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In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically

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Re: In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jun 2014, 14:40
Pqhai, would you like to solve this one with your elegant approach?

Cheers!
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New post 27 Feb 2015, 07:07
Classical causality illustrated in the Strengthen question types in the CR Bible.

--> Show that when the cause doesn't occur, the effect doesn't occur


Causality in that argument: antibodies --> Proteins on the surface....

(D) no antiibodies - no proteins.....
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Re: In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Feb 2016, 20:28
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The correct answer is D.

When X is thought to cause Y, it's important to consider whether Y occurs even when X is absent: if it does not, that strengthens the notion that X is causing Y in those cases where they occur together (OG)
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Re: In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jul 2016, 11:25
So, D essentially says that when the cause is absent, the effect is absent. Its a clear strengthener.
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Re: In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jul 2016, 00:27
D


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New post 16 Dec 2016, 18:09
Dear all,

I have a different angle of view about this argument. I think the ones who select E may have the same thought as me. Could anyone give me a detailed explanation for my reasons below if you see it is flawed?

Based on the last sentence, the hypothesis of the scientists should be: (1) As the some eyes' cells are resemble to that of herpes, keratitis are mistakenly generated on those eyes' cell as a response of antibodies to herpes.
The hypothesis cannot be: (2) Keratitis are generated by antibodies to herpes.

If so, answer E strengthens (1) the best. It demonstrates keratitis can appear without herpes. It provides a signal for further studies that the antibodies mis-recognize eyes' cells as herpes in those cases.
Meanwhile answer D just strengthens (2). But I don't think (2) is a good interpretation of the scientists' hypothesis.
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Re: In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Dec 2016, 10:59
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nathalie1107 wrote:
Dear all,

I have a different angle of view about this argument. I think the ones who select E may have the same thought as me. Could anyone give me a detailed explanation for my reasons below if you see it is flawed?

Based on the last sentence, the hypothesis of the scientists should be: (1) As the some eyes' cells are resemble to that of herpes, keratitis are mistakenly generated on those eyes' cell as a response of antibodies to herpes.
The hypothesis cannot be: (2) Keratitis are generated by antibodies to herpes.

If so, answer E strengthens (1) the best. It demonstrates keratitis can appear without herpes. It provides a signal for further studies that the antibodies mis-recognize eyes' cells as herpes in those cases.
Meanwhile answer D just strengthens (2). But I don't think (2) is a good interpretation of the scientists' hypothesis.


Choice E doesn't strengthen the argument.

E. Mice that have never been infected with a herpesvirus can sometimes develop keratitis.

If choice E is true, then the argument may be wrong. If mice that have never been infected with a herpesvirus can sometimes develop keratitis, keratitis could be caused by other reasons rather than antibodies to herpesvirus. How could we know that keratitis is caused by those antibodies in case that the mice aren't even infected with herpesvirus?
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Re: In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Dec 2016, 22:54
In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically produce antibodies that destroy the virus by binding to proteins on its surface. Mice infected with a herpesvirus generally develop keratitis, a degenerative disease affecting part of the eye. Since proteins on the surface of cells in this part of the eye closely resemble those on the herpesvirus surface, scientists hypothesize that these cases of keratitis are caused by antibodies to herpesvirus.

Boil it down - Mice's immune systems produce antibodies. Scientists hypothesize that these cases of keratitis are caused by antibodies to herpesvirus.
Antibodies (X) cause keratities (Y)
Support - consider a case if x(cause ) is absent then y - the effect is also absent


D. There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice survive these infections without ever developing keratitis.


Answer D
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New post 02 Jun 2017, 01:59
A) OFS. - Eliminate
B) OFS. - Eliminate
C) OFS. - Eliminate
D) no cause - no effect, hence strengthen and correct one
E) no cause but effect, hence weaken. - Eliminate
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Re: In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Nov 2017, 10:25
this is really one hell of a tough question
damn had a hard time understanding this
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Re: In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Nov 2017, 22:15
I have a simple query. I understand the no cause no effect situation.
My understanding - Antibodies bind on proteins (found on antibodies' surface) to destroy viruses. Similar proteins are found on the surface of herpesvirus. Herpesvirus leads to keratitis. Thus Antibodies cause keratitis.
Now, when the function of the antibodies is to destroy the virus as given in the question, therefore, they are only reducing the chances of keratitis by fighting herpesvirus. Therefore, how can they cause keratitis? They lead to lower cases of keratitis.

Lets see it this way - More herpes more keratitis. Antibodies fight herpes. Thus, less chance of keratitis.

