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In recent years the early music movement, which advocates performing a

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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 119, Date : 01-APR-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


In recent years the early music movement, which advocates performing a work as it was performed at the time of its composition, has taken on the character of a crusade, particularly as it has moved beyond the sphere of medieval and baroque music and into music from the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries by composers such as Mozart and Beethoven. Granted, knowledge about the experience of playing old music on now-obsolete instruments has been of inestimable value to scholars. Nevertheless, the early music approach to performance raises profound and troubling questions.

Early music advocates assume that composers write only for the instruments available to them, but evidence suggests that composers of Beethoven’s stature imagined extraordinarily high and low notes as part of their compositions, even when they recognized that such notes could not be played on instruments available at the time. In the score of Beethoven’s first piano concerto, there is a “wrong” note, a high F-natural where the melody obviously calls for a high F-sharp, but pianos did not have this high an F-sharp when Beethoven composed the concerto. Because Beethoven once expressed a desire to revise his early works to exploit the extended range of pianos that became available to him some years later, it seems likely that he would have played the F-sharp if given the opportunity. To use a piano exactly contemporary with the work’s composition would require playing a note that was probably frustrating for Beethoven himself to have had to play.

In addition, early music advocates often inadvertently divorce music and its performance from the life of which they were, and are, a part. The discovery that Haydn’s and Mozart’s symphonies were conducted during their lifetimes by a pianist who played the chords to keep the orchestra together has given rise to early music recordings in which a piano can be heard obtrusively in the foreground, despite evidence indicating that the orchestral piano was virtually inaudible to audiences at eighteenth-century concerts and was dropped as musically unnecessary when a better way to beat time was found. And although in the early nineteenth century the first three movements (sections) of Mozart’s and Beethoven’s symphonies were often played faster, and the last movement slower, than today, this difference can readily be explained by the fact that at that time audiences applauded at the end of each movement, rather than withholding applause until the end of the entire work. As a result, musicians were not forced into extra brilliance in the finale in order to generate applause, as they are now. To restore the original tempo of these symphonies represents an irrational denial of the fact that our concepts of musical intensity and excitement have, quite simply, changed.
1. It can be inferred from the passage that by “a piano exactly contemporary” (Highlighted) with the composition of Beethoven’s first piano concerto, the author means the kind of piano that was

(A) designed to be inaudible to the audience when used by conductors of orchestras
(B) incapable of playing the high F-natural that is in the score of Beethoven’s original version of the concerto
(C) unavailable to Mozart and Haydn
(D) incapable of playing the high F-sharp that the melody of the concerto calls for
(E) influential in Beethoven’s decision to revise his early compositions


2. Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?

(A) The early music movement has yet to resolve a number of troubling questions regarding its approach to the performance of music.
(B) The early music movement, while largely successful in its approach to the performance of medieval and baroque music, has yet to justify its use of obsolete instruments in the performance of music by Beethoven and Mozart.
(C) The early music approach to performance often assumes that composers write music that is perfectly tailored to the limitations of the instruments on which it will be performed during their lifetimes.
(D) Although advocates of early music know much about the instruments used to perform music at the time it was composed, they lack information regarding how the style of such performances has changed since such music was written.
(E) The early music movement has not yet fully exploited the knowledge that it has gained from playing music on instruments available at the time such music was composed.


3. In the second paragraph, the author discusses Beethoven’s first piano concerto primarily in order to

(A) illustrate how piano music began to change in response to the extended range of pianos that became available during Beethoven’s lifetime
(B) illustrate how Beethoven’s work failed to anticipate the changes in the design of instruments that were about to be made during his lifetime
(C) suggest that early music advocates commonly perform music using scores that do not reflect revisions made to the music years after it was originally composed
(D) illustrate how composers like Beethoven sometimes composed music that called for notes that could not be played on instruments that were currently available
(E) provide an example of a piano composition that is especially amenable to being played on pianos available at the time the music was composed


4. The author suggests that the final movements of symphonies by Mozart and Beethoven might be played more slowly by today’s orchestras if which one of the following were to occur?

