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# In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice

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In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice [#permalink]

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16 May 2005, 10:10
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Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review, 2nd Edition

Practice Question
Question No.: 62
Page: 141
Difficulty:

In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically produce antibodies that destroy the virus by binding to proteins on its surface. Mice infected with a herpesvirus generally develop keratitis, a degenerative disease affecting part of the eye. Since proteins on the surface of cells in this part of the eye closely resemble those on the herpesvirus surface, scientists hypothesize that these cases of keratitis are caused by antibodies to herpesvirus.

Which of the following, if true, gives the greatest additional support to the scientist's hypothesis?

A. Other types of virus have surface proteins that closely resemble proteins found in various organs of mice.
B. There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice contract herpes at roughly the same rate as other mice.
C. Mice that are infected with a herpesvirus but do not develop keratitis produce as many antibodies as infected mice that do develop keratitis.
D. There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice survive these infections without ever developing keratitis.
E. Mice that have never been infected with a herpesvirus can sometimes develop keratitis.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice [#permalink]

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01 Feb 2016, 20:28
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When X is thought to cause Y, it's important to consider whether Y occurs even when X is absent: if it does not, that strengthens the notion that X is causing Y in those cases where they occur together (OG)
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Re: In response to viral infection [#permalink]

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28 Oct 2012, 01:01
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talismaaniac wrote:
getgyan wrote:
+1 D

A. Other types of virus have surface proteins that closely resemble proteins found in various organs of mice. (Then why just eyes are affected, eliminate)
B. There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice contract herpes at roughly the same rate as other mice. (This weakens the hypothesis)
C. Mice that are infected with a herpes virus but do not develop keratitis produce as many antibodies as infected mice that do develop keratitis. (Irrelevant)
D. There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice survive these infections without ever developing keratitis. (This is our answer, since they do not develop antibodies they do not develop keratitis)
E. Mice that have never been infected with a herpes virus can sometimes develop keratitis. (This weakens the hypothesis)

Hey Gyan!! Nice explanation. I had a tough time understanding this question. Finally my teacher helped me. But I was still confused and could not explain him my problem.
I decoded this prob in the following manner:-

Virus hits mouse - mouse develops antibody (antibody hooking onto protein on virus destroys virus). Now, protein on eye = protein on (herpes)virus. (So, because an antibody might get confused between the two - this was terrific comprehension of the hypothesis) the antibody (hooking onto protein on eye ) leads to keratitis.
Hence, herpesvirus - antibody - keratitis.

My doubt is that how can we strengthen this by saying that (there are mice => some mice - not all - and so this is sometimes and not always) when there is no antibody, there is no keratitis. How does this prove scientists' hypo?
It only mentions that there are mice (can be 4 out of 100) that do not develop antibodies and don't get keratitis. But there can surely be some mice (96) who develop antibodies but don't catch keratitis. Hence, how does D prove scientists' hypo?
I have boldfaced "prove" because I want to ask you do we need to prove that whenever any antibody is formed, keratitis will develop - always?

Because D leaves room for a possibility that 96 mice might develop antibody but still not catch keratitis. Hence not proved. XXXXX

This is a typical strengthen cause and effect problem -

We need to show that only X can lead to the result Y or eliminate any other alternate causes that lead to result Y.

If the cause does not occur then the result does not occur ; Hence , If the cause is there the result is also there.

thanks,
Ankit
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06 Nov 2005, 22:55
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Antibodies kill both VIRUS and EYE.

No antibodies, no eye damage.

D. There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice survive these infections without ever developing keratitis.
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In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2012, 09:58
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In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically produce antibodies that destroy the virus by binding to proteins on its surface. Mice infected with a herpesvirus generally develop keratitis, a degenerative disease affecting part of the eye. Since proteins on the surface of cells in this part of the eye closely resemble those on the herpesvirus surface, scientists hypothesize that these cases of keratitis are caused by antibodies to herpesvirus.

Which of the following, if true, gives the greatest additional support to the scientists’ hypothesis?

A. Other types of virus have surface proteins that closely resemble proteins found in various organs of mice.
B. There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice contract herpes at roughly the same rate as other mice.
C. Mice that are infected with a herpesvirus but do not develop keratitis produce as many antibodies as infected mice that do develop keratitis.
D. There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice survive these infections without ever developing keratitis.
E. Mice that have never been infected with a herpesvirus can sometimes develop keratitis.