Kindly help...
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Re: In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2017, 04:58
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kingb wrote:
In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically produce antibodies that destroy the virus by binding to proteins on its surface. Mice infected with a herpesvirus generally develop keratitis, a degenerative disease affecting part of the eye. Since proteins on the surface of cells in this part of the eye closely resemble those on the herpesvirus surface, scientists hypothesize that these cases of keratitis are caused by antibodies to herpesvirus.

Which of the following, if true, gives the greatest additional support to the scientists’ hypothesis?

A. Other types of virus have surface proteins that closely resemble proteins found in various organs of mice.
B. There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice contract herpes at roughly the same rate as other mice.
C. Mice that are infected with a herpesvirus but do not develop keratitis produce as many antibodies as infected mice that do develop keratitis.
D. There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice survive these infections without ever developing keratitis.
E. Mice that have never been infected with a herpesvirus can sometimes develop keratitis.


Nice question. Here goes my understanding in a dramatic and hopefully in a comprehensible way:

1. Virus attacks the mice.
2. The mice fights back using its soldiers(antibodies) to destroy the crew of enemy (proteins of the virus).
3. This time Herpesvirus attacked mice. Assume that herpesvirus is a strong enemy whose soldiers (proteins) coincidentally look like the people(proteins) on the surface of a part of mice eye.
4. The soldiers of mice(antibodies), unable to identify the difference, also attacked his own people ( proteins on that part of the eye) by binding with them and thus causing keratitis.

Scientists hypothesize that keratitis in such cases is caused by the soldiers (antibodies) of the mice that were sent to attack the virus. You are asked to support this.
option D says-
There are mice that did not send its soldiers(antibodies) to fight herpes and such mice did not develop keratitis after surviving the invasion by Herpes. - This clearly shows that Keratisis was caused by the soldiers (antibodies) of the mice in the earlier case when the mice had actually sent antibodies to fight herpes. When the mice sent no soldiers to fight, there was no keratitis.

Hope it brought Thor into your mind. (Bahubali for Indians) :)
Have fun with CRs.
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Re: In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Nov 2017, 02:04
TaN1213 wrote:
kingb wrote:
In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically produce antibodies that destroy the virus by binding to proteins on its surface. Mice infected with a herpesvirus generally develop keratitis, a degenerative disease affecting part of the eye. Since proteins on the surface of cells in this part of the eye closely resemble those on the herpesvirus surface, scientists hypothesize that these cases of keratitis are caused by antibodies to herpesvirus.

Which of the following, if true, gives the greatest additional support to the scientists’ hypothesis?

A. Other types of virus have surface proteins that closely resemble proteins found in various organs of mice.
B. There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice contract herpes at roughly the same rate as other mice.
C. Mice that are infected with a herpesvirus but do not develop keratitis produce as many antibodies as infected mice that do develop keratitis.
D. There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice survive these infections without ever developing keratitis.
E. Mice that have never been infected with a herpesvirus can sometimes develop keratitis.


Nice question. Here goes my understanding in a dramatic and hopefully in a comprehensible way:

1. Virus attacks the mice.
2. The mice fights back using its soldiers(antibodies) to destroy the crew of enemy (proteins of the virus).
3. This time Herpesvirus attacked mice. Assume that herpesvirus is a strong enemy whose soldiers (proteins) coincidentally look like the people(proteins) on the surface of a part of mice eye.
4. The soldiers of mice(antibodies), unable to identify the difference, also attacked his own people ( proteins on that part of the eye) by binding with them and thus causing keratitis.

Scientists hypothesize that keratitis in such cases is caused by the soldiers (antibodies) of the mice that were sent to attack the virus. You are asked to support this.
option D says-
There are mice that did not send its soldiers(antibodies) to fight herpes and such mice did not develop keratitis after surviving the invasion by Herpes. - This clearly shows that Keratisis was caused by the soldiers (antibodies) of the mice in the earlier case when the mice had actually sent antibodies to fight herpes. When the mice sent no soldiers to fight, there was no keratitis.

Hope it brought Thor into your mind. (Bahubali for Indians) :)
Have fun with CRs.


Excellent explanation -------
Now i believe i am able to understand conclusion to some extent-------------------------
Kudos given-----------------------
in the form of Mjolnir!--------------------

Over & out!
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Re: In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Nov 2017, 11:32
talismaaniac wrote:
TaN1213 wrote:
kingb wrote:
In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically produce antibodies that destroy the virus by binding to proteins on its surface. Mice infected with a herpesvirus generally develop keratitis, a degenerative disease affecting part of the eye. Since proteins on the surface of cells in this part of the eye closely resemble those on the herpesvirus surface, scientists hypothesize that these cases of keratitis are caused by antibodies to herpesvirus.

