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# In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding,

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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding,  [#permalink]

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20 Jul 2014, 05:06

Guidelines:
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Specific instructions:
1) If you are posting a question then subject of your post must be first sentence of question.
3) Post any doubt under spoiler or in a new post right below your posted question.
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding,  [#permalink]

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21 Jul 2014, 07:24
dasa2013 wrote:
In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.
(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers
(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics
(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers
(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers

Spoiler: :: Error Analysis:
Error Analysis:

In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding,

in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
and
partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.

There sentence has parallel construction error , non underline portion after and starts with partly , so the underline portion also start with partly.
and in this case connect 2 clause in the sentence.

A- As discussed above
B- same parallel issue
C- change the meaning acquiring now tries to modify steers and purpose is lost here
D- should be change the meaning
E- Seems correct but the issue here is first half of the and is not clause. "partly to acquire certain characteristics in their
steers" where second part is "partly because crossbreeding {subject} is {verb} said to provide hybrid vigor

Hi dasa2013,

Thanks for posting your question here.

You have a doubt that confuses a lot of people who solve this question. You have understood the meaning of the sentence well. There are two reasons why the cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding:

a. to acquire certain characteristics in their steers and
b. to provide hybrid vigor.

However, the second reason is not a sure condition. It is believed that crossbreeding provides hybrid vigor to cattle. Hence, it is not possible that these two reason can be written in perfect identical parallel structures. The word "partly" before both the reasons are enough to make the two reasons parallel.

A thing to note here is that this is a very one of its kind questions and such usages are not very common on GMAT.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
SJ
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding,  [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2014, 12:38
1
goodyear2013 wrote:
In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreading, in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreading is said to provide hybrid vigor.

A. in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
B. in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers
C. partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics
D. partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers
E. partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers

I think D is preferred to E because D is more parallel than E.
The structure of D is " partly because <clause > and partly because <clause> " >> More parallel.
Whereas the structure of E is "partly <phrase> and partly because <clause>" >>> Not parallel.

However i feel D is more awkward than E, yet definitely more grammatical than E .
I think it would be great if some gmat expert replies to this thread.
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding,  [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2014, 22:01
1
goodyear2013 wrote:
In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreading, in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreading is said to provide hybrid vigor.

A. in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
B. in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers
C. partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics
D. partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers
E. partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers

The question was well explained here: in-recent-years-cattle-breeders-have-increasingly-used-89000.html#p672188
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding,  [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2014, 11:15
2
jitendra wrote:
In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should
acquire certain characteristics
and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.
(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers
(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics
(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers
(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers

Hello. I saw a lot of debates between D and E. Here is my 2 cents. Hope it helps.

In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.

(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
Wrong.

(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers
Wrong.

(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics
Wrong. Parallelism problem.

(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers
Wrong. D has meaning problem. Logically, cattle breeders use crossbreeding TO acquire good characteristics in their steers. Their current steers, living animals, CAN'T acquire anything.
For example, is your dog able to acquire good characteristics from other dogs. Absolutely NOT, how can a living dog acquire characteristics form other dogs? you can only acquire good characteristics in your dog TO create a new kind of dog that has good characteristics as those of your dog. Thus, D can't be correct.

(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers
Correct.

Hope it helps
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding,  [#permalink]

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13 Oct 2014, 07:10
In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding INDEPENDENT CLAUSE,
After comma I was looking for a dependent clause and I in my opinion I do not see any dependent clause in option E.
Can somebody please clear my doubt ?

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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding,  [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2014, 05:23
partly x, and partly y....x and y should be parallel.

x and y use verbs to acquire and to provide..in E

all others are not parallel !
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding,  [#permalink]

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14 Jan 2015, 14:13
I've solved it this way:
(A) in part... NOT PARALLEL (IT MUST BE PARTLY)
(B) in part... NOT PARALLEL (IT MUST BE PARTLY)
(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics WRONG --> Sentences with because structure have following meaning: Because (cause) 1st...., 2nd Effect ( several homes burned down, because of the gas explosion.)
Reverse Logic: Steers have acquired certain characteristics, because of crossbreeding.
(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers --> SHOULD changes the meaning, Crosbreeders WANT that their steers .....
(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers - CORRECT

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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding,  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 09 Jul 2015, 03:17
In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.

(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
Two issues:
1) in part vs partly -> maintain the same structure as these two reasons are parallel.
2) that -> that can be used a pronoun or introducing a subordinate clause and not for a reason.
Remotely "in that" can be used but I guess mostly even that is not preferred.

