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# QOTD: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly

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QOTD: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly  [#permalink]

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31 Dec 2017, 22:21
31
00:00

Difficulty:

65% (hard)

Question Stats:

46% (01:09) correct 54% (01:13) wrong based on 701 sessions

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Verbal Question of The Day: Day 190: Sentence Correction

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In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.

(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics

(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers

(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics

(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers

(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers

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The New Yorker SEPTEMBER 26, 1983 ISSUE
https://archives.newyorker.com/?iid=16243&crd=0&searchKey=as%20hybrid%20vigor#folio=088
Attachment:

002.jpg [ 75.09 KiB | Viewed 192 times ]

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Re: QOTD: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly  [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2018, 09:17
10
9
I’ve always kind of hated this question. It’s not that it’s illegitimate or anything like that. It’s just a spectacularly annoying question, because fundamental grammar rules aren’t terribly useful for dealing with most of the answer choices. We have to fight with some goofy meaning issues that aren’t very straightforward.

So I’ll approach this particular explanation differently than usual. Instead of launching right into the answer choices, we’ll use a few stripped-down sentences to illustrate the principles at work in this question. So take a look at these puppies first:

1. Arpit studies hard so that he should get a good GMAT score.
2. Arpit studies hard because he should get a good GMAT score.
3. Arpit studies hard because of getting a good GMAT score.
4. Arpit studies hard in order to get a good GMAT score.
5. Arpit studies hard to get a good GMAT score.

The first three are all at least a little bit illogical if you think strictly and literally about the meaning of the sentences. “Should” implies some sort of value judgment, and that’s not appropriate here: Arpit studies in order to obtain a good GMAT score, NOT because he “should” get a good GMAT score. For that reason, #1 & #2 are wrong.

Similarly, Arpit doesn't study hard “because of getting a good GMAT score.” If we think about that phrase literally (in sentence #3), the sequencing is wrong, because it suggests that getting a good GMAT score is the cause, and “Arpit studies hard” is the effect. And that makes no sense at all.

But #4 and #5 both make plenty of sense, because they clarify that Arpit studies in order to achieve the goal of a good GMAT score. We probably don’t need the phrase “in order to”, when just “to” would suffice. But either #4 or #5 are fine.

If you feel clear about everything I just wrote, then stop, and retry the original question above. If it still doesn’t work for you, then keep reading…

Quote:
(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics

Before we get into the meaning stuff, there’s a nice parallelism error that we can work with: “…in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding…” That’s not pretty.

And perhaps more importantly, the meaning makes no sense here, largely because of the word “should.” (See example #1, above.) So (A) is out.

Quote:
(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers

(B) has the same parallelism error as (A): in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers and partly because crossbreeding…” That’s still not pretty, and it’s enough to eliminate (B).

For whatever it’s worth, I’m also not crazy about the phrase “for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers.” You wouldn’t say “Arpit studies hard for getting a good GMAT score”, right? It makes much more sense to say “Arpit studies hard to get a good GMAT score” – and it would make more sense to say “cattle breeders have used crossbreeding… to acquire characteristics in their steers…”

In any case, the parallelism is enough to eliminate (B), and we definitely have better options below.

Quote:
(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics

(C) has exactly the same problem as example #3, above. (C) seems to get the causality confused, because it suggests that the steers acquired certain characteristics first, and because of that, ranchers decided to use crossbreeding. That’s illogical: the steers acquired characteristics because the ranchers used crossbreeding, and not the other way around.

So (C) is gone.

Quote:
(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers

(D) has the same problem as examples #1 and #2 above. The use of “should” is just wrong here, because it implies some sort of value judgment: maybe my wife thinks that I “should” be more efficient at changing dirty diapers, or maybe you think that I “should” eat less bhindi masala. (Personally, I think that I “should” eat more bhindi masala, but that’s just my opinion.)

But that makes no sense in this case: ranchers are using crossbreeding in order to accomplish something, not because they “should” accomplish something. For that reason, (D) can be eliminated.

Quote:
(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers

Here we go, this one looks more like #5 in our examples above. The parallelism is fine now (“partly” and “partly” are parallel), and it’s clear that the ranchers are crossbreeding for the purpose of acquiring characteristics in their steers.

It sounds terrible, in my opinion. (But by now you probably know that your ear is not your friend on GMAT SC, right?) Because (E) is the only answer choice that makes logical sense, it is the correct answer.
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##### General Discussion
Senior Manager
Joined: 29 Jun 2017
Posts: 414
Re: QOTD: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly  [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2018, 01:08
1
souvik101990 wrote:

Verbal Question of The Day: Day 190: Sentence Correction

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In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.