(A) orchestras were to use instruments no more advanced in design than those used by orchestras at the time Mozart and Beethoven composed their symphonies
(B) audiences were to return to the custom of applauding at the end of each movement of a symphony
(C) audiences were to reserve their most enthusiastic applause for the most brilliantly played finales
(D) conductors were to return to the practice of playing the chords on an orchestral piano to keep the orchestra together
(E) conductors were to conduct the symphonies in the manner in which Beethoven and Mozart had conducted them


5. Which one of the following best describes the organization of the last paragraph?

(A) A generalization is made, evidence undermining it is presented, and a conclusion rejecting it is then drawn.
(B) A criticism is stated and then elaborated with two supporting examples.
(C) An assumption is identified and then evidence undermining its validity is presented.
(D) An assertion is made and evidence frequently provided in support of it is then critically evaluated.
(E) Two specific cases are presented and then a conclusion regarding their significance is drawn.


6. It can be inferred from the passage that the author’s explanation in lines (this difference can readily be explained by the fact that at that time audiences applauded at the end of each movement, rather than withholding applause until the end of the entire work.) would be most weakened if which one of the following were true?

(A) Musicians who perform in modern orchestras generally receive more extensive training than did their nineteenth-century counterparts.
(B) Breaks between the movements of symphonies performed during the early nineteenth century often lasted longer than they do today because nineteenth-century musicians needed to retune their instruments between each movement.
(C) Early nineteenth-century orchestral musicians were generally as concerned with the audience’s response to their music as are the musicians who perform today in modern orchestras.
(D) Early nineteenth-century audiences applauded only perfunctorily after the first three movements of symphonies and conventionally withheld their most enthusiastic applause until the final movement was completed.
(E) Early nineteenth-century audiences were generally more knowledgeable about music than are their modern counterparts.


7. It can be inferred from the passage that the author would be most likely to agree with which one of the following assertions regarding the early music recordings mentioned in the third paragraph?

(A) These recordings fail to recognize that the last movements of Haydn’s and Mozart’s symphonies were often played slower in the eighteenth century than they are played today.
(B) These recordings betray the influence of baroque musical styles on those early music advocates who have recently turned their attention to the music of Haydn and Mozart.
(C) By making audible the sound of an orchestral piano that was inaudible in eighteenth-century performances, these recordings attempt to achieve aesthetic integrity at the expense of historical authenticity.
(D) By making audible the sound of an orchestral piano that was inaudible in eighteenth-century performances, these recordings unwittingly create music that is unlike what eighteenth-century audiences heard.
(E) These recordings suggest that at least some advocates of early music recognize that concepts of musical intensity and excitement have changed since Haydn and Mozart composed their symphonies.


8. The author suggests that the modern audience’s tendency to withhold applause until the end of a symphony’s performance is primarily related to which one of the following?

(A) the replacement of the orchestral piano as a method of keeping the orchestra together
(B) a gradual increase since the time of Mozart and Beethoven in audiences’ expectations regarding the ability of orchestral musicians
(C) a change since the early nineteenth century in audiences’ concepts of musical excitement and intensity
(D) a more sophisticated appreciation of the structural integrity of the symphony as a piece of music
(E) the tendency of orchestral musicians to employ their most brilliant effects in the early movements of symphonies composed by Mozart and Beethoven



  • Source: LSAT Official PrepTest 6 (October 1992)
  • Difficulty Level: 700

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New post 22 Apr 2019, 18:26
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neha283 wrote:
Can anyone post solutions for question 3 and 5.
In question 3 - i marked E, why is D correct?
I particularly struggle with questions like question 5, can anyone suggest some technique to approach such questions?

TIA


Explanation


3. In the second paragraph, the author discusses Beethoven’s first piano concerto primarily in order to

Difficulty Level: 550

Explanation

The first piano concerto is introduced at lines 15-16, and as such it acts as the “evidence,” mentioned in the previous sentence, that such eminent composers as Beethoven imagined weird notes that the instruments of the day couldn’t play. In particular, the piece features that high F-sharp that only some hypothetical future piano could hit. (D) expresses not only the point of mentioning the concerto, but the essence of para 2 overall as a problem with the early music movement’s premises.

(A) has it backwards. Beethoven was forced to include a “wrong” note in his score because the pianos at the time couldn’t accommodate the correct melody. Only later did the range of pianos expand.

