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In the eighteenth century, Japan’s feudal overlords, from th

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Re: In the eighteenth century, Japan’s feudal overlords, from th  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Dec 2017, 01:35
Hello,

In question #7, why is A wrong?

My understanding:
Therefore, the Tokugawa shoguns began to look to other sources for revenue.

1. Cash profits from government-owned mines were already on the decline because the most easily worked deposits of silver and gold had been exhausted, although debasement of the coinage had compensated for the loss.

2. Opening up new farmland was a possibility, but most of what was suitable had already been exploited and further reclamation was technically unfeasible.

3. Direct taxation of the samurai themselves would be politically dangerous.

This left the shoguns only commerce as a potential source of government income


As per the above extract from passage we can see that the "search" was futile for them and as per the search results, the shoguns weren't left with any other choice than to depend on commerce.

Experts please throw some light !!

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New post 16 Aug 2018, 16:28
10 Mins on the clock. Got 1 question incorrect. Good Passage
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Re: In the eighteenth century, Japan’s feudal overlords, from th  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Aug 2018, 11:59
This is in reference to question 3 - the tone is such that the author acknowledges that the current condition of shoguns is kind of justified due to their lifestyle which they had developed due to reasons which are mentioned and is hence justified .So the answer should be (a) warmly approving.
Plz explain ?
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Re: In the eighteenth century, Japan’s feudal overlords, from th  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Aug 2018, 12:12
1
Hey aki001. You're on the right track in thinking about the fact that the author acknowledges that it's understandable that the samurais developed the way they did. But that doesn't necessarily mean that they're approving. (If someone didn't show to a job interview because they had a flat tire, you'd say it was "understandable" why they didn't show, but you wouldn't necessarily approve of the fact that they didn't show.) Whenever you see a word like "approving" (especially with an intensifier like "warmly"), you should look for anything that actually proves that the author approves. And in this case, there just isn't any evidence.

(C), (D) and (E) are all without support in the passage because the passage just isn't that extreme. But take another look at (B). If you claim that something is "understandable", it still means that you sympathize with the situation (think about the job interview example above). But since (again) the passage doesn't take a strong stance, the "mildly" there helps tone down the answer, keeping in line with the author's tone.
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Re: In the eighteenth century, Japan’s feudal overlords, from th  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2018, 17:35
P1 - samurai and the shogun - bad financial situation.
P2 - More on shogun - problems.
P3 - how all Japanese who lived on fixed stipends to make ends meet.

1.The passage is most probably an excerpt from

(A) an economic history of Japan --- Has to be this. others are out of the picture for sure.
------------------------------------------
2. Which of the following financial situations is most analogous to the financial situation in which Japan’s Tokugawa shoguns found themselves in the eighteenth century?

Shogun has nothing to do. all options were closed or on decline. Only D sounds like a struggle.

(D) A small business has to struggle to meet operating expenses when its profits decrease.
--------------------------------------------

3. Which of the following best describes the attitude of the author toward the samurai discussed in the highlighted text?

Gmat always stay in neutral tone. remove all extreme tones. find one in left choice.

(B) Mildly sympathetic

--------------------------------------------

4. According to the passage, the major reason for the financial problems experienced by Japan’s feudal overlords in the eighteenth century was that

Concentration of the samurai in castle-towns had acted as a stimulus to trade. Commercial efficiency, in turn, had put temptations in the way of buyers. Since most samurai had been reduced to idleness by years of peace, encouraged to engage in scholarship and martial exercises or to perform administrative tasks that took little time, it is not surprising that their tastes and habits grew expensive. Overlords’ income, despite the increase in rice production among their tenant farmers, failed to keep pace with their expenses.

(A) spending had outdistanced income
(E) the samurai had concentrated in castle-towns

From above abstract, I hv selected A and E. Now what is major reason. samurai did focused on E, but it was not the major thing for problem. "failed to keep pace with their expenses" this text points to A. which makes more sense.
---------------------------------------------

5. The passage implies that individual samurai did not find it easy to recover from debt for which of the following reasons?

It was difficult for individual samurai overlords to increase their income because the amount of rice that farmers could be made to pay in taxes was not unlimited,

(E) There was a limit to the amount in taxes that farmers could be made to pay.

--------------------------------------------

6. The passage suggests that, in eighteenth-century Japan, the office of tax collector

tax collectors (the nearly inevitable outcome of hereditary office-holding)

(C) remained within families

---------------------------------------------
7. Which of the following could best be substituted for the highlighted word “This” without changing the meaning of the passage?

(D) The difficulty of increasing government income by other means
---------------------------------------------

8. The passage implies that which of the following was the primary reason why the Tokugawa shoguns turned to city merchants for help in financing the state?

Most of the country’s wealth, or so it seemed, was finding its way into the hands of city merchants.

(B) Most of the country's wealth appeared to be in city merchants' hands.

----------------------------------------------

9. According to the passage, the actions of the Tokugawa shoguns in their search for solvency for the government were regrettable because those actions

Unfortunately, they pushed up prices.

(A) raised the cost of living by pushing up prices
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Re: In the eighteenth century, Japan’s feudal overlords, from th &nbs [#permalink] 25 Nov 2018, 17:35

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