(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics

(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers

(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics

(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers

(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers

Every question of the day will be followed by an expert reply by GMATNinja in 12-15 hours. Stay tuned! Post your answers and explanations to earn kudos.

this old question is hard and typical of meaning test on sc.
the meaning errors on sc can be :
meaning is not logic
meaning is unclear
meaning is redundant
all the choices are grammatical. try to find meaning error.
logically breeder accquired characteristics " is logic. it not logic that steer acquire characteristics. A and D suffer illogic meaning error
in B, " for acquisition" is unclear. who do acquisition. unclear meaning. b is gone
in C, "because of there steers" is not logic. we can say "because of their will to have the characteristic" we can not say "because of their steers" . because of can stand before a noun. but it dose not mean "because of" can stand every noun" . using our common sense of this world to know which noun can stand after "because of". this is so simple that you dont believe that gmat test this point. but gmat do test this point to make our writen english logic.
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Re: QOTD: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly  [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2018, 09:49
+1 for E. My take:

Logical meaning - In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used cross breeding for two reasons :

1) To ensure the presence of certain traits in their steers.
2) cross breeding provides extra vigor.

Error analysis:

Notice the presence of parallelism marker "and". We need partly after comma and in the beginning of the underlined portion.

POE:

Option A : Wrong for the reason mentioned

Option B : Wrong for the reason mentioned

Option C : Meaning error. Cross breading is not done because of something but with an intention to accomplish something

Option D : Meaning error as in C. Moreover, "should" conveys the wrong meaning. It conveys some sort of compulsion. Intention is not conveyed here.

Option E : Correct

Hence the correct answer is option E.
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Re: QOTD: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly  [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2018, 11:35
GMATNinja wrote:

Quote:
(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers

Here we go, this one looks more like #5 in our examples above. The parallelism is fine now (“partly” and “partly” are parallel), and it’s clear that the ranchers are crossbreeding for the purpose of acquiring characteristics in their steers.
Because (E) is the only answer choice that makes logical sense, it is the correct answer.

Hi GMATNinja

Thanks for the detailed explanation. Yet I still miss the point, how these two parts are parallel.

In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, (1) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers partly and (2) partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.

First one is a prepositional phrase with infinitive of purpose
"partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers partly"

AND

Second one is a prepositional phrase with full set of NOUN+VERB
"partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor"

Can I infer a general rule that two parts can be parallel no matter what if they are of the same part of the speech?
E.g. simple adverb AND adverbal phrase/clause, prepositional clause AND prepositional, noun AND noun modified by relative clause etc

Thanks!
GMAT Club Verbal Expert
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Re: QOTD: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2018, 19:19
2
Hero8888 wrote:
GMATNinja wrote:

Quote:
(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers

Here we go, this one looks more like #5 in our examples above. The parallelism is fine now (“partly” and “partly” are parallel), and it’s clear that the ranchers are crossbreeding for the purpose of acquiring characteristics in their steers.
Because (E) is the only answer choice that makes logical sense, it is the correct answer.

Hi GMATNinja

Thanks for the detailed explanation. Yet I still miss the point, how these two parts are parallel.

In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, (1) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers partly and (2) partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.

First one is a prepositional phrase with infinitive of purpose
"partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers partly"

AND

Second one is a prepositional phrase with full set of NOUN+VERB
"partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor"

Can I infer a general rule that two parts can be parallel no matter what if they are of the same part of the speech?
E.g. simple adverb AND adverbal phrase/clause, prepositional clause AND prepositional, noun AND noun modified by relative clause etc

Thanks!

Good question! In most instances, thinking about the sentence logically will serve you better than trying to internalize the vast array of constructions that can be linked by conjunctions such as "and."

In this case, "and" connects two phrases that describe why cattle breeders use cross-breeding. Anything that describes why an action is happening is an adverb, since it modifies a verb. So the word "and" links two parallel modifiers (adverbial modifiers, if you enjoy jargon):

1) partly to acquire characteristics in their steers
2) partly because cross-breeding provides hybrid vigor

Put another way: you don't want to get thrown off by the fact that these two phrases look different. Instead, you want to see that they're doing the same thing: describing why an action is taking place. So it's perfectly reasonable to say that these elements of the sentence are parallel.

I hope that helps!
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Beginners' guides to GMAT verbal
Reading Comprehension | Critical Reasoning | Sentence Correction

Series 1: Fundamentals of SC & CR | Series 2: Developing a Winning GMAT Mindset

SC & CR Questions of the Day (QOTDs), featuring expert explanations
All QOTDs | Subscribe via email | RSS

Hit the request verbal experts' reply button -- and please be specific about your question. Feel free to tag @GMATNinja and @GMATNinjaTwo in your post. Priority is always given to official GMAT questions.

Sentence Correction articles & resources
How to go from great (760) to incredible (780) on GMAT SC | That "-ing" Word Probably Isn't a Verb | That "-ed" Word Might Not Be a Verb, Either | No-BS Guide to GMAT Idioms | "Being" is not the enemy | WTF is "that" doing in my sentence?

Reading Comprehension, Critical Reasoning, and other articles & resources
All GMAT Ninja articles on GMAT Club | Using LSAT for GMAT CR & RC |7 reasons why your actual GMAT scores don't match your practice test scores | How to get 4 additional "fake" GMAT Prep tests for \$29.99 | Time management on verbal

Re: QOTD: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly &nbs [#permalink] 16 Jul 2018, 19:19
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# QOTD: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly

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