(B) Au contraire, Beethoven explicitly did anticipate the more sophisticated piano of the future as he imagined notes that contemporary pianos couldn’t hit.

(C) We’re told only that Beethoven thought about revising his earlier works, from which we can’t infer that a revised version of his first piano concerto actually exists. Thus, Beethoven’s first piano concerto is not used here to show that early music advocates stick to original scores despite later revisions, because we don’t even know that there is a revised score for this piece.

(E) Au contraire again—the piano available at the time Beethoven wrote the first piano concerto frustrated the great composer’s intentions by lacking the high F-sharp called for by the melody.

• Check the context of any detail mentioned in a question stem. Often the detail’s purpose is made clear (as it is here) by the text that directly precedes or follows it.

• Beware of au-contraire choices, choices that provide the opposite of what we’re looking for. Here, there are no fewer than three wrong choices that seem to contradict the information in the passage.

ANSWER: D


5. Which one of the following best describes the organization of the last paragraph?

Difficulty Level: 750

Explanation

The second “troubling question” raised by the early music movement is its “divorc[ing of] music and its performance from . . . life” (lines 26-27). That criticism is followed up in para 3 by two specific examples: the inappropriate inclusion of the “silent” time-keeping piano, and the change in tempos due to changes in audience behavior. (B) is right on the money.

(A) The author is not in the business of “undermining” his own assertion, and the only things he “rejects” are some of the premises of the early music movement, but that’s not what (A) refers to.

(C) Para 3 begins not with a statement of the movement’s assumptions, but an indictment of one of its practices. That indictment is subsequently supported, not undermined.

(D) That phrase “frequently provided” is curious—what’s it based on? Anyway, para 3’s evidence is approvingly cited, not “critically evaluated.”

(E) The “two specific cases” (the silent piano; the tempo examples) are preceded by a criticism (lines 26-27) that they’re there to support. (E) has it backwards.

ANSWER: B


Hope it helps
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New post 10 Sep 2019, 02:20
1
Hi everyone,
Took 18 minutes and got 6/8 correct. Took 4:30 minutes to read, write down paragraphs summaries and main point.

P1: The early music movement and some concerns about it
P2: Advocates of EMM ignores the limitations of instruments of previous music movements
P3: Previous music movements were influenced by customs that are now changed

MP: Look into the "troubling concerns" of early music movement

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

1. It can be inferred from the passage that by “a piano exactly contemporary” (Highlighted) with the composition of Beethoven’s first piano concerto, the author means the kind of piano that was

Pre-thinking:
Incapable of paying a note, which is F-sharp

(A) designed to be inaudible to the audience when used by conductors of orchestras
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

(B) incapable of playing the high F-natural that is in the score of Beethoven’s original version of the concerto
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

(C) unavailable to Mozart and Haydn
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

(D) incapable of playing the high F-sharp that the melody of the concerto calls for
in line with pre-thinking. Hence correct

(E) influential in Beethoven’s decision to revise his early compositions
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


2. Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?

Pre-thinking:
Refer to main point formulation above to answer this question

(A) The early music movement has yet to resolve a number of troubling questions regarding its approach to the performance of music.
Correct since this statement is broad enough. Hence correct

(B) The early music movement, while largely successful in its approach to the performance of medieval and baroque music, has yet to justify its use of obsolete instruments in the performance of music by Beethoven and Mozart.
Firstly it is not said that the movement was successful in relation to medieval and baroque music. Secondly the use of obsolete instruments is described only in the second paragraph. Hence this answer is half wrong, half partial scope. Hence incorrect

(C) The early music approach to performance often assumes that composers write music that is perfectly tailored to the limitations of the instruments on which it will be performed during their lifetimes.
Partial scope. Hence incorrect

(D) Although advocates of early music know much about the instruments used to perform music at the time it was composed, they lack information regarding how the style of such performances has changed since such music was written.
It seems that advocates are not aware of the limitations of past instruments. Plus the second and third paragraphs are not in contrast with each others but they go in the same direction as they provide evidence to support the author's claim. Hence incorrect

(E) The early music movement has not yet fully exploited the knowledge that it has gained from playing music on instruments available at the time such music was composed.
This is completely wrong. Hence incorrect