(B)in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers
Two issues:
1) same issue as above.
2) The "crossbreeding" is used for some reasons - one of them is that their steers acquires characteristics. We need an intent to show that and we require to + verb .Besides, other part also have to + verb (to + provide)

(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics
Plainly, the meaning comes as if their steers acquire certain characteristics by themselves which is not the case.

(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers
"Should be" is not parallel to "to verb" (to provide) and also it is stressing on a point which I think doesn't add any value.

(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers ->
Here we can repeat "crossbreeding is said (ellipses - which is not repeated)". Once we add that phrase, it looks perfect
"partly crossbreeding is said to acquire certain characteristics in their steers"
perfectly parallel to the second part as well. - Hence correct

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Originally posted by kinjiGC on 08 Jul 2015, 22:19.
Last edited by kinjiGC on 09 Jul 2015, 03:17, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding,  [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2016, 10:29
MrSobe17 wrote:
hiteshsahni wrote:
I have never read such a use of the word 'acquire' anywhere other than in this question's option E.

'to acquire certain characteristics 'in' their steers'

If I say 'He wants to acquire confidence'. That is obviously correct. Because 'to acquire' means 'to obtain' or 'to get'.
But if I say 'He wants to acquire confidence in his friend'. Is this usage of 'acquire' correct?

That is why I ruled out E. Can someone help please?

Same here couple of years later.

Anyone?

Many thanks,
Jay

Perhaps the use is uncommon, but maybe because people don't commonly read about breeding steer for certain characteristics! More importantly, all the other options were grammatically incorrect:

In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.
(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics Wrong, not parallel
(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers Wrong, not parallel
(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics Awkward wording, ing verb is inferior to the infinitive
(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers Introduces unnecessary subjunctive
(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers Correct

Making up rules is a real thing for SC; I do it all the time. But in the case of E, it's parallel, the verb is set up correctly, and the breeders are acquiring [something], which is a correct usage.
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding,  [#permalink]

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01 Jun 2016, 06:39
EBITDA wrote:
In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.

A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers
C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics
D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers
E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers

- Why should I discard B, C and D?
- Why is E correct?

E is definitely the most concise and straigthforward construction.

Thank you.

Hi,
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding,  [#permalink]

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20 Oct 2016, 09:18
1
This question displays why sometimes blindly following formulaic rules for SC can sometimes distract / confuse etc (a trap that i myself have fallen into many times especially at the middle stage of study). I have now incorporated "meaning" as a SC category when answering questions in order to overcome this stumbling block

Step 2 - Quick scan of answers - no clear split (use of their / its would be an obvious one) so lets re-read and paraphrase sentance

- Farmers have increasingly used crossbreeding - both for the purpose of giving their steers certain chartacteristics and because crossbreeding => vigour
- Distil... The farmers choose crossbreeding ... why? so that steers gain certain characteristcs

Step 3. Therefore C/D eliminated ... the farmers choose crossbreeding to give steers characteristics, not as a result of steers acquiring characteristics
Step 4. A / B eliminated as in part is not parrallel to partly
= E

There are many other approaches but this for me is the quickest way to approach meaning questions ... 1. analyse 2.understand 3.choose answers that agree on meaning 4. Identify grammatical/parralelism problems 5. Eliminate 6. Choose

In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.
(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers
(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics
(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers
(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding,  [#permalink]

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22 Jul 2017, 12:59
Agree with hiteshsahni, though E follows parallelism, it gives an awkward meaning....Experts pls comment.
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding,  [#permalink]

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24 Jul 2017, 05:29
parallelism ,,,,i picked D,,,

No OA provided,,,kindly update the OA experts
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding,  [#permalink]

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24 Jul 2017, 05:44
TommyWallach wrote:
Hey All,

What an annoying question! I was asked to take this on by private message, and I see why it's bothered so many of you. Let's discuss

204. In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should
acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.

The thing to remember about PARALLELISM (which is the issue here) is that it is ALL about the parallel markers. You're more concerned with the single word that comes after the parallel marker. From there, things get iffy. The parallel marker here is AND, and the word after it is PARTLY. That's your parallelism. You gotta have another "partly".

(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
PROBLEM: Both the "partly" issue and the "should". This isn't about what "should" happen. The breeders do it SO THAT the steer will acquire certain characteristics.

(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers
PROBLEM: Both the "partly" issue and an odd idiom. You don't do something "for the acquisition" of something else, but "in order to acquire" something else.

