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In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a

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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Oct 2018, 07:01
In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a ninja festival, a celebration of Japan’s heritage that reflects on its feudal past while exalting its pop culture driven present. But clearly only children take this festival seriously, for they are the only attendees who bother to dress up as ninjas.
given condition is : if you dont wear > you are not serious about fest

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously. : the argument is talking about people WHO DO NOT WEAR . We have no idea about people WHO WEAR . They may or may not be serious.

(B) No attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja. : Wearing stuff IS NECESSARY CONdition
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In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Nov 2018, 22:58
In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a ninja festival, a celebration of Japan’s heritage that reflects on its feudal past while exalting its pop culture driven present. But clearly only children take this festival seriously, for they are the only attendees who bother to dress up as ninjas.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
--
Explanation:
Nice question - For a moment say the conclusion is
"But clearly children take this festival seriously [A-], because they dress up as ninjas [B-]."
Now, this is a regular causal relation - Effect [A-] is because of Cause[B-]. So we can assume - Cause causes the effect. i.e. if children are dressed up as Ninja , you can infer children will take the festival seriously.

However our conclusion is - But clearly only children take this festival seriously[A-], for they are the only attendees who bother to dress up as ninjas[B-].
Note the word only here. We can no longer say that B- has caused A-. so option a is out directly.
The meaning of the conclusion is as below -
** Children are the only ones who are dressed up as Ninjas.But there may be children who take festival seriously or who do not take festival seriously.
** A- is the subset of B-.

Let's look at the options now -
---


(A) Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously. - Incorrect as explained above

(B) No attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja. - Correct
-- If A (children taking the festival seriously) is subset of B (children dressed in ninja). B has to be true - So an correct assumption

(C) Anyone who is not dressed up as a ninja is not attending the festival - Wrong
-- We are not bothered about just attending.

(D) The festival organizers have instituted a ninja-themed dress code.
-- irrelevant

(E) If an attendee is not dressed as a ninja, then that attendee will not be taken seriously by other attendees.
-- irrelevant
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In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jun 2019, 21:20
Some of the explanations here are ridiculously complicated.

The argument states: "Clearly only children take this festival seriously, for they are the only attendees who bother to dress up as ninjas."

This actively assumes that dressing up as a Ninja is a requirement/ indicator for those who take this festival seriously.

Passively, we can make many assumptions required for this argument to hold, but here are a few:
- People who do not dress up as a ninja do not take the festival seriously (most inadvertent)
- People who don't walk around the festival holding a samurai sword are serious attendees

(A) and (B) Match these pre-thought assumptions closest.

More complicated reasoning why (A) is incorrect and (B) is right:
The argument uses conditional reasoning. "If A occurs then B will definitely occur" thus if B occurs it is sufficient to say A has occured.

Only Children take the festival seriously, for they are the only attendees who bother to dress up as ninjas
It is sufficient to say someone takes the festival seriously if they dress up as a ninja (necessary condition)

Here's a simpler example from powerscore:
Logical relationship of sufficient and necessary conditions.
If someone gets an A+ on the test, then they must have studied for the test.
Thus, getting an A+ on the test is sufficient to say that someone must have studied


(A) states: Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously. This reverses the necessary and sufficient conditions whereas (B) reinforces the Sufficient-necessary relationship above by denying the possibility of any other state. (B) No attendee who takes the festival seriously (sufficient) would fail to dress up as a ninja (necessary)

Less complicated reasoning why (A) is incorrect and (B) is right:
Try negating each answer:
(A) Not Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously.

So some who dress up as a ninja take the event seriously, some don't. The ambiguity of the number of attendees who could potentially take the events seriously but who fail to dress up as a ninja isn't clear.

(B) Someattendee(s) who take the festival seriously would not fail to dress up as a ninja.

Therefore its clear that if people were serious they would dress up as ninjas.
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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Sep 2019, 21:43
Any easy way to differentiate between option A and B is as follows.

Option A says that ANYONE who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously. This option is wrong because the ambit of people dressed up as ninjas is not only restricted to people who attend the festival. There could be people who DO NOT attend the festival or may even NOT KNOW about the festival but dress up as ninjas for some other occasion or they might just be a ninja by profession.

Option B, on the other hand, says that any person who ATTENDS the festival and takes the festival seriously (attends the festival is implied and not stated directly) WILL NOT fail to dress up as a ninja.
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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Sep 2019, 14:22
GMATNinja, GMATNinjaTwo, gmat1393, nightblade354

Hi - I have a basic question. How do you infer whether a condition is necessary or sufficient?

Thanks.
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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Sep 2019, 16:15
kanikab wrote:
GMATNinja, GMATNinjaTwo, gmat1393, nightblade354

Hi - I have a basic question. How do you infer whether a condition is necessary or sufficient?

