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# In the 1980s computer books sales accounted for

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In the 1980s computer books sales accounted for [#permalink]

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19 Feb 2013, 13:06
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Difficulty:

25% (medium)

Question Stats:

62% (01:46) correct 38% (00:45) wrong based on 330 sessions

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In the 1980s computer books’ sales accounted for approximately 4% of operating profits of a typical publishing company; in the 2000s this proportion increased to 40%.

A) publishing company; in the 2000s this proportion increased to 40%.
B) publishing company; in the 2000s they increased by 40%.
C) publishing company, in the 2000s they increased to 40%.
D) publishing company; increasing to 40% in the 2000s.
E) publishing company, which increased to 40% in the 2000s.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: In the 1980s computer books sales accounted for [#permalink]

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21 Feb 2013, 11:17
IMO E.

which- modifying profit.
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Re: In the 1980s computer books sales accounted for [#permalink]

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21 Feb 2013, 12:04

A) publishing company; in the 2000s this proportion increased to 40%. - Correct Choice.
B) publishing company; in the 2000s they increased by 40%. - Changes the meaning
C) publishing company, in the 2000s they increased to 40%. - Pronoun Error
D) publishing company; increasing to 40% in the 2000s. - use of ; requires an independent clause - the clause here does not have a subject
E) publishing company, which increased to 40% in the 2000s. - Which incorrectly modifies the publishing company
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Re: In the 1980s computer books sales accounted for [#permalink]

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22 Feb 2013, 06:43
Vercules wrote:
In the 1980s computer books’ sales accounted for approximately 4% of operating profits of a typical publishing company; in the 2000s this proportion increased to 40%.

A) publishing company; in the 2000s this proportion increased to 40%.

Correct. The use of semicolon the first sentence is correct as it connects two closely related clauses. The comparison made is also contextually and grammatically correct. “In the 1980s” is correctly compared with “in the 2000s” and both are grammatically parallel. The use of “this proportion” unambiguously refers to the proportion of “computer books sales” in the first part of the sentence.

B) publishing company; in the 2000s they increased by 40%.

This answer choice contains two errors. First, the phrase “increased by 40%” incorrectly changes the meaning of the original sentence, implying that “40%” indicates the relative magnitude of the increase rather than the new proportion of “advertising revenues” in the structure of “operating profits.” Second, the pronoun “they” is ambiguous and does not have a clear antecedent and could refer to either “operating profits” or “computer books’ sales.”

C) publishing company, in the 2000s they increased to 40%.

The comma is incorrectly used to join two independent clauses, thus making the sentence run-on. rather than with a semicolon or with a connecting conjunction. Further, the pronoun “they” lacks a clear antecedent and could be interpreted to refer either “operating profits” or “computer books’ sales.”

D) publishing company; increasing to 40% in the 2000s.

This answer choice incorrectly uses a semicolon to connect two clauses, only one of which can stand alone. The phrase “increasing to 40% in the 1980s” is not an independent clause and cannot follow the semicolon. Furthermore, by moving the time reference “in the 2000s” from the beginning of the second clause to the end, this answer choice violates parallelism with the non-underlined portion of the sentence that begins with another time reference “In the 1980s.”

E) publishing company, which increased to 40% in the 2000s

“Which” is used incorrectly; clauses introduced by the relative pronoun “which” can refer only to the immediately preceding noun. In this case, the relative pronoun “which” refers to “a typical book publishing company,” thus illogically suggesting that “a typical book publishing company” was the subject of the increase. Finally, by moving the time reference “in the 2000s” from the beginning of the second clause to the end, this answer choice does not maintain parallel structure with the non-underlined portion of the sentence that begins with the time reference “In the 1980s.”

Vercules
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Placement of a prepositional modifier [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2014, 03:26
I somewhere read in this forum that prepositional phrases can exist between a noun and a noun modifier such as "which". In this context i would like to know why is answer "E" wrong. Since,which is preceded by a prepositional phrase.

Here is the question:
In the 1980s computer books’ sales accounted for approximately 4% of operating profits of a typical publishing company; in the 2000s this proportion increased to 40%.
A.publishing company; in the 2000s this proportion increased to 40%.
B.publishing company; in the 2000s they increased by 40%.
C.publishing company, in the 2000s they increased to 40%.
D.publishing company; increasing to 40% in the 2000s.
E.publishing company, which increased to 40% in the 2000s.
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Re: Placement of a prepositional modifier [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2014, 03:45
mshrek wrote:
I somewhere read in this forum that prepositional phrases can exist between a noun and a noun modifier such as "which". In this context i would like to know why is answer "E" wrong. Since,which is preceded by a prepositional phrase.