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


3. In the second paragraph, the author discusses Beethoven’s first piano concerto primarily in order to

Pre-thinking:
Highlight the limitations of the instruments at that time

(A) illustrate how piano music began to change in response to the extended range of pianos that became available during Beethoven’s lifetime
Out of scope. Hence incorrect

(B) illustrate how Beethoven’s work failed to anticipate the changes in the design of instruments that were about to be made during his lifetime
Never mentioned. Hence incorrect

(C) suggest that early music advocates commonly perform music using scores that do not reflect revisions made to the music years after it was originally composed
Never mentioned. Hence incorrect

(D) illustrate how composers like Beethoven sometimes composed music that called for notes that could not be played on instruments that were currently available
In line with pre-thinking. Hence correct

(E) provide an example of a piano composition that is especially amenable to being played on pianos available at the time the music was composed
Opposite. Hence incorrect

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


4. The author suggests that the final movements of symphonies by Mozart and Beethoven might be played more slowly by today’s orchestras if which one of the following were to occur?

Pre-thinking:
If the old custom of clapping at the end of each movements was still in use

(A) orchestras were to use instruments no more advanced in design than those used by orchestras at the time Mozart and Beethoven composed their
symphonies
Cannot be inferred from the information given. Hence incorrect

(B) audiences were to return to the custom of applauding at the end of each movement of a symphony
In line with pre-thinking. Hence correct

(C) audiences were to reserve their most enthusiastic applause for the most brilliantly played finales
[b]Cannot be inferred from the information given. Hence incorrect[/b]

(D) conductors were to return to the practice of playing the chords on an orchestral piano to keep the orchestra together
[b]Cannot be inferred from the information given. Hence incorrect[/b]

(E) conductors were to conduct the symphonies in the manner in which Beethoven and Mozart had conducted them
Cannot be inferred from the information given. Hence incorrect

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


5. Which one of the following best describes the organization of the last paragraph?

Pre-thinking:
We have two specific examples that support the initial statement

(A) A generalization is made, evidence undermining it is presented, and a conclusion rejecting it is then drawn.
The evidence presented does not undermine anything. Hence incorrect

(B) A criticism is stated and then elaborated with two supporting examples.
In line with pre-thinking. Hence correct

(C) An assumption is identified and then evidence undermining its validity is presented.
No assumption and no evidence undermining the assumption. Hence incorrect

(D) An assertion is made and evidence frequently provided in support of it is then critically evaluated.
The evidence is not critically evaluated. Hence incorrect

(E) Two specific cases are presented and then a conclusion regarding their significance is drawn.
This could be tricky but here is how to eliminate this choice:
Two specific cases are presented: this is true (though note that the initial criticism comes before and it is not mentioned)
and then a conclusion regarding their significance is drawn.: this might be the tricky part because in the end the passage talks about change of customs
but actually that part is related only to the second example so we cannot say that it is a conclusion drawn on both the specific examples.
Hence incorrect


_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


6. It can be inferred from the passage that the author’s explanation in lines (this difference can readily be explained by the fact that at that time audiences applauded at the end of each movement, rather than withholding applause until the end of the entire work.) would be most weakened if which one of the following were true?

Pre-thinking:
What we know is that the reason why present musicians play faster at the end is that because they want to make sure they are applauded.
And the reason why in the past this did not happen was because the musicians were applauded at the end of each movement.
But what if the applause received at the end of each movement was brief, ritual and not really satisfying? Then we could presume that the past musicians would have behaved as the present musicians aiming for the big final applause.


(A) Musicians who perform in modern orchestras generally receive more extensive training than did their nineteenth-century counterparts.
This does not weaken the argument. Hence incorrect

(B) Breaks between the movements of symphonies performed during the early nineteenth century often lasted longer than they do today because nineteenth-century musicians needed to retune their instruments between each movement.
This does not weaken the argument. Hence incorrect

(C) Early nineteenth-century orchestral musicians were generally as concerned with the audience’s response to their music as are the musicians who perform today in modern orchestras.
This does not weaken the argument. Hence incorrect

(D) Early nineteenth-century audiences applauded only perfunctorily after the first three movements of symphonies and conventionally withheld their most
enthusiastic applause until the final movement was completed.
In line with pre-thinking. Hence correct

(E) Early nineteenth-century audiences were generally more knowledgeable about music than are their modern counterparts.
This does not weaken the argument. Hence incorrect

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


7. It can be inferred from the passage that the author would be most likely to agree with which one of the following assertions regarding the early music recordings mentioned in the third paragraph?