Which of the following, if true, gives the greatest additional support to the scientists’ hypothesis?

A. Other types of virus have surface proteins that closely resemble proteins found in various organs of mice.
B. There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice contract herpes at roughly the same rate as other mice.
C. Mice that are infected with a herpesvirus but do not develop keratitis produce as many antibodies as infected mice that do develop keratitis.
D. There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice survive these infections without ever developing keratitis.
E. Mice that have never been infected with a herpesvirus can sometimes develop keratitis.


Nice question. Here goes my understanding in a dramatic and hopefully in a comprehensible way:

1. Virus attacks the mice.
2. The mice fights back using its soldiers(antibodies) to destroy the crew of enemy (proteins of the virus).
3. This time Herpesvirus attacked mice. Assume that herpesvirus is a strong enemy whose soldiers (proteins) coincidentally look like the people(proteins) on the surface of a part of mice eye.
4. The soldiers of mice(antibodies), unable to identify the difference, also attacked his own people ( proteins on that part of the eye) by binding with them and thus causing keratitis.

Scientists hypothesize that keratitis in such cases is caused by the soldiers (antibodies) of the mice that were sent to attack the virus. You are asked to support this.
option D says-
There are mice that did not send its soldiers(antibodies) to fight herpes and such mice did not develop keratitis after surviving the invasion by Herpes. - This clearly shows that Keratisis was caused by the soldiers (antibodies) of the mice in the earlier case when the mice had actually sent antibodies to fight herpes. When the mice sent no soldiers to fight, there was no keratitis.

Hope it brought Thor into your mind. (Bahubali for Indians) :)
Have fun with CRs.


Excellent explanation -------
Now i believe i am able to understand conclusion to some extent-------------------------
Kudos given-----------------------
in the form of Mjolnir!--------------------

Over & out!

Glad I could help. :-) Mjolnir :p
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Hit Kudus if this has helped you get closer to your goal, and also to assist others save time. Tq :)

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Re: In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Nov 2017, 14:54
Quote:
In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically produce antibodies that destroy the virus by binding to proteins on its surface. Mice infected with a herpesvirus generally develop keratitis, a degenerative disease affecting part of the eye. Since proteins on the surface of cells in this part of the eye closely resemble those on the herpesvirus surface, scientists hypothesize that these cases of keratitis are caused by antibodies to herpesvirus.

Which of the following, if true, gives the greatest additional support to the scientists’ hypothesis?

A. Other types of virus have surface proteins that closely resemble proteins found in various organs of mice.
B. There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice contract herpes at roughly the same rate as other mice.
C. Mice that are infected with a herpesvirus but do not develop keratitis produce as many antibodies as infected mice that do develop keratitis.
D. There are mice that are unable to form antibodies in response to herpes infections, and these mice survive these infections without ever developing keratitis.
E. Mice that have never been infected with a herpesvirus can sometimes develop keratitis.

talismaaniac wrote:
I have a simple query. I understand the no cause no effect situation.
My understanding - Antibodies bind on proteins (found on antibodies' surface) to destroy viruses. Similar proteins are found on the surface of herpesvirus. Herpesvirus leads to keratitis. Thus Antibodies cause keratitis.
Now, when the function of the antibodies is to destroy the virus as given in the question, therefore, they are only reducing the chances of keratitis by fighting herpesvirus. Therefore, how can they cause keratitis? They lead to lower cases of keratitis.

Lets see it this way - More herpes more keratitis. Antibodies fight herpes. Thus, less chance of keratitis.

Kindly help...

The first red flag is that this analysis contradicts information given in the passage: "Mice infected with a herpesvirus generally develop keratitis." So we KNOW that mice infected with herpesvirus generally develop keratitis, and we have to support a hypothesis explaining WHY that happens.

Let's think about the cycle:

  • A mouse gets infected with herpesvirus.
  • Antibodies are produced to fight the infection.
  • WHILE the antibodies are fighting the infection, they are also destroying the cells in the eye (CAUSING keratitis).
  • MAYBE the antibodies successfully eliminate the herpesvirus (or maybe not... we don't know whether the antibodies will win the fight). In that case, the antibodies would no longer be produced. Regardless, the keratitis has ALREADY developed by that point. Maybe the keratitis would then go away too, but we don't know (or care) about that. All that matters is that the antibodies caused the keratitis in the first place.

I hope that helps!
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Re: In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Mar 2018, 07:39
I was wrong for the first attempt. But I think the answer should be D.
Pattern: A ---> B : Herpes ---> keratitis
Strengthen: No A ---> No B: No Herpes ---> No keratitis
Re: In response to viral infection, the immune systems of mice typically &nbs [#permalink] 07 Mar 2018, 07:39

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