(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics
PROBLEM: They don't do it "because of their steers acquiring..." that sounds like they crossbreed AFTER the steers have acquired the characteristics. But they do it IN ORDER that the steers might acquire the characteristics.

(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers
PROBLEM: I know we all want this one because it says "partly because" and doesn't sound as bad as C, but the "should" is still a meaning issue. There's no question of SHOULD here. The issue is meaning. The breeders crossbreed because they WANT something to happen.

(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers
ANSWER: Yes, I know it isn't as parallel as we'd like. It would be nice to say "partly to X" and "partly to Y" OR "partly because of X" and "partly because of Y". But we don't get that option. This is still parallel enough (with the two "partly"s), and from there it's all about meaning.

Tough one! Hope that helps.

-tommy

Hi. I hace a small doubt here.
Option E goes like this.
partly---(followed by a phrase) and partly--(followd by a clause)
I always thought parallel elements should have the same structure. Can you please explain where I am going wrong ?
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding,  [#permalink]

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24 Jul 2017, 07:56
TommyWallach wrote:
Hey All,

What an annoying question! I was asked to take this on by private message, and I see why it's bothered so many of you. Let's discuss

204. In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should
acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.

The thing to remember about PARALLELISM (which is the issue here) is that it is ALL about the parallel markers. You're more concerned with the single word that comes after the parallel marker. From there, things get iffy. The parallel marker here is AND, and the word after it is PARTLY. That's your parallelism. You gotta have another "partly".

(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
PROBLEM: Both the "partly" issue and the "should". This isn't about what "should" happen. The breeders do it SO THAT the steer will acquire certain characteristics.

(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers
PROBLEM: Both the "partly" issue and an odd idiom. You don't do something "for the acquisition" of something else, but "in order to acquire" something else.

(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics
PROBLEM: They don't do it "because of their steers acquiring..." that sounds like they crossbreed AFTER the steers have acquired the characteristics. But they do it IN ORDER that the steers might acquire the characteristics.

(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers
PROBLEM: I know we all want this one because it says "partly because" and doesn't sound as bad as C, but the "should" is still a meaning issue. There's no question of SHOULD here. The issue is meaning. The breeders crossbreed because they WANT something to happen.

(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers
ANSWER: Yes, I know it isn't as parallel as we'd like. It would be nice to say "partly to X" and "partly to Y" OR "partly because of X" and "partly because of Y". But we don't get that option. This is still parallel enough (with the two "partly"s), and from there it's all about meaning.

Tough one! Hope that helps.

-tommy

Really amazing, Tommy. Appreciate it!!
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding,  [#permalink]

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11 Aug 2017, 20:48
rohansherry wrote:
In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.

(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers
(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics
(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers
(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers

A. "In part" is not parallel.
B. "In part" is not parallel.
C. "Because of their steers" is not parallel to "is said to provide hybrid vigor."
D. "Should be acquired by their steers" is not parallel to "is said to provide hybrid vigor."
E. Correct.
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding,  [#permalink]

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12 Aug 2017, 00:36
1
rohansherry wrote:
In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.

(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers
(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics
(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers
(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers

Imo E

A in part is wrong as it seem to suggest that the acquisition of the characteristics happened in parts.
B again same error as A
C is suggesting that steers on their own acquired the characteristics which is not the case .
D does not have parallelsim
E Correct
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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding,  [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2017, 17:10
In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.

(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
- "in part" should be "partly" to be // to "partly" after the underline. also, illogical meaning -- "steers" cannot acquire certain characteristics

(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers
- same as "A". "for the acquisition of" = awkward, unidiomatic.

(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics
- illogical meaning -- "steers" cannot acquire certain characteristics

(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers
- same as "C"

(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers
- correct as is

couple of important things: 1) illogical meaning (steers CANNOT acquire certain characteristics); 2) maintain //ism: "partly" (kind of seen as a list)

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Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding,  [#permalink]

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12 Nov 2017, 00:53
28. In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding
is said to provide hybrid vigor.

(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers
(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics
(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers
(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers

Hello Folks re-opening this questions :- i have one doubt, how are the following 2 parallel ??

partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers
and
partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.

As per my understanding of parallelism, the list should be parallel and structurally identical.
However in opt E we have a Infinitive form (to acquire) and in non-undeline portion of the question we have a Clause (crossbreeding is said to provide)
How are they still parallel ?
Re: In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, &nbs [#permalink] 12 Nov 2017, 00:53

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