an endangered marine mammal [#permalink]

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22 Jul 2016, 13:43
As far as the GMAT is concerned, what you are saying is not true. From the tone of your post, I don't get the impression you're interested in a civil conversation, so I won't try to have one, but if you're interested in further explanation, perhaps you can find another GMAT expert who is willing to discuss this with you.

I'm only replying to affirm that what I wrote above is correct, at least as far as GMAT CR arguments are concerned, for the benefit of other test takers who might read this thread.
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Re: In parts of the Caribbean, the manatee, an endangered marine mammal [#permalink]

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22 Jul 2016, 14:47
IanStewart wrote:
As far as the GMAT is concerned, what you are saying is not true. From the tone of your post, I don't get the impression you're interested in a civil conversation, so I won't try to have one, but if you're interested in further explanation, perhaps you can find another GMAT expert who is willing to discuss this with you.

I'm only replying to affirm that what I wrote above is correct, at least as far as GMAT CR arguments are concerned, for the benefit of other test takers who might read this thread.

I am very humbly and civilly resting my case. Your answer is wrong. I have no doubts about it and perhaps a quick brushing of your concept will make you realise that you made a novice mistake in evaluating, analysing and applying the concept of GMAT logic and reasoning. If you still insist that you have NOT made the gravest and most unpardonable error regarding the use of new information in weaken questions, then I too have nothing to add to this discussion. You can confirm your mistake by contacting a unbiased referee or expert from this forum (only if you are interested to)

Like the rule of thermodynamics doesn't change whether you are talking about a small test-tube filled with gas or a carnot engine or a heat sink or the entire universe, similarly the rules of logic doesn't change whether you are talking about philosophical, mathematical, propositional, syllogistic, GMAT, LSAT or any other kind of logic. Thats the beauty of logic that along with math, it is probably the only subject that does not have weird exceptions when it comes to its rules. LOGIC NEVER CHANGE.

HOWEVER FOR THE BENEFIT OF OTHER USERS/READERS COMING ACROSS THIS QUESTION, I MUST ADD THAT YOUR REASONING IS ABSOLUTELY INCORRECT AND HENCE SHOULD NOT BE FOLLOWED. (AT LEAST FOR THIS QUESTION FOR THE TIME BEING!!)
IN THE PRESENT FORM THE ABOVE MENTIONED ANSWER IS MOST HALF BAKED AND ILL-INFORMED POST IN THIS ENTIRE THREAD AND SHOULD BE AVOIDED WITHOUT FAIL.
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Re: In parts of the Caribbean, the manatee, an endangered marine mammal [#permalink]

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22 Jul 2016, 15:26
IanStewart wrote:
As far as the GMAT is concerned, what you are saying is not true. From the tone of your post, I don't get the impression you're interested in a civil conversation, so I won't try to have one, but if you're interested in further explanation, perhaps you can find another GMAT expert who is willing to discuss this with you.

I'm only replying to affirm that what I wrote above is correct, at least as far as GMAT CR arguments are concerned, for the benefit of other test takers who might read this thread.

@IanStewat sir,

Sir I just wanted to clear some air here. I feel that you and LogicGuru are both correct. For example for the question below:

Major airlines will purchase many of the new aircrafts capable of carrying more than 500 passengers on transcontinental and transoceanic flights. These airlines currently rely on "hub and spoke" systems of routing, in which large planes, which can seat 400 people and are capable of transoceanic flight, fly into hubs that have runways sufficiently long to handle them. From there, passengers are dispatched to local airports on connecting flights on small planes. With takeoff and landing time slots almost completely booked at most hubs, and little new runway construction expected, airlines will want to expand the volume of passengers they can fly in a given time slot.

The argument above would be most weakened if which of the following were true?

A. The new 500 seat aircraft cost more per seat than existing aircraft
B. Air traffic control systems at most hub airports cannot handle any more flights per hour than they currently do
C. The new 500 seat aircraft require boarding times substantially longer than those of existing aircraft
D. Small passenger aircraft, capable of efficient transcontinental and transoceanic flight and able to land on short runways, have come into service
E. Transoceanic air flights are currently running at near maximum capacity

OA is D.