Here is the question:
In the 1980s computer books’ sales accounted for approximately 4% of operating profits of a typical publishing company; in the 2000s this proportion increased to 40%.
A.publishing company; in the 2000s this proportion increased to 40%.
B.publishing company; in the 2000s they increased by 40%.
C.publishing company, in the 2000s they increased to 40%.
D.publishing company; increasing to 40% in the 2000s.
E.publishing company, which increased to 40% in the 2000s.

Hi,
"which" in option E is modifying "company" not "proportion". Noun modifiers modify the closest noun.
So, the correct option is A.

Hope this helps.
Thank you.
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Placement of a prepositional modifier [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2014, 04:04
aniteshgmat1101 wrote:
mshrek wrote:
I somewhere read in this forum that prepositional phrases can exist between a noun and a noun modifier such as "which". In this context i would like to know why is answer "E" wrong. Since,which is preceded by a prepositional phrase.

Here is the question:
In the 1980s computer books’ sales accounted for approximately 4% of operating profits of a typical publishing company; in the 2000s this proportion increased to 40%.
A.publishing company; in the 2000s this proportion increased to 40%.
B.publishing company; in the 2000s they increased by 40%.
C.publishing company, in the 2000s they increased to 40%.
D.publishing company; increasing to 40% in the 2000s.
E.publishing company, which increased to 40% in the 2000s.

Hi,
"which" in option E is modifying "company" not "proportion". Noun modifiers modify the closest noun.
So, the correct option is A.

Hope this helps.
Thank you.

Hi ,
Here is the link i was referring to : our-understanding-was-that-she-would-continue-to-cover-the-104891.html
Can you please have a look at it and still say that "E" is incorrect only for the reason mentioned by you.
I had the same thought process as you are having untill i came across that link
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Re: Placement of a prepositional modifier [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2014, 04:25
The question mentioned in the link:
"Our understanding was that she would continue to cover the costs of school enrollment and room and board for the children, which she verbally agreed to pay with the rest of the family."

In this sentence "which" is modifying a group of costs, which it follows. So, the use of which is correct here since Noun is the all of the costs. Confusion could have happened if any of the options had "all of which".
Hence here also "which" is referring to the closest set of noun. You can evaluate both the questions and see the difference in use of "which" and the meaning change.

Hope this helped.
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Re: Placement of a prepositional modifier [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2014, 04:29
mshrek wrote:
I somewhere read in this forum that prepositional phrases can exist between a noun and a noun modifier such as "which". In this context i would like to know why is answer "E" wrong. Since,which is preceded by a prepositional phrase.

Here is the question:
In the 1980s computer books’ sales accounted for approximately 4% of operating profits of a typical publishing company; in the 2000s this proportion increased to 40%.
A.publishing company; in the 2000s this proportion increased to 40%.
B.publishing company; in the 2000s they increased by 40%.
C.publishing company, in the 2000s they increased to 40%.
D.publishing company; increasing to 40% in the 2000s.
E.publishing company, which increased to 40% in the 2000s.

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Re: In the 1980s computer books sales accounted for [#permalink]

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08 Oct 2015, 10:28
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Re: In the 1980s computer books sales accounted for [#permalink]

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12 Jan 2017, 21:12
Vercules wrote:
In the 1980s computer books’ sales accounted for approximately 4% of operating profits of a typical publishing company; in the 2000s this proportion increased to 40%.

A) publishing company; in the 2000s this proportion increased to 40%.
B) publishing company; in the 2000s they increased by 40%.
C) publishing company, in the 2000s they increased to 40%.
D) publishing company; increasing to 40% in the 2000s.
E) publishing company, which increased to 40% in the 2000s.

A) Correctpublishing company; in the 2000s this proportion increased to 40%.
This option correctly talks about proportion ( a new proportion of a new profit (profit of 2000s)
B) Incorrectpublishing company; in the 2000s they increased by 40%.
here they refer to profits but the referred profit is the profit of 80s not the profit of 2000
C) Incorrectpublishing company, in the 2000s they increased to 40%.
Same as B, In addition to this error, a comma before "in the..........." make this sentence run on. (two sentences are joined without any conjunction)
D) Incorrectpublishing company; increasing to 40% in the 2000s.
Semicolon is used to join two independent clauses but here after semicolon, we have a phrase
E) Incorrectpublishing company, which increased to 40% in the 2000s
which here is problematic. which can refer to company or profits. if which refers to profit still option E is incorrect. Because which refers to the profits of 1980s but we want to refer new profits.
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Re: In the 1980s computer books sales accounted for   [#permalink] 12 Jan 2017, 21:12
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