Pre-thinking:
Let's analyze the answer choices

(A) These recordings fail to recognize that the last movements of Haydn’s and Mozart’s symphonies were often played slower in the eighteenth century than
they are played today.
Cannot be inferred by the information given. Hence incorrect

(B) These recordings betray the influence of baroque musical styles on those early music advocates who have recently turned their attention to the music of Haydn and Mozart.
Cannot be inferred by the information given. Hence incorrect

(C) By making audible the sound of an orchestral piano that was inaudible in eighteenth-century performances, these recordings attempt to achieve aesthetic integrity at the expense of historical authenticity.
aesthetic integrity is wrong. Hence incorrect

(D) By making audible the sound of an orchestral piano that was inaudible in eighteenth-century performances, these recordings unwittingly create music that is unlike what eighteenth-century audiences heard.
Correct, the audience could not hear the music so at present people would hear something that past people would not have listened to. Hence correct

(E) These recordings suggest that at least some advocates of early music recognize that concepts of musical intensity and excitement have changed since Haydn and Mozart composed their symphonies.
Cannot be inferred by the information given. Hence incorrect

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

8. The author suggests that the modern audience’s tendency to withhold applause until the end of a symphony’s performance is primarily related to which one of the following?

Pre-thinking:
to a change in customs

(A) the replacement of the orchestral piano as a method of keeping the orchestra together
not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

(B) a gradual increase since the time of Mozart and Beethoven in audiences’ expectations regarding the ability of orchestral musicians
not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

(C) a change since the early nineteenth century in audiences’ concepts of musical excitement and intensity
in line with pre-thinking. Hence correct

(D) a more sophisticated appreciation of the structural integrity of the symphony as a piece of music
not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

(E) the tendency of orchestral musicians to employ their most brilliant effects in the early movements of symphonies composed by Mozart and Beethoven
not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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New post 03 Apr 2019, 09:02
Hi can anyone explain, why option B makes a better choice over option D in question 6?
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New post 05 Apr 2019, 11:49
Explanation


6. It can be inferred from the passage that the author’s explanation in lines (this difference can readily be explained by the fact that at that time audiences applauded at the end of each movement, rather than withholding applause until the end of the entire work.) would be most weakened if which one of the following were true?

Explanation

You can’t weaken an argument until you’ve confirmed its evidence and conclusion. The phrase “can readily be explained by” tells you that the conclusion has just been mentioned and the evidence is about to follow. So: The tempo differences between Mozart’s and Beethoven’s day and our own is explained in terms of audience custom: Since in the old days audiences applauded throughout the piece, the tempos during the piece were faster back then; since today’s audiences only applaud at the end, the tempo at the end is faster now. But if, as (D) says, the applause during the piece was minimal—if the real applause came at the end—then the customs of yesterday’s and today’s audiences aren’t all that different, and an explanation of the differences in tempo must be sought elsewhere.

(A) and (E) are outside the scope: Neither the musicians’ amount of training (A), nor the audience’s knowledgeability (E), is remotely cited here, let alone cited as relevant to the tempo issue.

(B) The fact that breaks may have been longer then than now doesn’t relate in any meaningful way to the explanation offered by the author, which focuses on the effect of audience reaction on tempo. What happens at the end of each section is the relevant issue here. We cannot infer what effects on audience reaction, and by extension, performance tempo, the length of the breaks between sections would have.

(C) may be tempting, since the author does seem to see a relationship between the tempo at which music is played and the audience applause that is desired. But (C) assumes that the phrase “concern with the audience response” translates to the seeking of applause—which it needn’t; and the argument certainly doesn’t hinge on there being parity of concern between yesterday’s musicians and today’s. So even if (C) is true, the author’s explanation
is not affected.

• Be careful when reading the question stem; the inclusion of the word “inferred” here doesn’t make this an Inference question. There’s a big difference between looking for the choice that must be true based on the text and the task we’re presented with here—finding the choice that, if true, would weaken the argument.

Answer: D


abhishek31 wrote:
Hi can anyone explain, why option B makes a better choice over option D in question 6?