Here D is giving us some new information that can be used to weaken the argument. I feel that LogicGuru's explanation is correct in the sense that option A is incorrect because opposite of 'All' is ' Not All' which basically leads to some/many. Since even if some people lose interest, even then it is not weakening the argument.

Kindly provide some insight since you guys are the experts!
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Re: In parts of the Caribbean, the manatee, an endangered marine mammal [#permalink]

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22 Jul 2016, 16:24
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This is a peculiar conversation. I have the impression that LogicGuru has not understood what I've written, especially when he claims I said anything "regarding the use of new information" in a CR question. And Raghav, I appreciate your effort to be diplomatic, but when you say that LogicGuru is (partly) right when discussing "new information", you're saying he is right about a straw man, about words he put in my mouth, words that I never said. If you read my original posts, I never said anything about "new information".

In case anyone else has misunderstood what I wrote, I'll say it again, with more detail: in a weaken CR question, the premises in the stem should always be taken as absolute facts. The correct answer, the answer which weakens the argument, is never correct because it contradicts or disproves one of the facts stated in the stem. To illustrate with a very simple example, suppose you have this CR stem:

Tim will make lemonade at a cost to him of $1 per glass. Because he will sell the lemonade at$2 per glass, he expects to make a profit. Which of the following, if true, would suggest Tim is incorrect?

What I'm saying is fundamental to GMAT CR, and is in no way controversial; any other reputable GMAT expert will tell you exactly the same thing. If LogicGuru wishes to continue to insist I'm wrong about this, then there is a straightforward way for him or her to prove that: find a single official CR weaken question where the correct answer (or any answer choice) contradicts one of the factual premises stated in the stem. Or, since it will take an eternity to find such an example, a faster way would be to ask any other GMAT expert, if you are not inclined to believe me.
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Re: In parts of the Caribbean, the manatee, an endangered marine [#permalink]

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13 Mar 2017, 11:50
Pls elaborate...

why is A) incorrect.
Though premise says tourist interest is high ,that may be for the place,not for Manatee and as a) mentions people are not interested in seeing the manatee..thus hunters income wont increase which means they would hunt and thus the manatees wont survive
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In parts of the Caribbean, the manatee, an endangered marine [#permalink]

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15 Mar 2017, 16:54
In parts of the Caribbean, the manatee, an endangered marine mammal, has long been hunted for its meat. Having noted the manatee hunters’ expert knowledge of manatees’ habits, local conservationists are encouraging the hunters to stop hunting and instead to take tourists on boat rides to see manatees. Tourist interest is high, so the plan has promise of achieving the twin goals of giving the former hunters a good income and helping ensure the manatees’ survival.

Which of the following, if true, raises the most serious doubt about the plan’s chance of success?

A. Many tourists who visit these parts of the Caribbean are uninterested in manatees and would not be willing to pay what the former manatee hunters would have to charge for boat rides to see manatees.
The choice is alluring since it questions the feasibilty of the plane by providing a point that the hunters will not be earning as mush as they are doing now.But we cannot select this until reading all the choices.and after reading all the choices we find that option E is a better choice.Since the ultimate goal is to protect mantee and not provide employment to the hunters.

B. Recovery of the species would enable some hunting to continue without putting the manatees’ survival in jeopardy again.
out of the current scope

C. In areas where manatees have traditionally been hunted for food, local people could easily replace the manatee meat in their diets with other foods obtained
from the sea
.
This is actually a strengthener because is supports the plan.

D. There would not be enough former manatee hunters to act as guides for all the tourists who want to see manatees.
This point does not weakens the point because other hunters can be trained easily to act as travel guides.

E. To maintain their current income, manatee hunters who switched to guiding tourists would have to use far larger boats and make many more trips into the manatees’ fragile habitat than they currently do.
Correct answer since not only the hunters turned guide would not be earning as much as they are earning currently but also they would have to use bigger boats to make up for their profits.Bigger boats are threat tho the fragile natural habitat of mantee.
In parts of the Caribbean, the manatee, an endangered marine   [#permalink] 15 Mar 2017, 16:54

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