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Re: In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice [#permalink]

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17 Dec 2016, 10:59
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nathalie1107 wrote:
Dear all,

I have a different angle of view about this argument. I think the ones who select E may have the same thought as me. Could anyone give me a detailed explanation for my reasons below if you see it is flawed?

Based on the last sentence, the hypothesis of the scientists should be: (1) As the some eyes' cells are resemble to that of herpes, keratitis are mistakenly generated on those eyes' cell as a response of antibodies to herpes.
The hypothesis cannot be: (2) Keratitis are generated by antibodies to herpes.

If so, answer E strengthens (1) the best. It demonstrates keratitis can appear without herpes. It provides a signal for further studies that the antibodies mis-recognize eyes' cells as herpes in those cases.
Meanwhile answer D just strengthens (2). But I don't think (2) is a good interpretation of the scientists' hypothesis.

Choice E doesn't strengthen the argument.

E. Mice that have never been infected with a herpesvirus can sometimes develop keratitis.

If choice E is true, then the argument may be wrong. If mice that have never been infected with a herpesvirus can sometimes develop keratitis, keratitis could be caused by other reasons rather than antibodies to herpesvirus. How could we know that keratitis is caused by those antibodies in case that the mice aren't even infected with herpesvirus?
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16 May 2005, 10:21
I pick D. D says if the mice forms antibodies, it will have keratitis.
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16 May 2005, 10:25
D
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16 May 2005, 11:52
D.
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17 May 2005, 00:27
I too go with D as that is the only option that mentions that without antibodies keratitis is not formed.
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17 May 2005, 00:43
One more for D
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17 May 2005, 00:54
D it is
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17 May 2005, 02:15
(D). Pretty tough one to relate all the elements.
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In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice [#permalink]

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06 Nov 2005, 12:54
In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically produce antibodies that destroy the virus by binding to proteins on its surface. Mice infected with a herpesvirus generally develop keratitis, a degenerative disease affecting part of the eye. Since proteins on the surface of cells in this part of the eye closely resemble those on the herpesvirus surface, scientists hypothesize that these cases of keratitis are caused by antibodies to herpesvirus.

Which of the following, if true, gives the greatest additional support to the scientist's hypothesis?

A. Other types of virus have surface proteins that closely resemble proteins found in various organs of mice.
B. There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice contract herpes at roughly the same rate as other mice.
C. Mice that are infected with a herpesvirus but do not develop keratitis produce as many antibodies as infected mice that do develop keratitis.
D. There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice survive these infections without ever developing keratitis.
E. Mice that have never been infected with a herpesvirus can sometimes develop keratitis.
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07 Nov 2005, 00:14
I think D is correct.

What is the OA?
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07 Nov 2005, 01:02
One more vote for D
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07 Nov 2005, 05:47
yup D is the OA.

I was really stuck between D and E.
how did you guyd eliminate E.
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In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2005, 01:58
In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically produce antibodies that destroy the virus by binding to proteins on its surface. Mice infected with a herpesvirus generally develop keratitis, a degenerative disease affecting part of the eye. Since proteins on the surface of cells in this part of the eye closely resemble those on the herpesvirus surface, scientists hypothesize that these cases of keratitis are caused by antibodies to herpesvirus.

Which of the following, if true, gives the greatest additional support to the scientistsâ€™ hypothesis?

A. Other types of virus have surface proteins that closely resemble proteins found in various organs of mice.
B. There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice contract herpes at roughly the same rate as other mice.
C. Mice that are infected with a herpesvirus but do not develop keratitis produce as many antibodies as infected mice that do develop keratitis.
D. There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice survive these infections without ever developing keratitis.
E. Mice that have never been infected with a herpesvirus can sometimes develop keratitis.
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24 Nov 2005, 02:26
think that B) is correct .
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24 Nov 2005, 02:56
It should be D

conlclusion: these cases of keratitis are caused by antibodies to herpesvirus.

Premise1: Mice infected with a herpesvirus generally develop keratitis

Premise2: the immune systems of mice typically produce antibodies that destroy the virus by binding to proteins on its surface.

Premise3:proteins on the surface of cells in this part of the eye closely resemble those on the herpesvirus surface.

we need an evidence to strengthen the conclusion.
the evidence need to show that if a mouse cannot produce antibodies in respose to herpesvirus but did not develop keratitis, the conclusion will be further strengthen.

so D is the right choice.
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24 Nov 2005, 02:56

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