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New post 08 Apr 2019, 18:30
How much time is everyone taking to read and answer the question ? I took 8 mins to read and 1 min + to answer the questions. I got 7 correct and 1 wrong. Can anyone please help me with ideas to reduce my timing . I am struggling in RC. Any help would be very much appreciated.
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New post 20 Apr 2019, 13:54
Chidinho wrote:
How much time is everyone taking to read and answer the question ? I took 8 mins to read and 1 min + to answer the questions. I got 7 correct and 1 wrong. Can anyone please help me with ideas to reduce my timing . I am struggling in RC. Any help would be very much appreciated.


THIS WAS A DIFFICULT RC, IF YOU GOT 1 WRONG, I'M GUESSING 6TH ONE, ITS COOL. YOU'RE GOOD
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New post 21 Apr 2019, 02:48
Can anyone post solutions for question 3 and 5.
In question 3 - i marked E, why is D correct?
I particularly struggle with questions like question 5, can anyone suggest some technique to approach such questions?

TIA
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New post 22 Apr 2019, 21:10
Can you please post OE for Q-2 and Q-7 ?
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New post 24 Apr 2019, 09:03
Explanation


2. Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?

Difficulty Level: 750

Explanation

This one is pretty much a slam dunk, reflecting as it does the crucial sentence in lines (Nevertheless, the early music approach to performance raises profound and troubling questions.): The early music approach “raises profound and troubling questions” with respect to performance. As mentioned above, this sentence is pregnant with promise—what are these problems?—and the answer is found in the remaining two Paras.

(B) gives the early music movement too much credit—“largely successful” is not a judgment the author makes—and to narrow the rest of the passage discussion merely to “the use of obsolete instruments” leaves out most of what drives para 2 and 3: Beethoven’s imagined piano, the time-beating problem, and the tempo issues.

(C) keys off of a problem alluded to in para 2 but falls far short of summing up the entire passage.

(D), (E) Neither the lack (D), nor the incomplete use (E), of information is ever alluded to as central to the author’s interest in the early music movement.

• When you’re confident about an answer choice early in the set, you should still at least glance at the remaining choices, but in a different way: with less respect. Don’t waste time evaluating them in depth; your task has shifted to simply making sure they’re as bad as they need to be, considering that you’re pretty sure you already have the winner. It may not seem like this will save you much time, but a few seconds gained on a handful of questions could very well add up to an extra minute or two by the end of the section.

ANSWER: A


7. It can be inferred from the passage that the author would be most likely to agree with which one of the following assertions regarding the early music recordings mentioned in the third paragraph?

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

The important word in the stem is “recordings,” which directs us to para 3 in general. You’ll recall that this takes us to the first of two extended examples of what the author sees as a disturbing aspect of the early music movement, its tendency to separate the performance of music from the real life of a bygone day. The recordings in question feature an obtrusive piano thump-thumping the time; that piano is nominally “accurate,” because it did exist in the 1700s, but the fact that 18th-century audiences barely heard it (lines 42-46) means that it is accurate in name only; the recordings’ sound itself is quite different from the 18th-century sound. The sense is that in this respect the movement is crossing itself up, or as (D) puts it, performing music most Unlike the way it sounded at the time of its composition.

(A), (E) Both can be rejected out of hand because of their references to issues introduced later in para 3: tempo and “intensity and excitement,” respectively.

(B) seems to tie lines 3-6 together with para 3, resulting in an extremely weird statement. Where does “betray the influence” come from, and where is the passage ever concerned with influences on the advocates of early music? Strange.

(C) has it exactly backwards. By insisting on a instrument that was present in the 1700s and ending up with a sound that was not, the early music recordings are sacrificing “aesthetic integrity” for the sake of “historical authenticity.”

• The harder you have to work to justify an answer choice, the more likely it is to be incorrect. Study the context of the detail in question, but don’t wander too far from it. (Many wrong answers do just that.)

ANSWER: D


Hope it helps

Ritwick91 wrote:
Can you please post OE for Q-2 and Q-7 ?

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Re: In recent years the early music movement, which advocates performing a  [#permalink]

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New post 26 May 2019, 00:29
SajjadAhmad please post OE for question no 1, 2 and 5.
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New post 26 May 2019, 11:51
Explanation


Topic and Scope:

Early music; specifically, the movement to have music performed as it was performed when it was written.