Thanks.


See my CR guide and click on the 7sage link. This gives a general overview. There’s also a list that has most conditions, but the intuition is described in the article.

Posted from my mobile device
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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Oct 2019, 19:24
Let's take a look at this question from a strategic point of view that highlights common patterns on the GMAT. Our first strategic item of business is to identify leverage in the question stem to identify the problem type. This question isn't subtle; after all, the question asks for an "assumption on which the argument depends." "Required Assumption" questions are a sub-type of traditional Strengthen questions, but for those of you studying for the GMAT, it might be worth noting that Required Assumption questions play by slightly different rules.

If a question asks you for an unstated fact (in other words, an "assumption") upon which an argument "depends", that is a pretty high bar. With regular Strengthen questions, any answer choice that helps the conclusion to be valid can strengthen the argument. However, when a problem asks for an assumption on which the argument "depends" or "relies", you are looking for an answer choice that is FUNDAMENTALLY CRITICAL to the viability of the conclusion.

In this argument, the conclusion is "clearly only children take this festival seriously." The word "clearly" is our trigger word that identifies this as a conclusion. Notice that conclusion contains the word "only" -- an extreme scope limiter that has a very high bar of proof.

Now that we have identified the conclusion, the gap in the logic should be fairly obvious: even though the "only" attendees in ninja costumes are children doesn't necessarily mean that "only" the children take the festival seriously. In my classes, I call this type of error "Correlation is not Causation." Just because just the children dress up doesn't mean that their costumes -- and and their costumes alone -- prove that they are the "only" serious fans. (Think about it: you don't have to dress as Darth Vader to prove you are a serious Star Wars fan any more than you have to carry around a block of cheddar to prove you like cheese!) Could there be other ways that a "serious" fan might show his/her colors? Who says that dressing up is the only way? What if their parents are the super-fans who subject their kids to embarrassing costumes? The kids themselves could still hate ninjas! Wearing a costume isn't necessarily the only proof that you love ninjas!

The argument requires a statement that shows that dressing up as a ninja is the "only" way to demonstrate that a fan is "serious." The correct answer choice will do this. Anything else is a trap.

Answer choice A is a beautiful trap answer. It states, "Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously." At first glance, this sounds really good. After all, this proves that the kids who dress up are serious fans. But this answer DOESN'T prove that the kids are the "only" serious fans. This strengthens the argument, since, after all, it shows that the kids aren't just being dressed up by their parents. But it fails to show that dressing up is the "only" sign of a serious fan. What if there are other ways that a fan can be identified? This answer falls short of being an assumption upon with the argument "depends."

Answer choice B is the right answer, but it is deliberately worded in an obnoxious way. (I call this deceptive technique "Convoluted Camouflage" in my classes.) Notice how B uses a double negative to intentionally hide what is really happening. ("No attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja" could also be translated "All attendees who take the festival seriously would dress up as a ninja.") This fits the criteria we are looking for. Since this shows that dressing up as a ninjas is the "only" way to demonstrate that a fan is serious, we have our answer.

Answer choice C also uses a double negative to intentionally hide what is really happening. But in this case, answer choice C is overkill. The argument doesn't "depend" on the fact that only ninja-costumed fans attend the festival. Answer choice C also doesn't focus on the logical gap. It says nothing about whether dressing up is the "only" way to demonstrate that a fan is "serious." Get rid of it.

Likewise, answer choice D does nothing to address the logical gap. Whether a dress code exists might be interesting background information, but -- dress code or no dress code -- D is not a fact required by the argument. Get rid of this as well.

Answer choice E uses a subtle shift of wordplay to trap novice test takers. The original argument is trying to connect wearing ninjas costumes with being a "serious" attendee. However, being a "serious" attendee is not the same thing as being "taken seriously" by other attendees. The similar verbiage is a distracting trap, but in the end it still doesn't focus on the logical gap. E is also gone.

So, we have our answer. Only B truly answers the question, giving us a statement upon which the argument "depends."

Now, for those of you studying for the GMAT, here is a review of some of the major takeaways with this question: First, notice the difference in approach between Strengthen questions and Required Assumption questions. Of course, these two question types are related. Both question types require you to recognize the logical gap between the conclusion and the rest of the argument. But Required Assumption questions have a higher standard. One answer (A) could arguably strengthen the argument, but that is not sufficient. 3 of the 5 answer choices (C, D, and E) fail to focus on the logical gap presented in the question stem. In the end, there is only one answer upon which the argument "depends": answer choice "B". It's true meaning is hidden by some "Convoluted Camouflage", but that is a normal pattern of the GMAT. This problem is a great reminder for making sure you know exactly what the question is asking and not getting distracted by other things.
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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a   [#permalink] 17 Oct 2019, 19:24

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