Purpose and Main Idea:

The author’s purpose is to explore the “questions” raised by this movement (which she describes as resembling a “crusade”), and that the questions are “profound and troubling” (line 10) conveys her main idea.

Paragraph Structure:

Para 1 describes the early music movement, shoots it a little barb by way of the “crusade” reference, grants that the movement has been of value, and then presents the main-idea sentence that the rest of the passage follows up on: the “profound and troubling questions” raised by the movement. One would expect that what follows would explore at least some of those questions, and since two Paras follow, it’s not surprising that those questions are two in number. To make the structure even clearer, the author supplies the nice “continuation” Keyword phrase “in addition” at the beginning of Para 3 to essentially say “that was one problem; now here’s another.”

Para 2 explains that demanding that a piece be played on instruments available during its composition carries with it a built-in problem: What if a piece was composed with instruments in mind that hadn’t even been invented yet? In that case, performing the piece today on the earlier instrument that was available to the composer at the time would seem to degrade the artist’s vision. Beethoven’s first piano concerto is cited at length as one such piece.

Para 3 poses a different “troubling” issue, expressed generally in lines and illustrated by the tempo issue. The gist of it is that the conducting and setting of original tempos were both determined by different historical conditions from ours; and denying that amounts to “inadvertently [divorcing] music and its performance from . . . life”—something the author finds troubling and obviously opposes.

The Big Picture:

• Strive to become a good anticipatory reader. Consciously anticipate that when an author calls something “a crusade,” s/he may turn out to be critical of it. Consciously anticipate that when something “raises profound and troubling questions,” almost immediately those questions (at least one main one, and possibly even more than one) will be raised and addressed. Stay ahead of the author rather than several steps behind.

• The Beethoven example in Para 2, and the two tempo examples in Para 3, are pretty technical for non-musicians to understand. Content yourself with understanding them in broad outline (as discussed above), and delve deeper only when the questions seem to demand that you do so.


1. It can be inferred from the passage that by “a piano exactly contemporary” (Highlighted) with the composition of Beethoven’s first piano concerto, the author means the kind of piano that was

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

Lines 23-24 appears in Para 2, whose purpose is to attack the assumption on the part of early music advocates that composers necessarily write for the instruments that exist at the time. Reread the whole deal, from line 16 on. A piano “exactly contemporary with” Beethoven’s first piano concerto would, we are told at the end, frustrate Beethoven. Sure, it would irritate him to have to play the “bad” F-natural, because the instrument of the time lacked the high F-sharp that existed only in the composer’s imagination and not on the instrument itself. As (D) has it, a piano contemporary with Beethoven’s first piano concerto would be incapable of playing the high F-sharp that the melody calls for. (Note that the actual score was written to accommodate the range of the limited piano—hence the “wrong” note, the high Fnatural that must have driven Ludwig batty.)

(A) The phenomenon of the inaudible time-keeping piano comes out of Para 3, and is not associated with either Beethoven or lines 23-24.

(B) Au contraire—check out lines 17-19 again. Pianos in Beethoven’s day lacked the F-sharp, not the F-natural.

(C) Mozart and Haydn appear only in Para 3, so there’s no reason to connect them to Para 2’s piano, and no reason to assume that all three composers couldn’t have used the same piano type.

(E) First of all, as far as we know, Beethoven only contemplated revising his earlier work. And besides, it wouldn’t have been the piano contemporary to the first concerto that would have prompted Beethoven’s revisions, but rather the more expansive and versatile piano that came later on.

• When a question mentions a line reference, be sure to think about the overall purpose of the para in which the line reference appears. Often, context is everything.
• Beware of choices that spring from details from the wrong part of the passage. (A) and (C) are good examples of this common wrong answer type.


Answer: D


For Question #2

https://gmatclub.com/forum/in-recent-ye ... l#p2265041

For Question #5

https://gmatclub.com/forum/in-recent-ye ... l#p2264172

Hope it helps

samarthsaxena1991 wrote:
SajjadAhmad please post OE for question no 1, 2 and 5.

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In recent years the early music movement, which advocates performing a   [#permalink] 26 May 2019, 11:51
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